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Full text of "History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the Continent [to 1789]"

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^'.fi 






HISTORY 



OF TBS 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



FROM THE DISCOVERT OF THE CONTmENT. 



BY 

GEORGE BANCROFT. 



8t)c !lltit[tor*B £asl fieDiBtoit, 



TOLOHE T. 



HETf YORK: 
D. APPLETOIT AND OOMPANT, 

1686. 



Bt BIOBBZ BAVOKOTT, 

uee,mi,ieTe,im,isei 



CONTEHS OF THE PTHH VOITIMK 



THE AMERICAS REVOLUTIOS 



IK riTE ETOcna 



CHAPTER t 

CUI TUX TTXISTU3 mrKU fiTATU MllKT^:^ TUKIU tXOTETKKmXClf 

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laPUUddpbn a 

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Aall Ibe MBlM la valL >■ Ukdlrldii^j bo rpyiiw^tol ? Tfip t^'^bUi' kndR . M 
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CHAPTER n. 

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iDlcrrteir beiTceci Lord Dove anJ tie oocieiJUh of vvogrvm. 
Th4 UHHiti hBd on tiirw Voric Wnvil. Ilt^t vf the AitnttittA 
W—hhtfoa*! oooni^ B<ml1« of ibir dij .... 

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Voiflm vtA th« Cjuctric pritcuffrt rvmdt Voir JcfB«J OH ^tttA9 
^naklUt, Vtmaa, tnd Aitbur Lm cnvntntfiiiciicTt to Pnne« , 
Tkv Aarttr^ mtj, priTtttMr*. >Dil utaj .... 
Otoflrctw piufldn no panoua^Ri amy. Tbe dm of mllbk , 



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CUAPTTB IV, 

Fkix. l%a apmbv of ptvl^nit 

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Fo> tpull lor lokpttdcocc. ippUudtd br Gibbon «Dd Doik* * • . 95 

FoiplesIlT of Ai nActarr i» 

CWuA«rarrot ftti 

CiMidM* of OirfMon. fUi pUa «f oa&polga AS 

Sirffb ftt abWH«rr «« Ltk* CfaampUa 00 

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^^^^ CHAPTER Vr, 

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y wfcalof toiaifi, P«jmlvfcataektf UtokfUaiuF* 11* 



CONTESTS. 



tU 



TvO bouKis t30tpi ia Pautfffnuila aaJ G«of;^ How «lfc[«d * 
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VUl 



CONTESTS, 



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Vftiblqgtca g«0 Um i/ltHaueD of Mm •--.... US 
nu BriOifa tftkciBte !ie« JcrKj. Thti lUg of tlic Uulloi dl&lu , » JH 
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ncilirMlviu Nrv Bii){Und, J^1ni4^U(t mttp^ ffom TtmuJoup* , 140 

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Chsbvm W«i<4«« fktcn da GkUii Bdwjlv'a iaBrt m a f i nu M . ITl 



CHAPTER XIU. 

;(LlJ-O(^tab«r^0.1;7T. 

Thfl pallcr of MO^tMil Afll*l] of Kl^ «ail Ufa^MM » 

Uatrt CS>i>uU fai rttlladcIpUa bf vtj of Um CbcMpokt . 



Stwigih of U* «fa7 . .m 

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Vaildii|VAi'« anuf 4t Chcftcr. OoiutM uf lltcikjr < . . . • ITf 
Tte JkintitaJi artii; [■< ftctil* tonop tht lulvin^u i>f tbv BrtlliL . . 1^ 

Oov* tfiettH tlifi lvfbujU(i3L Tb* British ulut E'hIiaiMpbift , , UL 

CbvfBofGacf-Jaitlu Jiv. GelU**! StiUitiitcf 1» 

SmfDiiM annB» Ux Qudvia > . . lai 

g^iWW of ttfoirn n Tloondgro ja, &ut^g«jDG ^drukow- .IBS 

Bttik ol Fii««iiHa'< fLm . . . . 113 

teidi loMBi ot dM Aiu«il<wu horn *d ihc Drlttoh . LM 

Adhsriin «f ft1r||oTirf> CUntrmon llu^*w flwr . IZt 

inndb** of FiniuB Ua 

Oiplutouf FoiUCUaloa uuj Srvbl^oiuery. TTw *ftj ot'csi Lu JUbnax • . 1S4 
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P«Co*tudSi^tCpf llMBrilltlL Good »itduct «f Qpftokn . . lU 

BrojiMn'v tamp Uken. Dooih bul buntJ uf tVvfcr Iff 

Bc«r«atof BiiiHnfn» iKt 

DHigojm* b^ttftcdi Ki ■piidliiioD Ifi1> 

ArnonM of Ui lomm^ Ukald Uor«ia »1 



CBAPTEB XIV. 

sn covnsT roa loi rzLtWAUi ninm. im c«srtnftiuTioi. 

BvpUnitor-N'ortnbM* ITTT. 

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WmUhcuq %taAi U)c BriiUb hf nuTtbe 1*1 

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Tht BrilMi raed W opdt ttc Dcbvam rirct W 

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fti^t ml tr»*ciuilaEl of Uud tiUad IM 

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n*tMkJto«BDi]n Ml 

JttlOMTof IbIDUIT, Mt<luTfe]po««b Fbcti^ rI>1j«ii ... 104 

F««««otlb«iI«U>tDJll)c I'jiIlGLlftlieo S04 

1%i taamiWit' of lOiieaL WodA of tnwodlng iW nnfM^ndoa . . flOl 

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Iplf^Kiwhip' amht^ the pvopi* of lU tlic sum oat pecip3i; - fflT 

tW rigblitf wi^ Pwiem tu^ne om tha tsk«d Sum* . 101 



ocnvnuns. 



CHAPTER XV. 

rut arurtBii at tj^lut roft>R. snauif rs waxt or tsoopb, 

Ki>r(>ml>ci ITTT to April inft 

Wulilnglnu Ki WhlrmibHtx- Flni AdtAncA of Hmriv ItA fiiUt« , luu 

Th^CufrAarMUlWHpirH^ WuUbjitoalj GbM 3U 

Convaj ud Utfltm tn 

Fycin»*«a«e<]r public diij WHiMii;»uia d««< doI rc«lf« . .till 

7be rulTcdQS J^ouricAa u^irt ttuUd bult f«t «LiUr U Talkf ^vs* ■ ■ &I3 

pHiujrlTnnU op|DHi Wuhliigion SIS 

Coa^roM aff^tcou ibc *rraf. BbtbobHwbow oT WMhlngliOb , 111 

I^lHcb ElfxiTT lib firm fiifoL Altrmpt M DiUlcvl UbjfCto • . ^10 

C«(li^ Af WMltlr^^n, HU MMEtiM ihrtuk Iinfh fkifn l^lr purfiw^ . , Sltf 

ThooHnniir«or«oBunMiDaBBp. Ufo ai Vtllry Korg*. lb PliikJo]]pUA, SU 

VcalaaH tn eaDjptf*. Uorc papar mcm^j^ Qoir |o Ttmill Ibc vtnji . IIU 

flBavM Bf nbodo ItlULiJ «7iMtf^jai«d nd cnJUtcd. IkTfiuItm . S19 

GNflw qiiar1«nDMt«r.fnMT«J ,•,*.,,,. SIP 

BiMbtft tii«pe<ut«Hvnil . , ItSfl 

GbKikiof<filakiabci«ocaoQnsfv«unl WMht&jKii SSO 

WiAlogim en Mndlvg innfcL tTnftr <'' *^ eontrf . £11 

&jfCcjtH^« iflMju douhitJ. GSa tloKiJDi ol Bwia .... ttS 

rrinecoTAiibiJiJEwbtt m 

MaaattniirfibolandBrBf of Rc<w cC tt M aaa.|tUD>;a«tAp>*a*M , . Stt 

WoiboM md Ibfl t>a47«TV of Om* GU 

ClnAun m Itio UK of GnnnBai bDit ■■¥>£<• t£4 

HiiHu tbd Ffli UWr l^iff^o^'i aurmMkr t*« 

Lonl AAlicnt oa Ihc eoadoci of the wu ..■.<, , !£& 

bssd Xont^ poaUoue* \u bl* <ild ifv £ia 

CriAPTEn XVL 

Anlrii,ltotr-^lWcWicnrln tH 

Rudih, S««dfo, Ii«an*rt . . . Vt7 

&rItMriuiL Tbft npabllo of dis XHbcrtatbib . . • « i , «8 
GsMUBj. lUnU ibf Mnil of tli» rigliU cf kiui uid oT !!>■ Coitcd 9UM . S30 ^B 

lMiii«; BnJfr, lhJ JLlortlock , . VI ■ 

<Iocdio ''^1 

GhariM An^iv «f t»u«-Vr«lmt uti liU nkiilBt«M U4 

rMdaioibeOftM.klaKonViuk BM 

ITlt muhwlnc oD rnonurhr and nfiutilkB^i^ .,..., 174 

1t« osnJffBoA ih# Briiltk p9i<vr«(n»iit u dM^Mie m 

Hr fHflrre MDmorct lK«rMn PnusU and Qi* Valttd Bmit . . . KM 

mi Mcadlf fccvpdon of ibrir dcdmiion of b£fT«aieoN > 




C0NTEKT9. 



n 



'«ClliOllKflof Anbar Lw'flp^iVTV Ut> 

lb Csitcd Smm And * fildtil Id UatSc Aji£ij£ae(«e . . . . « 341 
Ffnkric deAa ttidr cKimplcM «urvjfli Hf 



CHAi>TER XVJL 

FRAXTK iXn TTTS rfflTKIV «TLtta 

iJM«dDbor 17TT to April 1773. 

Tffstnwi db e mm lie uriu of > trMtr ivIUi lie UaiKJ StaU* . 
Loik XVt pniinLHi* thffio abl Ln mucf ..... 
CeaiIUt«u «f Iho trt«tJm botnccn fnoM ftul lAo Cnioed Suio* . 
3l«liag Ht Kiwikllu Eud VvlUinr. Vvluirv'* twoiacn tu LJoji^Cia 

Idit Snnli'iiMnrJIiftinij (illla 

Ji«nc*innowBbcrlrc«tk4 wiih jLmtnoa ■ • . • . 
Wia polflBt mnnntTw Iwtwf to Frtoix anfl ite Ccftcil 9[«C« 
ftitc af vu bM«Cin Enjrliiticl l&iI tViUix-. tCocfelnghiin tm bdcfrrsd 
Tbe A4Cfl(*<L MBUEriuioaan pKVmtcd to Loalu XVL ukl to ilic i|Q«n 

Cbandcf ol l^sbUiit 

nu MfttAi In Ibigtend 

lUiiBKBd mud ChaUuin «fak In the 1»aM cf lorda < 
AiilbatD vtiuck wliU dL<«itilL Qii cWvrtvr< In hi» liut ilaja 
F^r ib« Unllf"! Sdu*v nmhliij «liort nf inili^pfmljiir'i* <vn do . 
A ttmuk 0«H «tfri<« » Ffonob mlcAtior to iho CiiLUed ^utcA 
TraUb ud V«biln «l (he F^ncb iLcftJcjuj 
FTHdoBcJ Bind unlUd FnTir« and Amerlu 
Fta tlnoi^l b Fniuc X& fnt puljUc eiiiqivn In ^fmb . 
OEsmvl btlnvra ttt* Ftvii^ Iti^atun; ahJ Jlc S^uifIi 
■M««*Q tb«Fr«ivh mind and tlio l^pJl^i>h rniii^ , 



nco 



MO 
H« 

WT 
£48 

Ifll 
1» 

soa 

aw 
a» 

BO 




OlArTER XYIIL 

BD|t1ia4 la bi m m Affitr1«a TU ai tu vltli tut2S ffil 

JI#ir parilHMBi ouu W mb«olut« povtr SOft 

IbeoUvblfiMflfhuliulAMlUfvik ....... tM 

Cfcalbtjri — d ih>ftQw irtitg pMtj. Kntcof Pnmce i^ 

llflMftinHof flfi4Dieo*faihorRfl«b«aUeftt £04 

l Uw y m . Y<fTqat*> X«to »a 

n« Ifb Ht«r«t*ra of FnruM. I» quMo. l« UnE. If HaaacM . . mT 

Tbe prtnrfplfl of «b» Prttc4 Irot^M. Cvb^mm niiAot tbcn . . . ftiM 

fimca fanlrtl to Ocnml Iti>v« M9 

Ilv nudi 10 Ofttff* LitRftCtf, irho ttiApci V1I> 

IQrtakw •( P^TV* •* • ffiur*]. Thepplrii of coogn^M . ,971 




^ 



CONIXXIS, 



Wkftlingt«a t'Diwia die Srtltih anaj . < < > 

M«^nL(aiu <tf CliiiloiL WuhJitgtoa «H«r< Lm t« tho nor 

Tin; liKtlti ^ MtJiujjgulli. Cuu^iTu Uiauk \7ubIueioii 

Hlaflk Aiiurtloiuifl In lAc bailltL Trui, cbitMlDTt and dutli of Lte 



•Tfl 

rt 



crupzBBzrx. 

AtTu tffi vftfliran imtirci. 

Jme-DMctabcr 17TB. 

VTrniQlnc VmWvf. Th? SmkcU Butlur tTV 

DoTmI «d iIm non of WjooA^ Tikb for trM«oa BO 

It* Brillili uhJ iIk Avcddn slid booMOB v<al«d to iod^endcMd . . S^l 

TteiMnscrribriHaoB lU 

CcagF«v In PUUdfllphU. Th« notodancr dfnod bj ^ll Ut UarrUiid . >lt 

AtTiTH) ol D'&'Uite ind tiw Fnneli fl«e( Sfrt 

KiiiliirM (jf Ihii plut Ui i«c:!i>t»r RIvhIii Ukml ..... . £Sa 

LoH Bvw« nlin* £««uil of tha amyviga. OplnioD of Wuhlugt«B . ?U 
CDadDinDi>l ia lK4b lkOU«» of pB'tluniQC ...>... SftT 
AiulljEinju (i]]pD4T« lodcpradiftm ......,., tm 

lUnjpn of Ih* Dtiikh^ 1li« loiio*, «zid Indliiu tRf 

11t» ccaiatltiadoQ of Sovtb CWrdliw. Finn lu conquer tbc *9ulhcru stam . 149 
8l4l0Cif C11iliiOliil!C<!W Torfc- Of Iftn United SUDa Vkh Ibttr ptf«fiQaac7 290 
A oobvoiUini of Saw &aQUm] »iUm hail Nv* ToA MftdMnn popor moMj . 91)1 
LflMWffl cw BCfdlflmtw twJil by Jrttili onog BB riwk ra w*Mr«ii. Tndc bliglitcd ifl 
Sk^wdFricodMiUaoioiBpolnUDdAmsteiiADiMM < VW 

hotoo^oa of Pimtnv SOI 

SvpnMM of If Tfl. QemulaiDttlcdtjniucew M 

Clintoa emru Ihr THih iitawfqQf TftA 

ritn <Hir L^EkWtL S^tJhi of icdaptndaDOa. Tbo&fBf h vliitiif qnuicn . SH 
]knltt«rilM«uop^. Hid vDtMi of tfw lUM fltiMblod . t»7 

1lilTi»QioniidfQdM. VtthlEi|timpliiHd«0DrJkaericnaBloft . . S»A 



OOAPTCR XX. 
Tm XQr« OT ftTAut B^rri^ pt tub sAcicvo^Mum t9 ttkona^ 

l77S-I7Vtf. 

Pcili(7af9p«la«o«i«nith«tail«18l«lc« 900 

Count Uantmcrla. FtiJtidH tnstiui abbacs AiiniHon biSvppbikofi* - 301 

Pcdkx of Itic IVcmA njiinnl Iml/rMfa nf lU lnnpor^idB .301 

C*OnUlUM«iidi:qi|>*|. btt^OM of n>ridB Hodm «Mi Bofbad , .303 

FrukUn IB Fnaoi t04 

AuDtudfi^QipMUhaMtltelMidSlltokfllMft . . . * *M 
K«d«ni1floof0.llorriiiof Jo7;ofT<fB«nMU SpoladouDdi QOvKw. 103 
Ur^jvtu ot TerNllki. EHuUmUOoB of FIhUn UIodco . . . . S03 



OOTTESTS. 



Zffj 



SpiiD TtfoM* la Miknovkclgtf tlM Ualtatl gUlec ^ , . . . , 30T 

no MMadppI rcMn^l lo ibc L'altcd $Utim hj ihc tHUrkiTQadimHi . . sti^ 

SariuiUft Mptatct) ^ Cark. IZlliautt aliJ rim-cTiuo . , . .311 

n«nltlua ri'OKvni Tifit^iiitf4. Bin |irv|iHntlciLi« for waiiDvitLt ■ . . 11} 
UnnA cf iti4 bitfktt'WdiaBPn to VincrtLM* ,....,, IIS 
QiuntLlaa suTondcn Um f<jn 41 diecr^Uoii ^ . . . . * .914 

EtpQilUlvi] imiJvr Bna Sbdti/ lU 

bulgrtiiob dQivf wtinoTil. Fori on thtt HlMlMi|>jl Capture «f XaUhitt . SJA 
Tom of Vlrglaia lu liudof of Ocorse OogcM Guk . . , > -314 



COAFTEE XSL 

1«l 1WUT1 xsrvnai poavcb atv trxiir. nsroRau or vikodtu, 
nKwov* or tbk var. 

Thv Gurthirni cuypdKa Mcathv . • > < • i ■ . ■Ill 

CoivJ^tlon a( ihv oSnTk Of tb« rankuid Ato I!T 

On^vOTiwihenuinbttTof bBttaUoEu 3U 

yMMipnn'i ^jpod to tiwrgo Uoioo far a ccuirAl iravonuDoai . . , 9Xt 
AmtrtMd tSUn ai their lonot abb^ Gi«%M an WaahEngUm , > 3tV 

OoofttM rtfuMt ta ooo&IndA peace in vhkb rruco u uM compiited > • l±4 
TVKOUJ*! ciiwuiidi llitf Um of niLloiit un dJii Hubl Uf fi«ti«r1«i . . • 011 
Pm>rli tiil*bit-midi«vnrt to pfniiiniV mnjrtiA ti> jinjtl to Spiin . . , 1^1 
BdfMtl *l ibv utuicUlot «f CvApfH on the tcmw <f pcaov . . ■ ■ Zt% 
ftitAc Atwct Ibc AftljcrlWi 5rii Twh*i tdlo unuliltoaotFCAce . . . 133 
ChlA^ of Itw Itimi^li mJiiiil^r ,,,....., >93 
Cvsjrcu loJSA* ffiHlwF Mpplica ffou ynnoB ....■• KM 

Aal :bEib « Um lUbcftw s^ 

fptBcii mlbiitcir h'lua ut onri tli? vtr by i mioe ,.,... U( 
SfHia tud th« L'dt«l EiaIm^ J^j cIcclc^ cai oj ta Spok . . . . 830 
^oLft Ailisu Appi^Iiiud Kile nc^DtlDior or pcao< ■mj oohudcdcd «lih EajlaiKL Slf 
CsBfntti mIMu (loriniu ctfftw kbs uid qiu«s of Frvtco - . 3f 1 

tniClHlj of ike Briliih mrmj. Pr»pail]r of tha VirpaSazm .3^7 

Uaulow^ IvpdMCHj niDvdliJoii 3tT 

Tb^lalft t<«4Ual«i cm hvr pU1t.ger«. Thts new o?d« of Vli^ghdi . .Hi* 

Bsf«Aktt«(CUslMa^UioDudMa . , 3VD 

niligtas «ip«illIaD at Ttym toto CbDMCllcui hi^ 

Trjtn rvodlAd te ^'«v Tori 3£<i 

F*eiOf7of VTafvctFtxtf Paiai. Uotd cr^doo of HinirT IiC4 . . 331 
StpNfcltB Mf^tut llv S«DM« undrr SulUvsn ...... 31t 

Tn g<MA mJ WIIUi mnn^ tha Ogaftdngi* 333 

Unma^ W Uttto 1>*t*1 io Hid JtoanJ 333 

yipidlikm fnn Mawfhiirai to Qvtinfl 333 

Ea— 111 of Um oiiqpki^ DMoiptioAt lod prnpUodM of Pcimall - 334 
EwikpaM Trilioifn oa ihe vu 334 



xJr 



O0KTEKT8, 



FMdiiii ot Pnvb pota adda L«v^h iiajwitiinltlM ta? 

Auirlft ud ftmiSa dtftfv ig icoJkte. Sp&Ui dedsrt« (vor ua CofUml . . Aft§ 

nnUWM «r lb* KnglSifi - . , . lU 

Iflturlvw bctwMB ti«orp: IIL and lila mLnlctcn. ItcuM-ih* r>t the kinx • IM 
tTBfliva jouvHud «i Fi-ndi uul SpuibU toeU fur Uit iuYuiwi uf £iij1jkad , 840 
TMgmodi U4 noHfl« Blancii wnd n^oau (A Irrluid . . , . . Vtl 

B%bU at avuInljL Policy qI Kv«ik til 

Doiirltuwji ncMiLd trwt A»itHca . ■><*«.. . U> 
Frnptnl nf ji tnMljr nf tvitiiBii'rctf ItHirfwa AniCflflM And ibe KtthoiUDdi . Hi 
fnuiM protect! Eb« ligbt* of ni?Liif«U --•>.. . StI 

Tbe AtatM'CciLcnl nfufe la tr«at irltb ite United EIaIm j , , . Si^ 
iMdih «ralMn rlcJaio bcfrUu] rigbti . ....... MA 

Tef^ouM* t^g^ mu ft Im^ of nootrd noUon ..,»,, SW 

DvfiuiArk ftttdewcde&BCne Ua 

Th« TiAuiTil p«T«n Icok ta Itaialt for pfDUnlon stT 

BuMu rttivkoa Ihv nbducl of lb* Brlliali ti!f 

IUmji and PiumIs wiih Eoffkntl *l>ould \vfC her (]<>1cmlc< .... M9 

IMfferRKN liotwina Orrat BrimLn uiil tljf^ Xft1<i7lani]» aoo 

Ptul Joan 0&Un & Dutch h^rbfir Aitb hit priiM ...,,. VSO 
Mil? of DnunBrk^ Gnirf«I[L^;rffcr»Kiul«k4«I]Luioe . • . .SHI 

IMeb BMfdum ll«t ArHl on bj lUo Knglbb >Aft 

CHErOdOd b^ ^^TL. KmiU ukfU nodtnl n|btt la tntj •eft . . , Sas 
ISpaiu U aivl^eid tJ> tnilLe ropkralicrn to Hmak ..»,,. tu 
Tbt mtfm of HuiuSa iJgnH m i]tvliiniUija ctf noimJ rigbtn . . . « JM 
Bb« fatfiaft Sndtfd, l^^nmuk, Funufii, ^nd lb* I^MlwrkcuU to )oii It, . >aO 
AJ4iEi» Mppluid* ud nporU tba «ci of ibe failed Suioa . * , , UO 



ClUrTEIt XXTIL 

OSKAT cntTus 1USM wah oix im »mTiBtAXt>ib 

ITSO-lTfiK 

y^rnottft wpMeJai IgftcwMBt lUMt on ibc rigbtt ^ mumI* . . SA7 

GliilB, Fniset, ftnA l3l« ColWl EUMM ■ppnrro ibt iiriadpla of t]i« mtntd 

DtsinllEj ma 

Aa#r(*of B»|[boa taO 

TtLL- Xoihrrluud* dBrffa to Jotn Uw mavi oMnlkT SCO 

TLo HhlishCAbloM dfimiUAwl on var irilh tbe KMbnIuii * . - Ml 
Eurnwiitlaq<3lre*vhtr«toantfcc«be&Mhvklipf«At . . . . B<a 

Bo|v«|iwa>fbrihaapuira«f flLfttitodv MS 

Sumuui uolNi of At Duidt Inpoatfbk drciwdt Mi 

BL BoAtflniMpMPtd IM 

tuieiucplUflteki&A^liAfria; UC^Im lO* 



C0KTCST8. 



XT 



71ii» AoTTlnii VH invlomic! to ihv aMitbcmi rush ;t&4 

CftpLora (f £«Taniial>. Liuooln takMthacroiBiiad Utbtaouth . . .3^7 

Uffrca&caU In ycrih •od SoiLib C»f<li(ta >« 

Chai to iop In dinji^ . . . 3W 

Sh4&ii0SFOMl>ftuin*ir STO 

Tbfl pn[>aMl Enrnntmlit^ dvf c«tcd .....,, • ATI 

D'K|tUJit|f uid Cur rnrncU flif:! ......,,. ITS 

Tb4 AL«ipp1 to tjiko ^vunnnli br nUnta fub . i . . , . ST1 

Kopuo DUi 7B( Irocd bill m\A In Ibc ^cat tcHllct ST4 

l!jr llMirjr Oloion rf^atn to South CUaUnn t1& 

Tb«iiaet«l CbAHi«toii 3T« 

LbcolD «Iri» » c^tuUticm K7T 

Tlmpalbaaiicif ^ucb^iriiUna STS 

CaMca Mmp«te S«uUi C4rol;ii« w L>«i«*tn for indtpasdnov . . ^TP 

mi wjui 19 Tm> aovTtt. cvt^tviAiiM xxa aAin. 

ftjnlr; hf!««^ OwnvslliHMnd DiorAD ..,.,, < 100 

CMDvaO* talcM otgnsittd tn ib« Sontb 390 

no iuLm Uk pwxaarintion of SouUi CaroUiti tmpcMrUla . . .381 

llciWBon'i pmUffloTi. Slilnp of pAtrt«u. fiuniK*f'd llr«t aaptoU , ^ ^ SitS 
Sot* at Scuofi^r. Mafiiianipity cf Wutbiaf^i'^ Jclfcnoi; nnd VLr-iaiA . SS3 
C pagrm wnil^ Qaln ui Ui« soullwru oxuuuluiL 01» ndiubu to euuciuA • 3S4 
IbciaiAtl l^mtlM. Jjinotinnvkb Pnrt«Ttb*Id - .^81^ 

ffiv&iriobc iIed«tacdiaduEuinfta4dghthiiniJ^mC]3> EDi i^tfoi.^. )^(^ 

nit dbparfdcu Ibr Utilo ifij 

ai« dtf£«B wd Hi« , ZbS 

Berdm uid dnth or Kalb. G«IQI dcftttt bi« nxj a«& 

Boul gJ dtukr 3C0 

CJUPTEB ZSVL 



Tm \riii at rns aoettv, cokkwaiuji Ann ticb rtrmM ov m 
•ount'int^ 

1780. 
Chnivinft iBlroijn* > rtlcD oT iviTor In Sootb OtroUu .301 

Til* dpIulsiUvi or Cfanlevioa fiolAtcd svt 

gf»o >i il<M« of Oadrf«> OtbcM t«c«9l EUiiAb proicaioa . , tM 

WdkDu ttd Bonier ibI Mftriuu nn v dio ;Kv\i\w IH 

OonwiUti tocfxa hl> tiKA lo tbo K^nhn J,'Sp7«Btt forct&oqs^it . 301 



XTI 



COSTESTSL 



ConwilIU M<iiM«tvT« nfwti dcM* dve to palrioti Jtv.i 

ErAta In OfargiL Cbrnwilltt itrTiTOa at ChvlolU , ^ < . . iVt 
Obfi hjJf tbc idnlu *<ii( of iho moniiUliu rkic «>cr iha AJ]c£tiAiJc4 • • ^^t 
ThcjchrHNtv Caioplwli iliGlr cuiiuuAEiLhat ,,..,.. It7 
Cncv^Ut «cadj Tv-tototi ca Uflit Fcr^ufcn tki Klng'i Uonauia . . . XVH 
The Jlmtrtcu tine of ftttuk fDvdt upir«iKl *uJ ukt tUa vftounlAln . • SI^V 
Lotf uf Uiv ttiliistu Of Uic AmCTlcMa, Ruiilu of iht sicUtrj . , 400 

R»cnui of CoravfeLlU, Tlu viMOfla* and Ctamoaqj of lUftoa . 40J 

TartcKo'i ialtUTiuiiut/. Bt moTM a^pJaM Swnttr ..... 40S 
Suuki ilcfcBli tiLtjj, Coravftltb la drircu lafk ...... 401 

CU-VPTEll XXVB. 

AnUquiVT- at fmdom, Tbo ufioUiEoD of tHI^Iiu^ 404 

THo Biiliflb king fttul pulkmBnt pmlKt Ilia iltrc-tndo .... 40S 
Stovirj ili<Mt« ihn Hnitlicrb autct Tnou Ibv Nvrth. OourtnwuT Oonia . 4M 

AttUgcoinnfir VliYJiiiH Hnrl N>H Rngltail , 4Wl 

TbtbaUnovfrf pampr Ui*vcn KottbubdSoDth 40t 

Thff svml-CfDplcBl Btttiet Aic llicitrifiiKWJ bf tUrtrj , . . . .40ft 
Vlfi^Qla pvmlu NfiuieliȣJcm ind ihIju ftboZiUan ,410 

6bivor5 kb I^DtA^in, Kow ToA, Vdmmt, X*« JunKj - ^ . . . 411 

PciOUBjrtfKbiitliircdU iJie tUi^ ur*1iiTD< 4lt 

KhiTnT7 Ln Sai»1i rttrt»U» anil ClwiilPL In lljunai4tiiwtu . . 4IS 

IbMBchiitflte* IdwmiJ a contkntioa ^ffruK^Ung colortd men h .414 

Til* ceiuflliitioa Pi|oot«d 4ltt 

DrUt^lhtimroonMlnitkiii at Vunohuoiu 4l« 

H pMpflM* a frM oomooavulth 417 

Ho* XaffudiiLviia rill El»ctf uf lUrvrj. ...... .418 

IbidlbinDl ilA Hiiprnou^ jtiiliHil Kriirl ....... .41V 

DMUiMofittJariai 4S0 

THo ii«tiU of coiudEoce In MuaMbuBHUt. b< pwyrf dlwwnfctramn . 4^1 
The VrlhDifEiti And lUTE-knptog 413 



OQAFTER XXVIII, 

IBS ooaiPUFT or OS josmt cusmi^ avi> Aurout 
1T80. 

fba BittUb and AmaHoKi uibiM in HHO 433 

Uci««mBnlaafth<»ri6^taK««JvKj *n 

GHatev ji^Tw up offoulnf c^eralloM ...,..■• 4l£ 

Occoptilon of y<-i>poft bf ibc Kmidi 414 

CBbiUix rvUca 1*rr toeemtt uAily on oomptko ...<•- 4^7 

A«dr4 aeaL i« barpja *itti AraoU 41U 

The cnivfT of nHir^p Bednoy ........ .411 

Kodna; al >Vw V<frk jirqiarta to ff> Igalnil Vr«il Pcdni . . .430 



OOKTMTi 



xtU 



WftflPobludlu foTt^flntioiu 4M 

iiTmt of Anilr^ cm lii* riiurn to New Vorlt - , , .... il] 
Kkotpo «i Arnold ffooi M/Wl Point ..,...,, 4^ 

ni« aitvuijfin 4f e 

Tb« rmrdf of AfMld. Tli» bumlliA^ioQ oE CllnUu ilT 

Tlu rvmvd of Audii'i otplon 4IS 

OOAFUR XXl£. 
itBiTiXi> ros uxioff, 

Tb« AduMM of nnijcmu. In p^prr moni*^ ....... 430 

TtigmuuH T'i«&a« AoHHis aliould not oanvlicU^lo ll< iulSod , . . , 444 

!Pe«d(Dde« of Uurkiid ud VlrflQU Co HpajaUoo Ml 

IVcv Tort iMfen uu^rlfloM for rniioo .....,,, 44$ 

Tbfl bopalosi llnani?)^! irftfiiD of oOngrOM - ^ 4U 

Tlu rinLiiK ilniHud It* ui ffffiuciitpJicuBisul > 443 

Th« i-rliirtKn Anil Jurl^mi of WMriiagtoa ...,.., 444 
Uiii<*4Stal«i dfpciaJt tnoiuv m abank. ...... .440 

Tb« upMl of (bo a^ of PcimtfttTuiii. Tbe spirit of Kew Bngluul . 44A 

Bdonn la th^quArtiWRiuitir'* dcf>«rtim-Tit >,,... .444 

^ ooavonlkD of iiatc* at B^Lon propi»f |ii> iarc*! cosj^m vit^ noro 

p(fl»i» +17 

Bimiiliivi ptMila f^rt Tl^rciiumafMofiiliiD Mill nlRfwiaof *tat«. ^ 449 

Wtthti^Wk>*pp«iltoO*orpKaion 44fl 

Tilii ifflMTi nrii»iiiw fiiT nfiMiiiTiil miiiiii 400 

Xuilnj ta ihft tttnj 4AI 

A Jpctui Bffiotl ID tVnnoc fof rtUcf ,.•..,., 4<9 
Jtor UBfaxT* «>Lii Vtixiaiii surtvuJb-n lAud» locoup'CBM. . . .403 

TIm wctfffTondAii nnit |t«rfk>lQfl! urilott ........ 404 

Defect* «f tbo 03hfi>JFrii(i«a • . . 4SI 

Kunvi Bppod «f WtililD^KQ v> VJivlnk >ttlQBmta 400 

KiidiBaD mrfbniu to tht idvte of vrMhln^LCO 4A9 

BomiT prorivDn for ibc umptigD of I?S1 . 4ld 



n-nv pgOPZS QF jjr^jtTCA Tjrr rircra sqcAL statiqh Axoyo tus 
rowers OF ruE EAsm. 



nusroB DA* TTSOxyr "swmx^ Of ra4C& 

ireo-iTai. 



XVIU 



00STK.NI>L 



Jgba Al9«q>9 1" •ul« nfj^oUilor cf p«utt ....... W 

icAm Alaaw it Pan* In >u1£b villi TagenDM 4H 

BugVDOH lor p«ioa M Pln» «#' 

GtaDd««ibu B4?oldBlloiii el Seeker 

Thd nflw ftfl*^ ^ ADLcrkv In Fnn(.v for naitty . • . * . 

Tbd fAtl of 5^lHr. lUjiud'* hiitorj 

JLvalHft ID fuu vlfrn lo modUt* 4fO 

Pn^TWH «f tlm fAiEipaJjni ,-......,* 471 

CosgraM rUlilA W »ui« lU InrtmrClnht for pram 47^ 

A unr p4«<>t ncuiBtiioti of tv BMmbcn . lit 

Tho rn-w ulihii&una at Aioorttt for pcu* 4Tt 

Th« omuKiipuiOQ of th« eammcim of Irrlvtd . , , . . <13 

chaptcb il 

Builiit Vcirfpii miuma UiHUlh^ATTSo* 4fA 

Qtolrt^M B. «pp4nl« tfooDUiti u4 tb> Ank cf bri^jgr .... 47T 
Orotne abiijd«* the Mmmdnl «t Uio ftotlb .»..«.. 4fB 
The IMilih cvnijiicl Hii* wir M^d; bftitvoui tntUj .... .41% 

C«nLW4llii •tod4 TvritUn «g«lial Hoigm 440 

llorgm pftpuH for b«lUA .......<. .4191 

HW flrtorr OTBC Tftrlrtoii «i thfi Oottpccil 4*3 

Im^xirtiiiiL c>ari»>4iu!a«# of ihe via^ry 4M 

CimrtllU b«|i)u ft farc«4 iDtrdi 10 lln CbMipMkg 4(2 

Tilt lC«nHiAD 4*«lLan«a1 of Sa1«ftt 4l>T 

ftokfli boallb drit^ Motboo bt» ftdn«aaoi. Hti p«l11d t cn im » > ibt 

CBAPTER m. 

tta MJCTuiu OLvrAiiut or <iiice.il 

F«bn]Anr-6apUiiifcer ITSh 

QpHOfi nllMM hit foKC4 490 

HnUrij n<rT«l b«rcrv CurtintllU 4fO 

Gtmm rvoHTM eriafermnvaCa . . t . . . • ■ .411 

He ofFffi bftuk« anr Ggflfunl «oiictboao ■•491 

Tlificnou of tli« bftLdo 4t> 

OrvtH ntliMlnrgM Iht foUlil 4M 

Tlid m*fiMLfll90«» «*Ddii^ of Ttf^aU 4H 

ConVAUift, puwettt faj Gfeeu, rcccMU i* WHmlBClaM . 4tA 

Vvt Id iIm bocu «if craNMnii tpmHat tor p«iM 49« 

ip«cdb or WiUIra FIH OD tbfl ir^molvr M tbr wv , * . . . 4M 
Oomvafflft nt«o4unk XutUi €<irg{ii)B fi:ir the Hii ■■pf >ti .... 4*7 
tirMDC «m« tti» vBr lalo HouEh Cvr^ivo 4«T 



COCTIKT& 



xa 



Do cccapHM EoUiricV TIH, q^lf Cundra • , • , ^ . t 4*4 

Cn&ulvn, 7oH UoiXi Fort Gmfiby^ nntl Audita oonpted bj IW ltn«r)cui , COV 

Bdlbb fiHri«OQl irltkJraiTn fn>u} XUtcLj-SSU BOl 

DmUi of Iu«o Mbtub M9 

Thf UDitio u JGmmt spriogi tea 

The UKdsL rcinvt to Ctii^kaUD 004 

CUAPTER JV, 



TOB LUT CikOMIiaJff OF ITB AU3.^1CA3 WAR. 

1781. 

Anio!i rnvftJaVfigbia ud biinkt lUcbniMid ■ < • • . >W 
Lftfarvtlo Dmcbai lau> Vlt^iiU .....,.., BOA 
Prn|iw«fi4^m Id iBCcCComntlLlt in VirfcfnU . . . ■ , . > DOT 
IlLniiUon aiij lUdlaixi lat^ir far uitfflijlealfpQWndfOrt'TQiaeoi . . • Bm 

Eihsitflf ;bv mlll'AfT IKinmof irubliigiuiL 009 

CotnvBlLUiondi Oiiil l«^«xpolJclF)[Lii ,...,.. ,410 
K!iihkg1»Ucdb«VB«c»SlvBcHt7 CJUton uJ C^mwdliii . . . .511 

Ottilaci ti l^^jKAbe Iti Ti/fiuih 013 

ClbUflB IQBH (hfl Um 4f Upa) Gmt^ Oifnnx\ti 613 

CUat«n pAliiti 04t Tfiiti^n ba itu ftin lo bo oct^iipic4 , , . . tl4 
Z««l vl (he Fftttdi Lrau&n ta Aajcrlci lu Hrvv unLlur Wuld^£tui; . 019 

llirfh of |fa« jnni Hrmir fri UMVHitfaw^nl ..«.., ,510 
Nu« «f ibo ut>| far««a of Gra«i DriuJTi. Vietnfj oT D< Gra»« . 517 

WwUii0aa acoijro the oo-fipenitkia «i Dc CnuiK • ■ . • . 510 

bpU idtiDCBc^r Ihi iTc^ Df yerkldVD 510 

Tb* ln»ku>i euTf aa ulTunepd rvdqnbl ^f lli« Brillih .... 590 
Tlw Frtbdi aR7 uiuilivr, Tliv xkuuO jm^alle) , . • « . . fSl 
C«ni*iitl* BirT«nib>Tv hii inny »« priwrnvn nf wnr . , . . . 52S 
Tb* Mm Dt«A« OMgNff^ the ^o<h cArirt. ind ih'j DHtbfa fobdrtr? . 5fl5 
Tb*iAA*i;Qof «9likkolnEa£lui<luidUtiii;ia[[ilstry 484 

CnAPTEB V, 



UA fl Xa Mftit tMraAkoo ou tbc ««iidiliu» fat p<«ce . 
JU«nt of fnnklbk lUrrin of Mttllmn .... 

Laqg 5*batM mbI AhI *<4« vf ccrgrHSi un tht Una* <if potoii 
9cld md vIh ovftdBd cf J«hn Adkiai in tht Xrlhcrliui'l* . 
n« tkXA n^ntiHr njwiaiiui Iranku InrlPp^nApnTO 

Tb« nirtiry at teol X^it ntlreit. Iii AtaeKt 
SnuM pMtWtf laCt«ullfltab 



5B5 
535 
537 

5S5 
530 
MO 
5S1 
51S 



xz 



OOSTESrS- 



fiDfikEQ^Uuu lULt! Ui fiSttdi tav\ii [ioir<r ««,... 
Fnukllii iEjiilkWi«flaiB^dMlAn fur ^iivcf^ ....,, 
ttidbanw l«Tif«nl« Ih* nwfMiitei for n a^gctitCtafi f<)r peio* * , . fi$S 

riMbl«sw< ud Itwt i>r SfOJEi t3d 

Fnt t>i.-^uH a E|iiurTil uhli liorl STHbiirm ..,..,. 134 
Fr«ak:Un«oncMla hit nuffodjubti Tlth 0«vi1dfor|«im . . . . 6ST 
Ovwild bean t4 FnakCIa 4 LcUcr of EMbwnc Appn>r«il bj i|« kb|; • 
Pnnktla pRwob Oirntttle to Tui^esuih ><•>.. OAV 

FnokUa ptnmdu liholburnc uid iti4 king t> lOl UfmUd DCgotUtc wSili bun MO 

Tb« Ekard Tloi«rr <f Bcdoer la ibe Vr«M lotUc* Ml 

Oianvllla mnU wtifa oa luccMi . , ....,*, D4t 
DMib ctf Rook^ngtiAm. iMibiu! rMovan aa IntUpmdont pArilaiMDt . • Bit 

Firvl4Inri«oarafena HI 

^jt ucopu 'Ji» iochrBtlc'Q of ilic rijhia ol QcatnUi IH4 



CIUPTEB VI. 

ranmn ttnw krncTExuT ro< i>k4C4; 

Jdy-Au^Qit 17S3. 

filiwtbbnw bvLuiiv* drvt LiPd or tlw Icvuurj . . ■ • , 

Wlllkni Put mum Ihff mlnlttry. W^r nf Tn <m SivlbiLrA* . Mfl 

Fnnblia u^^ihi* to 0<vlM ibo .incriotD --oiiiUiioB* <rf pftcq . , , dT 
TIm AiHfiL«D pTAOQ 10 bf iMik bf A «?iMj«lv MmiuiBeJoh > 

gllf4littniouietppUmUlbi><llnuji(Uttf Kr&n1(1tn , .Ml 

<^i«r<Jd'a MiDRid««Ics ooofcRu to Uic oubUn^ «< of rvrlluufiit , 

00V OjvmldNf cudidAhImi wu ncdnd br rDuklbi uid Jftf . , . tol 

Oplnlrc of John Adnmft. Jn^i caTlli vlth tbd luinmEHloa , . . U9 

Tjfplmog of FHnblio to couAUirtcl Ibo ^trigOM of l^puo ■ • ■ . COC 

Sttlfviinit' ID Nortb C^ivLimi 1 > > ■ • • 1 , , 6JM' 

71w hiimjum firulnm L^r Xlw BflCiih m1k*n Sbtllnnv tVcwnA tpUvWM • < ASS 
Cbuur of M aaiioAAL buib ->,>,.*.., Mfl 

Tb( antutit] [tjUo$ oC klxilj AOT. 

AatfBrcrlnTiiJi Wubln^dE 1A bcMitw king, £!li annvr . , . B( 

BubilLDD, ScbuvW^ anil ^ Tot* af Xn* Vurk for a (mcral cmmt^on < £Aflj 

Monk pnpcamB J4tj of Stv |«rcKiloa kopvfia «... . fifiO' 

lh» ptM «Oftl of tbo ITittcd ftftM. Tikdr nMd of ^m . « , eei 

aiAPTER VH- 

rucv Mi w itf rm carm^ sT^rtt o>r Airiuoi ak& obiat ■VTAtsr. 

Pr<>in 8<*i>toinbcr flrit 1c tbo citil of KcTonkti«r lTG3p 

Fnuuw npNMl* pi*ar« tfAS 

T«^MDW vUUtw bo rvpn« Iba CJaiUd HI4IH ..... . Mftp 

BiWaoOvtUttruMdUloapvuvasibcirovDicntf . • .01 

Jaj rifaaM ibt oif tr ....,,.,.. 

TtfgHiBU opna dLivct nr*C4lUltow «tlk Sbtlb«>« . . . , 
SUtbuioc deviVA tor Eiij;buU pcK*. MiblAhip, uid MsmcTot fifab Prance 006 



ooNTENxa serf 

Joy cap[tu1at«9f and Attempts to negotiate directly with Shfllbonio . , fi6T 

How Che leiterA kdI by Oa*«Jd and by Fnnklin were recdred , . , BAD 

Boglimd gnitits & tririsl cb&n^ Jn the commission 009 

J&y repels the approubfifl of Aamla >*...,.. A70 

The new negob'otton -->•..,,.., c70 

The ^niorda ful to take Olbnltar ....>,.. DT2 

Thi^ United States impottone the Fnoch king through FrsiJdia for a loon . K72 

Vergeimcs eiplaina to Luzerne hia policy for America . . . , . &'J% 

Pregreaa of the pcac« negotiatioii '-■..,.. 578 

John Adams mAhe< conceasionfl in bebaU of BHti^h crediton . . . A74 

He eatabliahcs tbe true boondary on the north-east . , , . , 575 

The Britiah miniBtry fix the noTth-vent boundary of the United Statea , . £176 

Yergetmefl on the American claim to tiie fisheries and boundariea , . Gf T 

Oswald, with leare of hIa aasociates, may dgn a treaty of peaoe . . . A7B 

John Adams claims the right of fishing near the coast , . . , , KT^ 

Clause in the treaty forbida carrying away alarea ...,., BW 

Uerits of Franklin in the negotiatJoa > , 5S0 

The prospect before the Uolted Statos 5B0 



THE 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

IN FITS EFOCES, 

EPOCH FOURTH, 

AHERICA IN ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE. 

Fhom 1776 TO 178a 



AilERICA IN iVLLlAKCE WITH 
FRANCE, 



CHAPTER I 

Juur-Aciivsn lT7flL 

Tuc Aniencati declantion of iiKkpendeuce vr&i tJie 1>c^- 
WDg of iKv igcfl. It ^liNccnb&mAScxi tfac pcopio of tiie United 
BUUe^ ^m tiie l^al iioti<>ii of aUcfjioocc to u kiu^ aguxut 
ynhota tlio/ ven in pm^ uul set before them a wcll-dcliDcd. 
mgi^ And uttpirinp parpljse. It ehan^ the contceet from & 
wftr for tJie rv'div^ cf ^n^eTUc^M to tlio er^ation of a coif-gov- 
erning cotmi^oiiwcaltlu HopD vtuj;p^red Uie afsnnmoe of un- 
hiNird-of niooeu in Uie pureultof publi<? hujipiue^ iJirougli fmtli 
ill Hw nglib iif maiL 

Bcfofo reccjring the dcckration, the coDveation of Maj-j- 
hsd, on the sisth of Julr. jiehldd Ut ^^ the dire iif^ooMit^ '* of 
nttooncinj^ tbe king whi> iud Tiobtol £iia oompact and '^ con- 
jorod OTcryTirtnmia citiwn to joincorduUy in mainlining the 
frvodom of 3l4ryland and her viiitor oolonictr/' 

Tiro dnv( Uior, tho committee of safety and that of inspec- 
tion at Pbi^e^pfalA nofdied in pnm«uon to the mte-boneo, 
wberty the docUnoiou ms ft«d tu the lAttalkni of volonleon 
vn<I K (-ifi:<H>iiraa of thci inltabitdutts of thv dtjr snd poiiiitj. 
Tbe enihlcmfl of Tojaltjr srem tJiait 1>iinit amid tlio acchiou- 
tiam of die cmwd, And pcn)» fn>iTi tlie »tat&4iou80 1)o1] pn^ 
datnod ^' lEh^rtjr llironghoiit the laii<L'' 

With tbc cert&iiitj of iniinodiat« war tho ccaigrt^ of Now 
Jovej^t in prcMuoo of tbo committee of iofotj, tbc miiitia un- 



A1I££ICA IS ALLIASCE WITH FBASCE. rp, tr. : ott I. 



dor ^rwiBj %nd & gi^t &ttemblr of t1i« pvioplo at Tn'Titon, piiV 
littlitf] «imQltuitM)uaJjr t)i« ciBckriLtioii of Uidepen'^ence lind llieii' 
own nnw f^OTif^ittition. 

Oq the mctming of tho Bintli, xho nowly elected GonTODtion 
a{ New Yoric, inveetod vltb full powers ittm the people, u- 
tcoiblcd At Wtuto PlvnA, cliot«e aa prcMtknt NAth&niel Wood* 
hall of Sufiolk cotmu, a man of courage and discrimiBBtiog 
mind, and lucened to the roaOiuf; of the dedant^on of ind^ 
pODden«o. In di« aftcraoon they nuft ugiiii, thirtj-dght in 
Humbert ^nioog vihom were IVoodhnlJ, Jav^ ^'^'^ Conlandt, 
Xewb Hoiri*. Qouvcrueur Ut>rTUi, Gausevoorl, Slo^ JloUjirt, 

the Dutch, EngUah, and Huguenot elcmeatft of tho »lAtc. If 
roiutanoe to the end dtoold be cliowQ, Lewis Monu mxitt «I>an- 
dom ]u« lor^ cetAtc to the un^ionn^ rnvag?4 of tlie enemy ; 
WoodhnJl could not bope to save hie ooDGtitucntA from imme- 
diate Bubjeetion ; Jay rami prep&re to i«e hia ag«d father and 
motli^rr dnvcD frcDi their homo at K}^o, to pine Away Jind die 
u vanderen; tlie men from tbe weetani put of tliu Ktnte 
Icnew that didrvote wonM lot loose the Indian with lii» RCHlp- 
mj^Tiifii ftlong tlu'ir 1)on1i.T- Itut ihoir trnfdnd lu Uie tiiictin* 
quorahle qnrit of tboee hy whom diey had haeoL eh>ctccL Ttto 
leading port fell to Jay. Oii hia report, the eonventbn wiih 
one voice, while tliey lomentocl tho cruel noGonitj for ^'icdo- 
pcudonccv Approved it, and joined In Bupportin^ it et the riak 
of thdr hvo0 and fortunce^*^ Tlic^- dUeoted it to bo imbJbhod 
with tho heat of drum at Whito I'Uins, and in CTcrj district 
oC Ae state \ empovered their dekgatea in eongrcea to act for 
the hftpplneac and the welfare of t]i« United Stutu of Americe ; 
a[ici tiamf^l tliriii»4\is the repr«*wq]tative« of the peoplo of tlie 
ataleof N«vr VoHe. By thj>i de4*r«(< the umun of tlie thirteen 
eohndee vroa conmnrunoted ; Xrvr York, long vrith the cup of 
nuMiy at bcr lipe, ever renutuicd true to bor pledge^ 

In announcing indepondoDce, the oocnn^iMler-io-dlitef ae- 
aened for tlic oolonieta ^ the ri^^^of hentanlly." The dec- 
l&retion vaa read on the lunth to ercty brigade in Xew York 
dty« and r^pir^ with tlie mo«t booity Approbation. In ih/a 
etening a niob^ composed In pan of ooldien, threw dwra the 
leaden vqucftrian *tAlu<* of OeiAp; 111. whicli Ktocid in llu RowV 



ITTfl. CAK raS 5TA7£d UAINIAIN ISDEFENPfi^CE 1 



iog GrMOL Thd riot ^Hcuil^ >V^ua1uiigtoai and mifl rcbakcd 
in genoml orders 

Co tfao ctercLtb tho iD-piorided 9eetof Lord Donmcro wju 
driron by wcll-plafltMl b:itti>Hi*« frriun iu s^e luoongu near 
Oi?yiui*« LdiLud, to ride at ortulior nc-ftr tbc nioiilb of lUu Poto- 
maa. lIoTO a gale £]>ning up wbich wreL'ke<] several of 
tbfi taunll crufl tut! drtiVE]^ a aIiili|i i>ii :t}icn^ wbrrv it U^M m\n 
tbo hindfl of '^ tbc: rebels.'' To di&eacumbor bintficlf of crcrjr- 
Uiing but the trvisporte, die governor Btui the refugees undsr 
111* protwticn to Great Bribiin, the Went Imlii:ts or St. Angoa^ 
tuic Of the nogroca vrhom be had onlistod, tivc hundred hod 
died of (hip-fcrer or amaU-pox ; of the rest, ^at nainbere worn 
CADE U^ tbc WcflC lodlocL Hlft upjieiLl to tlie ^ivcm brought d^ath 
or wrvfcluxlntw on idl who roeo at Ms bidding, and iiiccauvd 
tbe soutJieni colonleii without beiLeilt to tljo crown. 

DnDObore mvtd nbnut f»rMiiiir ^vt<i-1«A limgtir In ibif u'uU^m 
of the ChoMpMkcf Tuidy awaiting help; but no hofttalc foot 
reoted on the aoil of Virginia, wlictt, on the twcnty-tiftb, the 
doclmlJoii of mdcpcndenco votf read in WiLliiuiiiibu^ at the 
ca^itott tbc ooorthou^ md tbc paloee; and when it wa« pro* 
claimed by tbo shuriS of each county at the door of hia conn- 
hovuo en the dnt enioing euun4iy. In Kbode liknd it wua 
aimoauicedtfiKCGfieiwIyst N^^wp^rt. KtiKt Grcanwi^b^ aod Prc^'i- 
denec^ wber« it called f'lrtb loud Luzzoa for '* free trade with 
aII tl'4! voHd, AuM^ri{<:in mnntir^u-limv^, xiid thir flElTtiMLH] of ]i\y 
ertjr o'cT ond o'or the globe " l*bo tbrims dty of B&ltimorc 
iNTu tUuininatcd for joy. At TJeondt^ruga the ^Idi^i^r^ under 
SftiDt<71air ihonbMl with ntptnro : ^^ Nov wc ore a &co pcoplu» 
and havic a name among the atates of tho world." In IfoMO- 
chiuctte the great «lalo [wpcrwaapabliahcd from thepolpU on 
aLordV D&y by cech ininitlcr to bU ccn^^^tion, nnd vrjui 
enCunylat length on tUu r^^corda of the town^. The assembly 
of Sontl) CairotJna, white tboydcploivd ^'tbu uniivoldublc no- 
eevHy" of Independe«ioe, aocepted ^ts decknLticm '^wiih nn- 
ffpciib>li&ii p1i^iKnri%*' 

Independence liad Hprong ironi tbo instniotiofis of thd 
people; it WiA nnw acceptijd and ccniinncd as tbcit work in 
dtiei and TtlUgiit, in toiKii-n>vettng:» and Ic^^Iatnrc*. in the 
camp and the tnining-ficML Tto report irent out vnong all 



U[Bft[CA m ALUAKCE WTTn FIUNCfl. %r.n.,ai.i. 



MOuMj it iDvoIvctl llic rv-forai of the Bnlleb parliamcDt, 
moaiidpftdcn of XrcUn^l, tlio orertHrowof fcudAlwcn m iYaocft-^ 
Et€d llnt^&rj bout forwanl to L<;iLr the g^Jad eovud ; ^d lUl- 
faus Atd Ucnonn^ rocnllod their days of luutr. 

T^ie arrow had ^d wlwn L»nl ni>wo DDtorod npon 
BOroe with his eommiB^ioD for rMorbig pc^& Afi a naval 
offl^er, ho ichtr^! €xjvnv7K*if anA ^kill to pltlegmatic coum^ 
Xalurallj la^itnTTi, hin mnnTii^r of oxprtitpclng hiTitwir wjw ci.Tn- 
foACcL HiN pnif^te rvHmiiblml tliat of hU gnnd^her, Q^urgo 
L ; li» complexion whk ri^rjr dark ; bb grim fe^tura IaI uo 
•taaip of enpetionty ; but hi4 f aco woro in cxpr<Moa of «crvtio 
and poMive fordtode. Aa mwu^picioue as he wa^ brave, he 
mm^ dcsigood to act u a mocUator; and indut^fcd in 
rfakmaof ridbig about tho oonntry, oonvcntiiig vrOL ju pnD- 
dpjd iiUiabStanu, and roeioting tho ^n^s ntithority by metJii 
of oiodontti'Mi nnd couoeiaiou. At Hulifix lio told Admin] 
Arbirthnot *' Uint ponce would be injuh! willjlit Uu di^)"* Hfter 
hi* arrival/^ Widi a ^mpUi^iLy which apcaka for toB nnoorilj, 
be hnd not rliH^oTprpd b^vr coinjilulely hU jnwcrii ir».*ro cfreum- 
acribod. He could pardon IndividciatA on tljcir return to tiie 
Idng^a protection, niid couTd grunt an amncaty to innu^gcot 
c^immnnitica irhtch ahonld lay dovn thdr anna and dlaaolro 
thoir (^vommonta, Tho only fxtrtbcr priviJof^ ^riiicb his looig 
altCKatlon vning from the mintfltry waa a vagao perraiaaion to 
«^QTor«o with priv^to men on tli«ir nll^fg^ griariuicijf; u)d to 
rpjwvrt tMr opinions; b;it lo voxM not prcjiiiiw (brU tlwrir 
ciompUinU wouUI be beedud ; «id be won Kiriftly forbidden to 
tmt vith th« cootuumtal coogran, or scy pn^Timnal oon^rav, 
or any ctri] or miEtaiy oBleer liolding tlieir commMon. 

In llii: cTduiig of the tirclftb Lord Howe reached Statco 
bland, ilia brotiicr, who had itDpottcotly expected him, waa 
of tbo opinion ** tlial a numeroBa body of Um inhabitanta of 
N<w York, Ibo Jorcoya, and Coonwlictrt only waited for op- 
portnnitiiM to prora Uiotr loyiJty; bm tlut peaoe eonid not 
be restored nntil tbo robol army should bo defealad." Lord 
Ifom^ whih^ nt mm, lad dga^ a deoUniiun uliirh bad been 
s^etcb»} by T^ectdorbura in England^ and whkh did Ixtt nxi* 
DOUiKv )iSa aulhonty separately, not le« than jointly vrith hie 
brother, to giant fr^ acd general pudona, and prODolse "due 



iTT*- CAM lltE STATES M^UKFAIS l^DKi-ESUOOEl J 
cOQffldantiffn to kU pe«90QS who efaotild aid in ttatoring tem- 

Od tbe Meood dmf tftor list arrival ho ««nt a white fia;:; np 
ilM httbor will] B eopj* of his dackfation, «Dolosed in x httor 
■ddfOsKHl u> Wafiltiugton as a pHmta tnmi. Hood and ^ebb, 
vbo went to mocd lh<i tncffiengcr, following thoir iostnictlanH, 
dttlkted Id reoei^-c tbe coutuiuiucatlon. Ijarcl Hiiwo was 
gricTcd 4t the Tvbnff ; in the judgment cf ooagicas, 'W«bUmg- 
ton "acted witb a dignitj boeomiug bis etatjoo.^' 

On tlio isaiuo day Lord Howe aent a flog acrotv tbo Kil) to 
AjatH>5, *vrit1i copdoa of U!a declaration in circular letters to aJl 
tlbO old Tojal goromoT* aoiitli of »v York. Th^ papon foil 
into the faanda of Mercer, and through Wubi&gttm ir«fo tnma- 
miKod toeougrcMi. 

Lord Hoire tiled to adTrmco hiA piirpciea by fomrardiug 
ooneilatiiiry lL-*-lfR< written hi Kn^l^nl to |iei^iT]H In Aim'.ncju 
Hioee which ho had concerted wicli Dc Bcrdt, son of tho old 
agent of Maeaacliittctta, to Kiiuey of Now Jersey aiid to Heed 
of PeQOi^T«nia« ve» ptibllc in tlicir nature, Ihoxtgh private In 
ihcir form, ukd were promptly referred l.>7 their rcctpicDta to 
eOQgrwk In ifaem he snfF«r«d it to h& md that ha had for 
two moQthc dtiUyod uSing from England, in ordor to obt^n 
an «nbif!em«nt of hia iiutmctiona; tiiat ho was difipoft^ to 
tneol ; that ho IujI ]iow«r to eomproiiibe and adji»t, aad duKirr-d 
a partey with An^crioarw on tin? fooling of friiind*. Reed 
thiKiglil '^ the overiurv ought not to l)e n>jeH?t4*d ;'* and llinnigEi 
Rolwn Morri* Ivo ofFcnni moat chcftrfull^v U) take Kiich it part 
'^ oa th« ocoAoD OA his eituntion and abilitiee wonld oduiit*^' 

The gloom that hung over the coimtij waa deepening ita 
dttdca; <nko Uri;iii] corps after anctlior vru; ani^'ing ; tbo Sect 
cflauDUided the wators cf New Tork, and two fihipe^f-war 
bi't, on tho twaSfth, pa«>^ tho Ai]3crieaa batCiaiea with rery 
littlo Injury, aseoDdtn^ the Hndfion rivvr for tho viKOOnrai^- 
toentof tho diutfleded, and 1010117 catling off aQ intereonno 
\rf vnUrr bvtwmn ViuJiiiigUin*ii rAttip juul AlWfij. Gnit'ri?, 
on the fourteenth, white faciu^ the wholo danger without div 
otaj, wrtitu to .T»liii Adamft : ^* I Bttll think jou are plajdng a 
dctfpi>nto gao>e.** Bit congrc« «l>owed no wnrering. ** Lord 
Utfwe,** roMOikcd Sarnnel Adams, ^ eomea vrith torms di^graeo' 



^g^ 



^ 




8 



AilERlCA IS ALLIAXCS WlTn TRASOE. HMV.;mi. 



ful CO Kum^u nature. Ho Imi tlwiji votod, » I am toU, ia 
favor of the kinffa mooAiim in p»r1i«nent, aod it th« 
timo profe^ed himself a frleod to the [Ibenie^ of Ai 
Jle HK.11M to inu L'iLbt-r mrvi^r b) Imit? hoi] uny gixxl ]jntiH|i1i4 
stt allf or not to Lsvo jin>imcw of iDind openljr and tuijfovTulj 
Ui uvon' theuL" Iloberl Moma roM-lrod «s & i^ood dtiiea to- 
foUovr if he could iu)t U«t ■^'^ thouccforvnLrd vupportod indfr- 
poadcaoo. At tbo cmlj timtrcr to Lord liowc, corign^ on 
tlie iiin«tociitb, n^eoh^ tliAt its own aUta paper of tbe fourdk.^ 
of July iLould bu c«igro«ed oa parekincitt oa '' tha tmAidnftont 
declaiution of tho thirteen UvnxD Statbs op Amesica," and 
dgned by every one of fca membera. It furtbfjr direc^t^ Loi'd 
Howc'n drriiliix liitlvr ttitd iWJuintJOTi 14^ hu \m]A]>\itHlj *■ ih^tl 
tlio goofl pvoplo of thaw UnitoJ SUitve nmj ho iiifonuod of 
what nature aro tlie couiiuiieiout^m, oudv^hat the tornu vith 
whidi the iottdioutf cooit of Britjuu Ju« cndcftTOred tovaow 
ftnd dUann Uicra ; ind Uuit the few wW ctili rctoMD nvponi 
by a hop^ founded ttth«r in the juedca or mod<»iaio& of thdr 
hto king, lufty oi length he eoDvtncod timt tho Tulor alono of 
thoir country is to rtvo its l]l:«rti«s.*' ly 

B^foF^ tbU dvctslon coold reai^h Wa^Ington ht^ liad ma^lo 
Iuj> own o]iitLictiH Ituuwit. Iil nTply tu a nw>Iutio» of corign-ffti 
on tha niii«8&cro by Indiane of eocio priaoiicnt trhi^ bad capitu- 
Ldod in Ouuda, (ieiufml Uovo 1^1, on tlie [iixttfonih, acDt him 
a note, of vrhidi the addrecs hod no recognition of hit official 
ettttioii. TJio letter vms for that rcoK^n not ivcdved; and on 
Iho twentieth a aecond l«tt4:r ivu rejected* becau» its 
wa« unbigiiOM ; but, for tho eoke of oominf; to eomo agroomoot' 
ncpeetliiK priionora, I^t«r»oo, its bearer, tho Brifiih adjutant* 
gonend, waa ailovod to enUrr tlw Amorion cunpL Afi 
plttdg^ng tUe word of the DHtl^b commuider to f^rant to pna*] 
OBGCV tilt? rlglita of hnriianity and to poniah the offioerawl 
lud ItroVm their pAmlc, he i«ku1 to hkvc bin Tiait acociptod 
tlto fiM wiTaace from the comnuHionorB for zwtoring poacc^, 
and MBcrted that they bad great powera. ^'Frorn vhat 
ptitfUt" rojobod VTaahiagton, ^th^harc pow«roalyto 
pwdoca; having comndtted no fadt, we nood no pardon ; w»j 
ate only defending what we doctt to bo our indi^pul 
righttL" 



1774- UAi" THE STATl© MAJSXAIN lXDK['t^■UE^■eEf 



9 



To IbVuikliiu »& to a yr<mhy fritnd, Lord Ho'eto had aont 
ucuTAnoDi that 1o promoe** letting |Ma^ imd vuiiod, und pre- 
vent Aoicrictfii coiuimrrm from piM;ing to foixn^-n natioue, 
formed ^^iho great cbjcetsof Mb amVitioTL" ^lujiklln, after 
OMixultiiig eoBgreM, amw«i^l: '^By a ])eikcu Ktwi^cit Brituiu 
and Atiwrica, w dUcinct etnkvii your AAtion icigbt reravcr tlie 
grealt»L jmi of *>ur j;foiiiiig commerce^ wUli tlul ^uldhicmttl 
MrcD^b W be cU^ved fiMiu i friend^lup wiUt w ^ but licr \ntt 
of dotDinioD, and hcrtliin^ fi>r a gainful mcaiopolx* ^<^ join 
to hido h£r tnio intereetB from hor e/^ 

''Tbv ^reli'fofindcd c&toota and a&setioD wliicli I alialJ 
alwAjrs liarv for jottr lordidiip nuki^ it [Hucifiij to m9 to eeo 
you engaged In coTidnoticp a wnr, tbe preit gr<>utid of 
vhlch, a« exprvsetvd in jtpur IfUer^ iit * thu u[-c*i±witj of iircn^iit- 
ing Iho American Imde from pwcing into foreign c)uuinel§u' 
l^tajiuet)^ a trade k not an object fnr h lilt^ti mi-a niav jiiplII^- 
«pill okL odier*a Uood ; tbe tmo meaiui of ^^^cuniig comiDcrca 
ia tlie goodtMia and cbcapacaa of cotmuoditicfi ; and tbe protil 
of no trvlo ean ever hQ cqnai to the e^cjHMLW of compcUUtg it 
by Uocti and armvoc 

**Poetaniy viU odDderan to iafamy thoM wbo advfiMd tbia 
war ; and OT«a snocceB ^11 not ^vo from «oino dogroo of dia- 
bo&or iboio vbo volonlanty onstage to conduct it I belies 
that n'bon yrm find cooiriiiBticm inapo)«ib1<f on &ny tenuft givim 
yon to pTopiiso, jon will relinriiifch aty lydvyiK a wirnmancl,*' 

'^rinm uu liw ihiftivtlj T>jnl [fuvrci rtJiuireO tliin n^plv, bi'a 
eouutviUDOc gi^w nuin? mmbra; tears glitttmicd in tiin e^-n; 
bo looked wfiliin himseU, and waa coDeciou£ of 'aiming at a 
rv«onclhacioo oq temuof borior and adv:inta^ to botii partioe. 
Tbo iTutb bo^^ to dawn upon hiin tliat ho liad been duociTod 
into acLvptUkfr a eotnnuEeioa vbicbleft blm no poinrrbatto 
ttaift ia ibo «ul>juj;^on of Aim^rioa bj anna. 

Tba intorviow of tbe Criti&b ad jutan t-{^«m1 vritb WmLid^ 
toa led to oQn bnmftBO roralt. Froia the d^^lre to rv^ease tbe 
Brili)ib nliWrH (dio bad hwti taVrti by '^Ibii n-tii-lfi,^^ and iJill 
EDoiv fn>m A «o<utkleratIon of ibe dif^cubi'e^ wliMi mf^^bt oo- 
ew tij tbe OM of foreign trDnpn r«r;rvi:)f; m Ainrrini, tlic BntUb 
tuinifltCT-, in February 177^ iDfrtmctcd Ocncml Hone to cSccX 
tbe excbaago of ptidonetai but witLout UBing die kin^'a nanic 



10 



AMERICA IS ALLIANCE ffTTtt FEANCK. ■r.rr.-cn.L 



in nny Def-otifttion for thit paq>OM. Tbc ftccrotvy'* letUr yrm 
folbtfud hy Uio propoHdf in Jtily ]7T<s togivo up a china 
carried nwuy fn>m Bodton for o BritUb Bubj««t Leid i& vreet. 
CoOf^reM, 00 tli« tiranty-tooond, Tot^d lU npfiroviU, mud gnvo 
pdver to excbiogo prieooen of ww : officio* for ofBoor of '?«[ii&l 
Tuil^ ftolclicr fori>ftMIt<r, *a^l(>rf«r miW, wid ritijfi»nfordtbtD, 
In ihifi ftitmngnnufot IIoww reiidily (^mncnimfil. TnttTmiptocI by 
fn.-i|ii^?rit jUUrTc&tlOD^ It ptovalted Co tlie end of tbe wu*. 

UniOD wiu tho erv of Anienc^ ^Tbe pUii of n confcdcr^ 
tlon vDA drawn bj Dickhuon,^* * a&d vns in the hAodfl of tbv 
committGe bofoiD the eod of June. 

Tbe tDJiin UmJmneo to the oAtal^ii^lunent of a eirouf^. orer- 
rnlinff centra) fopcc wnj un niiirillingccm of tbc M|ianilv MtAtM 
to f^vo up potr^r, and a jealomy of ectAblkliLOg it in otliei 
hnndft Uimn tbejr ovo. Tliu Durcli nitd SirU« eniif«Kler^Ic4 
woro thn only miKlnU Icjiown Jr. thy poopJs in dvtmil, nnd tliiny 
werv »t«died and luiitaUH]* Tiierv v-u nut at Uml lime ouo 
cirUian vrlio fullj oorapnkendod tbo nond of tho country, or 
wu tit to be Ihoaichitoct of a p^nnaneol nfttionnl cooilihitioii ; 
and icoJ to fpuird nf^et tto predomiDatioo of the eeutnd 
ixrrcr hu^gbtonod tho impcrfcciioiu vrUidi had tbc&r deep root 
in ibo bsftory of tlM aUtM. 

Every Kugttflli admioistradoii bad aimed at aoqoirifif^ tbo 
iBapottI of tlic milituy r«aoiii<oui aix) rvroiuca of Uio «oloni«i, 
wliilft wncy AnH*rf«m logialatniv Ilic] oonnUntljr F«iitflc1 mi- 
<!roMfaDwnb& TUf^ raebtanoe^ derebi|>Hil and conflnned hy 
caocoMdvo gcnentioiiB, hud ^Nrnmo ibo innliDct iind lialt^t of 
the people. ' 

In nUkng a rovcomo^ the colooicn bad utkQovrlc<l^ m llio 
king BO ftuiction irliato^^cir except tbJU of oddntang to tbom 
iormllj TOqubitioaa vbicb tliey, after dcUberatkm a&d oon- 
aoDt, vent to coUoci by tlieir ovn aeptitto power. Tbu con- 
fcdoracy now stood in tbe placo of the crown as tlie ooDtml 
aotlvon^ - and to tbat federal uuLou tbo eolobbis b}' geeonl 
efHic&nuM*i»f pmpo^ to eooflde only Am same limited riglit 
of maldng roqnintioua, 

Tbe pkn of Diokiufton wru \tm eScieat tban that pn^poNed 
the year before bv FrankliiL. CoUmuca often bailed to bo ra^ 

•KdraHXatMsvM Joint Jtj,1»JuMine. MS. 



irw. OAS TUB STATES M.VlSTADf 1>-I>E?ESDESCE? 11 

raaontcd ; PnuilElinV plan oanEtitut«f] one* Italf of (he meirkl>trA 
of cODgrees a ijoomns, aoil le^b Uio deoiidon of ervrf i|ncj4ion 
to H^ imjonty of IboM tIio tDigtit l>o prcMDt; Dicldiuon 
fartwonlY^tbc United 8tiUcflA»ombkd;" counted er^ry one 
of then) whieb mi^Itt ohaoeQ to 1>o unroprcecnted as a vote in 
Ibo Bfigotivo ; rc^iTurod thut not i^vcti i tri\-]iU loaticr eLoold 
tw dctormin^d ^xeapt Ijj tba ci>ncurr«<nca of eewn oolonioa; 
and tlttt meaBQioe of pHmflry lmporr:aoc!o ahould owntt tho 
nvontof nStift, Uut S»t, of ^t lou^t tw<r ihirrln of tlio while. If 
riglit rtaCM oniT wiTo prvMOit^ no qiidJinii rvhtiiig to defeneo, 

bj a muntmoiM rote; nor oonld anuvt«rof nniJIer tuonaeot 
Im ectlled hy & majofily of eu£ to two. Franklin rtccq>tod all 
aniccidmoata tlut ahoal<l i>e apprond hv a majorilj of ths 
■tat«i; DjcliftMn poniiUtt!!! no dujigo bn: hy tho ooniont of 

Edn-aid Ttotiedge c^ South Carolina, vbo lervod vrltb indna. 
tJ7 on iKv iMinmittco wIUl Dieklnaon. aaw danger in nn mdif- 
aolaUe Inguo of frioiirlfjjip betwoen tliu i4atc» for thdr g^no- 
nt w«lfan!, luxl ui Jiwe^ wbilti tLe pUu was atltl iu Uie Itjunlit 
of tLe committcot VToto privately but dclibcratol,^ : "If the 
plan DOW proposed 5tto\ild bo adopted, nothing leas than rain 
toaomcoolonieawill ha tlio conaoquvneo. The Ideaof doitroy* 
iag all pronndol dGP^tinctioikK nnd making everything of tho 
QUMt minute kind bond tovhat they call tho|!Ood of tbevbole^ 
£a In other terau to my that tlio«d c^olonf^ mn^t bo mbjoec to 
the f^iTonineDt of the aa«l€m pmvin<H<v. T}iu f<irco of thdr 
arau I bold oxeeeding ebeap; but I dread ibeir overruling 
InJhwmiH? ill pfiiinriL 1 aiii n^olvi'd tii rtu^t tiie ctm^x^ss wiUt 
na ttiiiru |MiAier than wbal la abaolntclj uvccn^rj, .ird to keep 
tliET iUlT in onr own bands ; for, if surreBideicd into tlic tumda 
of otboa, a inoat pcmtcuNu uao will be made of il." * 

Ei^Lt ilAja after tJie dectaratMn of indcpcsdcneo tbo coni- 
nutfoe app-)intcd to propara article of ooniedoration in tbo ttb- 
iODoe of DkldEiaoa brcHigbt in h^ draft. Aftor ft bad bean 
priot^^d, rn tfaa iwttfLt7««o(md of July 1 TTC, it waa taken into 
OociatdetBtfcon br 0ODKreA» in cominittL-t- of tlx* vhi>lc^ TbL< dls- 
cnasUm waa renewed ai eveiy folloun'ng H^ifin in July nnd for 




12 



AMKRICA IS ALLIANCE HVITH FBAXCE. BP. rr-cn.: 



MronJ days ia Augnst* T^io povpfv «oTino(Ic<l to the oonfod- 
enUim, tiArrow »e thoj were, arousal ^iiorai^ and foar. TU^ 
jiUn, iLUumixig populfldoa to be ihe bdei of wealth, pPDpos*?*! 
to oUtftin ii^ti|i[U[n& Iiy rtu|tj].<iti<iiid( upoti vni'-li kUU? in |)n^]i»r:i<iit 
to tlie iiumljtr of its iiiliuliitaiktif, cxpcptmg i»oiio but IikIliliia 
iiot j>ijniig Lftxfi3k ClttM moved to ojudC (jiiil;r tliu '* ^kltt.- in* 
habiUuts ; " for *' dc^toc* vrcro jwopcr^, luid do moro moiabc^ 
of ttie ebto ilian caUlu" "CaU tbc Jaboriog poor ^<MiDeii or 
«lftro«," mhI Jobn Adiuni, "thpy inoreftee tko wcftltfa and ox- 
porta of tJio ti4to o« mucb in tlio ooo Oi>o m in tliij otbor, and 
*kiii!d ther*>fore add equally to the qaota of its ux/* Uarriflon 
of yu]2i!ui proj>jicd v a coiupromliic tli^t iwo tlavcd tJtould bo 
oonnlisl HA r^io f nvfirun, "^To DX«m]j; tijivw fnun taxation/* 
mtd 'U'ilsoiif *^iiril1 be iho ^reatot QtMOang«nient to bhr^ 
kroping ujd ttie LUi]>ort4iaoii uf nkviv, on which it U our duljr 
to la^ every dwccurogcaiont. i^bvot iLLcrvwe protita, viliKh 
the Krothoiti atat^ take to theiu«dvc« ; th^ iscrtvao the bui^ 
dcoi of dc^iactv vhich mud fall 00 mveh tbo raoro hurily on 
tho nortliom* t>kvoa prevent frvcmen from euJiiratUg a 
oountrj. DUmw your «lavi^ atkd frouoiOD will tako thoir 
placca^" " Fr««iii«ii " uud yoG^g Ljnch of South CofoKno, 
" bavo Doithor tha abililj nor tbo inoUcatioii to do the work 
tint Uie oegroea do. Oor alaTce are oar propertj ; If thai U 
dabated, 6wno i* an ond of <*onfcdont£on. Being our pn>p- 
crfyr wbT should tlivf bo taned more than sheep T *' ** Tli«r« 
ia a dlfTereni^-/* unl Ftauklin ; "j^liivp wU) ni^vi-T mnkc iwiir- 
nolioiHL^' Witbcnqwoo thought tho vahw of Iindfl and houaea 
waa tbo true faaieaneteT of tho vualth of a pnopl^ ami tho 
critcrum icn taation. Edward Ratlodgo objected to tbo nilo 
of immben because it included aUrest and b<«auie it esumpt*^ 
the wealth to bo aoquiied Iv the eaatoan «tatc« as caniori for 
Iha aoQthom. Iloopor of Xortli Cavolicm cited hia own etate 
aa a cttikiof; exceptkni to the role that the Hcbce <^ a coontrr 
ate In propoftiou to iti tnuuboci ; and, eommunti&g ott the un- 
pjufttahiynuwc of flhrgbbor, ho exp rowo J tha wwhtoaeealawiy 
pan away. The amittdaMait of Chase wai lejecccd bj a mto of 
alt the alatu liortlt of Uiaoa aod DuonV Una against all those 

• £Mrc« JflMMb «f Oa^«M, t, tVO-l U I J«ki AdiM*% v«fa^ H, 4t*<caaa 

JcAasa-a wpiU, L, 14-10, 



17T«L CAS THE a»TATfiS MAJNXAIN [NDKrBKDE VCE f U 

■oqUi of i%^ cxce^)t \hut Geor^~;( -nta dmdcd. The coiifedeni< 
tion «onId not of iim^lf levy ritxosgmti no nilg for aj^portioiimg 
roqniddoiu premised harmony. 

A iCGODd ortloilo wliSoh divided the ^udttt relatod to tho <li6- 
Cnbutionof povcr m tliag^norul corjgrtse. Dt^lfi^^are, f rocn ibo 
bfiglniLing, bomul her dtfle^tea to tasial Lhoty ^* Fu clocUritig qnoB- 
t^rtriK. i-m^L I'ciliiiivdiouid hftvemie vuUt;** iun] tiii* wa« tho mla 
adopted by IHckiiuon. ChMO #av tbo exti^i^uxe iliiu|ner of n 
hopdeas conflict, «Dd proposed aa & c«>iii]>romTM? d^it in vot^ 
rcJAtin^ to niocioy tUo vuieo i>f cucti tfUttc tlionld bo ]>n>]K3^ 
tionod to tho nnmbcr of it4 inliabitantd, X-'rankllri in»tta*d 
that tfacjflbould bo so propc^ooiod in nil ciun; that it was 
tmreMoiublo to ect out wKli na nnoqiiAl r^r«eontatiOQi ; that 
ft ooorederation oa tbe iniqtiitom prindpk of allowing; to 
tbftRaolltr §Mj» im Of]u/d TotQ without tlielr liuiviTig rqnal 
bnnlirifi rtmW out lurf Imijf, ** All agnv/* tvplikxl Wither^ 
ftjiwin, *M)uL there uiliat, juid tJiall 1m« a {^Euiftiterar.uhn fur Uii* 
w&r; LEI the cn1igbti?Rv<l »tiitc; of murjN nimln, I bopr? f ^nr a 
lifttiii^OD& Our greubeet danger is of disniuon Amoii^ mtr- 
Aelvc*. >'otbing will come before corigrord but wJmt rc^pccto 
colociicd «Jad not individuak Evrryoolory w & distinct pcj> 
«od; ikjid,Lf an cqiiid wft^ l>c rcfoKd, tlio «nidJer Mnt^ will bo 
fwaai* to tiio larger/' ^' Wo inu«t confodonttc/' tmd Clark of 
Kow Jeraey, *'or apply ior pardons." ''We diould ai-ttio 
fiomo plan of roprwonuticu^^* Kiid WiUcm, JcKu Adams 
igreed wtife Ffutklfn: *' W© ivpree^nt tlie people; and In 
aonKt atxlvm tbey arc muny, hi utlu-'nt rlii^y hiv fi^w; tbe voto 
iliotttd lie proportfonwi lo inimbpm. The coiifcdi*rary in to 
fiinn uv likr? n*|xmiU? ]i:uvTi-Ja «»f metal, iaio one ci:mimcEt matfi. 
We iboli no W^gcr retain oar fopomtc intltriduulity, but bfr- 
OMne a mif;\o itidivkliial aa to all qnc^ion« ftiibmitt^xi to tho 
ooofcdufmcy ; tlH;refMru all t!>o»o Toatona which provo tho JUB- 
lieeaad cxpodicDcv of a prc»]Virtic>niJ roproeontatioD In other 
ttaemblictf hM j^ood here. An *>inal v^ito will ciuUngor tho 
kai|^ wtafea, vhilo tlioy, froin ll<ilr di^^rehce of prodacia, of 
1&t«rwtf and of mflnnepa, can nirvi-r comlMU« for tbo opimsft- 
rfoQ of thu icnaller/* Riub spftke on tlie sanie sido: '^AVo 
arp a nititni ; to riitr- by tUlm « il] kei-p U[i oiihiivbl difitfiic- 
tiiMU ; aod wu «liaU be loaih to admit now colonica into tho 



u 



JUIEKIGA Cff AU.[ASCE VITH fEANCE, kp. it. ; ctl i. 



eoafcdeifitioQ. TLo Yotictg bj tlie number of free tnhiUtiati 
will ti&v« tbo eicdlerit effect of indticiDg tbo ooIodim to dis- 
eoungo Hlavery, Xbo kr^r coloniee are so providentially 
divide in Kibiiitinn tut to nniVtc «n'uj' fiar of llwir (^iiulkluing 
Tiflloitar/. TttB moro n man mom nt Bervirif^ Anivrica, llw 
nom 111; K!rvcn liia colon}-; I aoi cot plrAdlug tbe cauw of 
Petm^yLvania ; 1 con^itlcr mjM If a citixc^n «f Ariiun<A." Hop' 
kituof Uhodo lala&d plcodt^ fcr llic nnalkr <x>loii^c«: "The 
Oormau body Totee bj rtatee; eo does the Udretie; eo does 
tho Bel^ia Vit^nia, FenniylviiiilD, 3CaMtcliiuott#, uid Muj- 
kud conUJn mom tban balf the p«opli>; it t'tui not be vi- 
pcGted that nine colonics m\] gire^^&jr to foTir. T\\e ^eij 
of tliQ whole i!i-|>viida tm l}vtt dt»tiiii*tiiui of ihti (miIoiiic!*.** 
**Tli« Tolc^" said Sinn-nun of Conaodiciit, *'f(bonId bu taken 
tiro vooru : call tUo oaiotiiea, and call the iadiridiuds^ and havo 
a majoritjr of both.-'* Jcdefvon enforecd, a« the mcvia to Uive 
the timon, that ^* onj propoeitioD migU be DOgatived by the 
rtipnsaentatiTQe <^ a nukjority of tiio people or of a majonty 
of Uie 0(Joiii<«.^* Hero b tba tboi^ibt out of wbich tbo great 
OomproiiUM of otir cmutitittioti vna uvulvvd,** 

Aildo from tho pormanunt c^umtiort of tsiadon and rojiro- 
funtetum, wlnt inutc »tuod in the way uf an i^arljr act of union 
vrai Uic €ontli«t of cUinifl to tlw ungrantcd UniK vhirli during 
the oouDecJioi^ viih Great Britain had bolooged to the king. 
It TM aijt qiicfttJooL-d that vooh member of tho confcdcxncj 
bod aojnirod tJio sole ri^it to tho public domain witiun itd 
aoknowlcdgod limita; bat on tbo eoocnd of Atiguf4 it wad pro- 
pOffOd to vindicuto tor tho Cnitvd Statoa tho groAt t^jiritorj 
noftfa-woitof ilioOhiotiy iiiTMit]geoiign«**wiLb tho ejccia* 
ilTo power of Limiting tho bonu^li of tboao coloniaa vUch 
wore «a5d to oxtitid U> iho f^iib Sea^ and asceftainh^ tho 
boDoda of Mny oUier tJuit appvured lo bo uMlobtfrninato.** Jef- 
f eraon apoko agaiut the ]inii>OK)il pourrr m ton gnat and ngiMH 
and protoatod agunattfaocompotcncy of amgroaa lodecidenpon 
tho right of Virgiak; hut bo conlideutlj oxpnaaod tho iiopo 
** that Uio colootoa viootd limit thomMiTia,'' Unleei they ivonJd 
do io, Wilwxn daim^Kl for Fonn^lTania tho right to «aj eho 
mrould &0C oonfodorute. 



• Joba AiuBk tL. in, and U^ *tK 1«T. 



m*. CAN THE mxTL^ MAtflTAIN RffDSPC^ENCE « 15 

Tbe aebeme at ccnfedemtiOB was in ite form m complictito 
and ID Its ^po ISO tov tliat, gt tho ontwt, tJie mi^elapeD ofFnui- 
ism etniok tt^iih ittmli'UH tk« ^Bal for creating a govemiDont. 
Hatl it K-vii &t once mdoitted, l)it? w;ir rutiM not fnw Ix-rn can 
mil mi 't UutcongreM »ui>n gr<;w ncivj of oouBldenn^ it, aud 
tbo revolutjoci during Jta yean of criaja contiutied to !« ooii> 
dusted by thft more effideut exiatiug union, vludi had grovo 
OBt of tho ntftnietioflu of tlio »c%cnl colonics to tboirdetc^tci^ 
wae beU tcfivihcr by tho neccaaitios of war^ and acknovfedgad 
tba ri^t <d tiia nuijoritj to dacido a question. 

Th« fftatM had^ tliorofuror to figbt tka battlea of indopen- 
dance nndar tho diuplQ or^iiizatioQ by which it bad been dis 
doRxl; llm fttir irf n atmnding uriuy iw it ilutdl^v tm* in Uict 
libcrtieaof tlii; pn>p1cbai) thu? fnrlimitvd tlii? enlistment uf 
^tuiCiaA to «bort tcrma; eo tlut Ibo nati<inai defence vae ooui- 
mltted to Um vbb aud £ow oi tbe inlUtia of tbc scjporate atate^ 
and good duKdpltno vtm made imposiiblc. 

Id JnJ V, Crown rwnC woe abandoned bt the nortLcra army, 
on Uw ooooomnt adHoe of the genaial oflicon, ag^Unat tbo 
protoit of Stark and twenty fiQld^>Jbcttfk Galos, tbougb bcld- 
iDg a fiubordiiuto eomniaTKl, noglaotdd 1o nmke reporu t^ hta 
KiprrW; lutd wUuc WLinliitiglfjii, ufter i^oiuiulung; liw c^mnc'il, 
^ezpmmd kiitov al the nrlivat. from Crown ]*om(/^ (tal^K ro- 
acDlad tbe hiterferenoa aa "unfirccedentod,** iiuu^ttJ tliat Uo 
and his oOTuical vcn in ''nothing inferior^* lo 'HbcJr brtlLrcii 
and ooiniwcn,^* and rcfcrrod tbo mutter to coEtf^rofia. Wlula 
be ao luuiily Kt Linuctf np m tlio rival of tlio oommandcr-tn- 
cfakt^ bo wai iotrigning with Xow England mcmbon of con- 
greoi to sapefBede Schuyler. 

On tlio t^ist flay of Augtut, Wuliington dcelunsd in a gaoo^ 
ilovdar: ^'Diviiioiia among otinalvcaniofiteOoctaftUyuuihi oar 
enfiuin; tbo pmvlnoea are all united to oppcfie tbe oocumoaeike- 
my, and all dulinriionH avo aanlc in tbo nnmo nf ^ui Amf^ncan.^ 

On tbe next da^ tin* iiieinlieni of octa^remf having no army 
bat a tranaicnc one, no confederation, no treasury, no aupplif* 
of rnmiM^MU ^f war^ atgiifid tbe dcclaradou of indepeDdonccv 
wUeb bad been cngrccnxl on parclunent. TLc llrKt^AftcrJolui 
Haoooek tbo fvvaidcst, to write bi« name wns 8amncl Adomi^ 
to whom tbe men of tbat day aecribod ^ the i-reaMtt part m 



16 



AMCRIC^ m AIXIAXCE TnH FRAXCE, n.rv.;<s.L 



tbo f-TCfite^ reTolntioti oi the worid.^ Th« bodj wu iomo- 
wliat c-)i:uk^Ml fnim ibat vhieli voted ou tlie fourth of July. 
Ch%m wiw new imwTtrt, fcrnl l_v H* wJi? CtiaHm CjutoII, ft new 
Tuecitlter, uj vrlKno elButiua iLo loajj; diiifraEii^liJMHl Catliihl:i> of 
Mu'ybnd wvw iin cTificnco of tlicir di-^iitlinilmttit Wj^lho 
and iticlmrd Hcnrr Lcc bad rctomod from Itiobmoml ; Dick* 
invon aud itro of liie coQeai^i^ ^"^ mado way for (Irmcr, 
Buih, uid oCJierv; Robert Morru. who hod l)Ovn continued as 
a rtproeeiatativ^ of PvDTiFirlviiTii:^ new acted h^rti]? vitli j uhn 
Adfiuu and Js£FiirBon and Fruiklin. 3fa?kean wom ^tli the 
axm^, anil did not vat Iuk nmue to tlie nM Utforo I7^L For 
Npw Yc-ri, Phitip f^iviti^t/in siiil Tjru-^s Morris joined with 
PnuiriM Levvuand WilUaiu Plojd. 

Amvrlcjin inilqvciiclvDCA wnH ratified not 1>/ eoognvs onVi 
but bjr the natioiL Tiic nnadfiali wthuuaBiD of Ui« pw>pIo 
wa«iLfttfnppo4rt; Iho boundlraanctt of the counttj fonncxL ita 
nattnul defence \ aaJ tlio icH aj»crting individnaiitir of every 
state end of 9V9tt citizen, tlKi^i!h it d<>lAyed Cho ofpifcinliQai 
of an «ffioictit govenunent wUb exocuiire tiiUtj, impoaod on 
Britain 1^ Impowlble taak of eonqneffa^ thon one bj on«. 

Bin«e Amorioa miirt wagu n war for rxiKt^-nco w a nation 
n-ttliont an effidenl gOTenuwint, there waa tlm tiiorv uchhI uf 
foreign allinocca, Tlio raanlinu! powms which mw m Eng- 
land their nfittin) foe, did twt wait to be catn^tcd. On tbe 
MreotU of July, wbou thoro wm dan^ of a n))tttre between 
Spain Hid Portugal on a quostion of tho IfOBniiaiica of Brasil, 
Tcigeanco read to the king in council his adnoe : 

■*Thokiikgof S]3^ moat not act predpt lately, for a woi 
by land woald diT«rt w from tbo gr^nt olijort of wMk^miniir 
tho only onccaj whom Franco ran and ooglit to dutrosr, Tb« 
spirit and thir letter of tltv allkuue willi AiuiirU jirtHiiiiw bcr 
inflneoMw to hoM bark KtiiM fmm lintening to KnglUh orer- 
lam. In Holland it will be proper to reaninutc tho aahea at 
tbe rcpabtican fwrtj, aiid proiniiato &vor for ncutiulity aa a 
aonfet of profit. The Amencans moM be notiftod ol tlie eoti' 
de<|iicnc«6 which the actual etata of thmg* piengiev if they 
^U but await its doveJopawiit. As the Engl£ab are amed fn 
Xorth AfiMoicSf we cannot 1ckv« out colon&aa de«titnte of all 
neaMiof mbtonce. TbeU^of Franee and Boarbondenund 



Vm, CAK TE1£ STAT£3 UADTTAIH IKDLI^EKD£KOE? 17 



die nine fointlioiight T!ic Rnglirfi, ittiflfir pi\?torirr trf rcHov- 
iu^ Uielr squadron In tiitf ludicA, wiU dcml>lo Ifi forco; and, 
sucb itf tlicir «trci^b i» tlie peniuaula of Hiii<loat«ii, tliej 
migbt coaUydrit^ tia inytn PoDdichcrrj dncl onr colonicc, if 
wo do not prepare for dof oticc I^o U precious ; evoiy mo- 
mont mttU 1m cnmed 10 ftMonnl,^ 

Boplying to ftii inquirjr of XhG 00m ptr olio Nc^^rra], T«r- 
gODn«6, on (he tenth, juIvi^n) to admit tbe shipa uid onrgoee 
of die ontleil o>l«uW witliout exjiclhig ditlji!^ or ftpi>1vfag 
tli9 rosinctiTo latt-* on tiwir vittry or departure ; m lliat France 
uii^'ltt become \ho emporium of their commerce willi othex 
Eoropefln n«tioit^ ^^Tuko every precaution,'' m he odinfm- 
i«hc<t L» colloagno, "that our Tnotlvc^ our intcntioQ?^ aofi, as 
to « poti£Dblc^ our proccddin^ may be litddcm from tho Kng- 
Uik'^ 

Tbo nltcmpl ftl ^Oficoalmont n^ froglrstud by the nrrival 
of SiIm Deone. lie vaa ln5tru<rt^d to obtain informa^tlon of 
wbal wafi g<^^ forwuT^ in Knglniid tbrriiigh biK olrl iKV[iia{iit- 
ancOp Edward Bnnrrc^ft, n native of Connedicnt, who hat) 
migrated to UiU luotbtrr t^mixlr^^ nnd h;tft Uitfn- ^tkkI Hriinti 
repute u a pliyvidoa and a itataralifit In 1701) he bad pub- 
liabod an abJc and tpiritcd pomplilcr, yindicatiD^ the legialv 
tifie cUima of lh« oolonioi ; an<i, lutder eoiiic fmprrvu^on from 
FnnkHfi, ho IiwI liabinuUIy ^Titceit for IIm) ** Montltly Ro- 
vkw" DotiMS of pnblioatiort£ rolatin;; to Ammca. He fto- 
evpted t!ie post of a paid Atuericou iipy, to pivpare bimj:dlf for 
tb« iDonc htcntltvo oflSco of a doublo (py for tho Britisli mjn- 

On lliG el«ruutlj, V»?rgi^riK4T* :nlmif.l('(l Drann Ui m\ iiitrr- 
Twif. HcMmng for the king's conudcratioa the ijucstion of 
noo^nuuii; the iudepundtTiiot? auJ proti^Ltng the trade of tlie 
ndlod eoionJcfs Iw lii^ticd with great latift^iction to ^ trn- 
dloeoa of their at»litj to hold ont agauift British arms to tlio 
end of tbo year, and girc it oh Ms primfo opinion that, in oaw 
Aqj ahmdd rrjoot ib^ sovereign^ of hia Britomuo majerty* 
tlwy might count on tbo nnanimoua f^>od wuboaof thogov- 
ivwQftiit wu! pinplo of FruKw, wIkwo intcffwt it wonld not bo 
to aoe them rediioed by force. H^oeiml ngain on the twtm- 
IJoth, Deane mailn » fomul n-i^tir^t fur Iwn htmdnHl Vi^t 
y^ju t,— a 



IB 



AMEKICA U ALLIANCE TITD FBASCE. w.n.;txt.u 



bnui ficld-pltf0i4t, aiid unmt md clotliing for tw-enty-STO 
Band tneiL The arms went ptTJiTuwd; And 
whom V«f](e(iuit« autWitatiTeljr recocomf-iuiedf oSered aief* 
chndim do credit to tJ£« T^lue of tliree miliiuiu of Urra. Sut 
De*no Bwnmoc^d Boacroft to hi« w<lo u if bo hid bcco a col- 
leoi;afi,«iioired him bia letters of OKMlDaoe and his uetnotioiu, 
took him u A oompudoQ In hlfl fxmevi to Tenailtei^ uid n>^ 
posted to Hni tl] tiiftt pemcod in tJu.^ iDtcrri^w* vnth the miov- 
tet. Buwroft letnmied to EngUnd, and hm lurmtive for ihe 
British niaktrj U « full lecord of the flvst offiMtl Icu.-ftx>t]r% 
botwocD Fnaco uid tho Uixitvd SUlcv. Tbc knuwlcdgo thtis 
obtained eiuUed tbo Bntiflh ambMador to otDbarnua tbsihip- 
aieot of rapplica V? timetjr reinoiwtnzKeo; for tho Freoeh 
cabiDGt vw &0C jct viUing to appoai opcnljr m rapport of tho 
luiargGnta. 

Tbo urival of the doclantion of ind^pcDdcooo garc ntoro 
oaroottacea to the advioe of Veii3:eDn«i* Oa tbe kat daj of 
Aqgott ho read to tho king, Ln oommim^o with Uairapt*, Sar- 
tivo^ Sabt-OanDam, and Clngi^, oooalderatioaB on the part 
wbM> FraneadHmld now lake toward Eoglmd : *'R«liihai]ga 
ovvr a atslQ wliif^ tntfting to tho giud tuHi of itn rimhk, 
a«glecla proeautiona for aafe^, and disdaiaa the opporiumiy of 
reudering iu bahitml foo p<nrei fc aa to ibjun. Eitglukl la 
iritbottt qnoftMO tho hofodUtfj trnm^y of Franco, In bar 
intcoae mtiocialitr of cbanot<r» ^ focUoat gk^ui <rf proa^ 
peH^r ia Fran» ia a& naaoppoctaUo grief. Sho amgaloa tho 
omIukto ompira oror th* aoaa, and it la her nmirtanl tnajda 1o 
make mtr npoo iw m tooa aa >hc aooa tia nadj lo iflvoe our 
pni|irr pUca at a i warith na ponr. I^ft to htnal^ tha viU 
Ul Qpan o«r anoiaa^ taU^ tba auub adtmtua^ m In 1V55. 
What Kpaawtkci haiTe mn Ihu iu- obcawd fur tha 
that have bmo pot «pai ns In I&dia, and thv *^Mt*"1 
of o«r r^;^ at Kowfowndlaad under tha clear aad pmte 
adpvbtltw of a tiaatjrt In te aoutk of Anarioi. Ftet^ 
opciilj attacks Spain; EagfaiMl j«rtUea bar al^ and 
tbo germ of thia <parT«4 in ovder to dinct iia 
tiay antt bar ambittoft, EagrUnd baa in AMgiean 
armj- ind Soat, oqitif^ for prraipt action ; if Aa 
bdBa her aflofti, will noc tba cUeb of tha 




b.Uf TEE STATES MArTn'AlN n«>EnE>ffDI 



n 



pcnndon at llui uxporuo 'if Fntnco or ^^tEun? Ilor conduct 
mtkce it ]>1ain, eren to denioustratioiiT tb^t we oao count littlo 
apon lidr ttimoerily and raotilmJvt. 

*'Tho A^TtntflgiT^ of & war with England in tho prea&nt 
c^mjimctire pnmtil 80 emiDcDtly over iU tcconveLienoM tliat 
Uicre ia do foom forft oompari^u. ^'hot bctkr moment could 
Fnuwo fcivc^ to cCbiCO tUo vbnnic of tbc odiou« mirpneo of 1755 
and all tho eoAuutj^ di^ailere, tl^AU Uue^ wbou Koj^land, engaged 
in a oivil war a ihoiuand Icflgueo off, W ccatlcrcd tho forooe 
ntottKAiy forhc-r iutvrmil ili-fcitccT Ik'Tfiailot^ aro in Aiuenoa, 
not in AhipMif-'K^r onij, but in moro than fonr liTindred tt^ns^ 
porta. Kovr that tlie Uivit.cMl HinUv^ Iiavi^ rli«1:inid Muir indiv 
poikdcnccy ihoToia norlinnceof concilijition uolots 6U]>enialural 
eventa abcxild force tbem to Ijecd midcr ibe j^ol^ or tUo Eng- 
Udfa torooogniao Hieir tadLi>cndcDcc, Wbilo tho war continitcs 
betwD(m tho ioainigeiita and tbo Kn^Liah, the Amcrif^an eoilord 
and aoJdkrSf "n^to Id the Inat vmr corttriljutcd to tuiikc tlioae 
MUNrmotn oonqucata of whidi Fmnu(» felt tM.> koctilj the Lantiji' 
atjon. win bd employed against tbc English^ and indirectly for 
France. TUe irar will form between France and North Aincri- 
ea a tooncictioa whMi will mit gmw tip [iml v:tiiiK,fi wirJi llio 
need of the moincTiit. No oonflicting interest dindro tho two 
nstioiia, ConmiurD will fonii Irt^lwucm tlicna a Ttrjr durablfi, 
If not an et«nul, chain ; Tirif^iDg indostrir, it ^11 bring into 
our luiH)on the commodities wliidi Amcfica formerly poim^d 
into tliofc of KngUndi with a doiibEc bcncBt, for llio angmcntOf 
tion of our national labor Ueeent^ that of a rival 

••Wlujthor waragiiDiit En^and would irivolvo a war on 
tin oontinQnC <tonfv«e to be di«oii»cd Tho only three povri^ra 
whom England could tnlce into ber pay are AiistHn, Pruwia, 
and Ktukol Tho alluuice betwoesi France and Austria, and tlie 
U&niitfld lovo of the eniprree qnivm for pimrtv gutumAee her 
neotnlJty. The mutual dibtmat of the courtA of Vienna and 
Boriin ^riU keep them both from miziTig in a war hobrecQ tho 
boOBo of Bourlon and Ki^laiKL Tho republic of KoUftnd, 
hvriog Iwyond all othor powera reason to complain of tho ^r- 
aaay of tho Kngti^b in all parts of tho globo^ cannot fear thdr 
haniliatioa^and would rcfuard tho war on tho part of Fhmco 
M otia of Qooaervation mtbor than of coaqnwt. If hia niajea^i 



90 



AU£BI0A !S ALUJlNOE WITH FRANCE. KP. nr.; cn.i. 



Mixing ft unique ocouion which tho nfsjf^ will perh4p« n^Tcr ro- 
prodiio«, «bouM itiu^freecl hi MTtk'mg En^'l^mi) a lilow gnffloifait 
to lower her pn<1(]f imi! U> nnnliruT her pn-t^iiMmn vjthui jittt 
timiiA, hKwll) for man^^ >eaj« be uiaat«r of pcAcc, aod will haro 
ilisprvcioiLiglorjof becoioiDg the 1)«nefA0tornot of his pcoplo 
only* but of all the njition^t. 

*' i^hoold bis majofit^t on tho olbor hand, pnfor ft dovbtfnl 
ind Ul-oiinuttd poooc t£» a w&r whidi neoeedty md rMMn can 
JQBtify, th9 d«f«aea of our pouoMiotui will enct ilmott w ^^t 
■a ttcpca^tire u wat, without imy of tho idUTimtioou uuL rv- 
■oarceii wlildi war AntliorUea Ev«n araM we be imaare spfw- 
taton 4>f ihi^ n?volutioD In ?u>rlh AlIu^Hl1^ i^au we IojIc hd- 
noved \i that wbicb u prepariiig id IlmdoEUci, and wluch 
wiUheu fatal to d» u tbal in AmcHci to KcgUndl The 
lOTolatioa in lUndoilaa, omo begun, will eoosolo Eoglacid for 
bor loeecflby incitAeingheripoaauftitdhcrhchGfltoQfold. Thia 
we an itUl Me to proT«Di," 

After tlwco sharp aod pc^UnCiiig words T«fS«uuA '^ iwaittd 
in re«pectf«l stooo tka oommaDd wbkb might plean tbe wi^ 
doro of tho Mug." Tbo ranh waa what YeffgouMa dcaind ; 
tba H>ndiirt nf Uir BnlUli miiii»iry in 17^^ donng Hm iitfor- 
raetioB of tbc Coraicu] people agaiufit France m defctioe of 
their Ilbertjr* waa adopted aa tha pK«odetit for Frmnce u> rco* 
deriog aid to the AiDcncaiUL 

Uaantimo, Boaasaarchaia»wttli tho cccuuraikoe of VttgvttDCB, 
uaad ddical« datt^ij to avnkca in the lemporiiitig Uanorpaa 
a paiDOQ for giovj. Tho proOii^ata Oout d'Aitoia, ;oraj;vr 
bnitber of tholdng, and the ptodigd Dtdca da Cbartna, bactor 
Imown aa tha duke of OHeuia, imowtaca (a ovniMn, i h wH P- 
ing andit tbu attff atiqnalto ai>d neh dran of fiiin daja for 
tho 1?*g<tah iaahkiii of plain attire^ daring ridera add efaarkit- 
om, aagor potrona of the rao^ooonn whMi waa atSI a aovvltj 
in Fimoot gaY« their voioea for war. Tha Ooant da Brc^o 
waa ao tarij pardaan of tba ABMrkan^ A laig« part of tha 
ikofaihtj of Pmoo panted for an opportnniljr lo taba Ifaa hao^i- 
inoai of &igfaDdt vfakfa, aa ibajabd 10 ana anothaBp afta- hiT* 
lag crowned itaoU with htiniK ^^ g>*i>*B ^A bj 
and inaatawd all thoaaaatand InaohadaTwynadont 
ila inatfiable pridg agaiatt Ha own aohrtaa. flm 



ITT* 0A5 THE StAHB iTAtOTAlK tSDETENDEKCEf il 

USA the UarqniBdel^itjetlCflbcn juM nineteen, innnUrr of two 
batidred tbAiuand tivrcA a ytM, &ml l^Hp^^y tn a wifd vrtu:> ha^t 
tlio vpirit to opprove hU ciithiuiutm, jlu i^-!iiApc:rt<i hU por- 
po0O of joining the Aiucricaiie to two yoongf ^cade, the Count 
de S^gor and tho Visoount do I4oaiUe«, who wished, though ia 
vttin, to be lUi oonipftnioiw. At ^m the Count do Brogti^ 
<^}po«od hu projuct, mving : *' I httvo 9eoD jottr uiwrle die in thio 
ware of Italy ; 1 iras present when your fnUier fcU at tlio btt- 
tin of Iklhult-'n ; uiid I will not bu niCiju»fiOry to iho niin of tb^ 
only reiDiiuiiig branoh of the fa[nil)/' \int wheii it Hpiif'iinxl 
t^ttt iJw j^iitii^ rri:uj'H \»-titi w:ui <T»ri)l](*r], ^Lrul tli^t ht? t'.KjIc 
thought of nottiing but how to join the f!ag cf Iub cliolct\ the 
oovmt ree|)ectGd hie unaltemble irsoLution. 

liko LouU XVh, Ciuu-Lca lI].,ttion king of Spun, opposed 
open bo«tilitic6 ; Griin&ldi, tiia chief ministor, wiflhod only to lot 
£nj;land cjduoat hereoH by a lon^ civil wv. AuMrioan eMp« 
wen rocdvcd in SponUU Ii^itlont, iind ov^ry remoEutranee wu 
met bj th« ploa ilmU ae thoy hoiBt^d Bntiiih colon, thoir real 
clttTHCt^r »»ulil not bo known. Privatocrs fitted out nt Siil(*ni, 
CapA Ann, and Newburyport ho^rred off die rock of Lisbon 
mud Cit|K Si, Viiirrnt, nr vimhrni! iiitii thr. Tkiy fif Hiaviy, mim 
of not lickDg hanned wii^n they ran into Corunna or Bilbao ; 
bat OnDutdi adlH.'nxi 1o llu? pnnniplti tliat nothing could 1m; 
moro al&rmiDg to Spun than Aincnc&n indcpcodcoce. 

The new attitude of tbu Ttiit^d Stitea a» a imtion ch^mged 
the natn-o of tho conflict in England. The fricnda to t&o 
rightj of Amerioa&fl a« foUow-eabjcctd wore not as yet inonds 
lo tb^ir eepoiato eidBtenoo; and all parUoa were mmmon^d, as 
EngUihmcn, to unnnimitv-. Tito virtue of pntriotisi] it mora 
atlnctivo than thfii of justice; and the minon'ry opposed to 
the goveromml, dwindijug almost U> notliing, wafi now to have 
agahist tbom kin^ lord^ and cominone, nrarly tho wliolo body 
ef tbe lav, tlie wore iM>juud<^ruhIe piut i>f the landed and nist^ 
cuitik mtcTc^tn, and the politioil wdght of the chtirch. The 
ardihialkop of Oabterburyt in his proclamation for a fast, to be 
md fn ^ Cl)c cbnitbee, elorgcd ttio ** rel>ol '^ oon^^r^^ ^^th 
utMitig "^Bpooiotts falflchooda;^ young; Joramy Bentham ro- 
joct«d tho owe of tho Inao^nta as ■' founde<l on tho af^nmp- 
dcn of naciml Hgbta, daunod wttlii>iit the sitgbtuat evidecoo 



S3 



AMERICA IN' ALUAXGC TITH F&AXCC iP.iT.iCB.t. 



for tlwir udfteikce, and eupporud bj Ttgce and deekmatoiy 
gsneratitiQa." 

" Cui Bntdn Ult" Mited the poevhureirte of Engbi^^l. 
in hk liinlnlay o*)r- '*Er«ry himi/ nuiI Uw ww» poUti^^al 
eoonomUt Tucker, ^^ 18 tlioro«gh1jr oonvincod tluit the ouloTiin 
vnll aiul nitut Womfi iodependent eome Uma or otiicr; I on- 
tireljr Agree wrth FrftnkJJn und Adim^ to nuko the AcpAJAticm 
there is no dmc iibo the present." Dmd Humo ttom lib 
daatbbei adviecd hia conntty to giva up Uic ttot wUb Amcri- 
cftf ill whif;h dvfoJit would doitroy itc orodit, and eneccee its 
liberties. ^'A tonsil bnsiDess, indeed/' su'd Gibbon; ^they 
bave passed the Rubicon, and rendered a tnmly lufinEiely mom 
dlflinill ; tho ihiiilcing frirndfi nf ^vfTminmit fln^ Uj^ no meniu 
fi&n^iiie/* Lord North hiid declared liia intemtioa to redgn 
if lim conciliJitory proptwitian Hhindd ttxU. ljar%\ Gci>rgo QtTT^ 
jnoin w imbitt^rod against tlie odiuir&ltj for luvin^ deUjrod 
tbfl fimbark&tions of tToopa> t^d a^nst Carleton for bU Witj 
and •lowDCM. ^^ 1 havo my own opinione in K«peot to the dU- 
pQtoa ia America," uud BaiTiiif;:toii, tho Uritiah eeosretey at 
war, implcri%'lj to tli« kmfc ; ^ I am luunmonod to mftatlngt, 
wlierv I fioinociiiioi think it my duty to dcdate thom ^ypaity 
before iwecly or thirty penom ; aod the next day I am forced 
ftither to vo\e <rfmtnuy to tliam^ or to voto wllli hu opiiot^doti 
nhich I abhor." Yet. when the king choao that he should 
rvnuuii ifl^ervUiry at war jnul nwiiilwr of tii6 luKiiie of cummoiiHi^ 
ho added: *' I ehalL continue to acarro your majesty ia botli 
capacitUA"* The proapcct of ibo iuted«roitDO of France cx- 
dtcd in Ooor^ 111. Aoch n»tl6» na^dc^, that he had ao latdr* 
Tiew with every t^nglidtxnaa of dUtinctioa who rotunicd fron 
Pom or Yen^lee ; and he was itnpalient lo bear &om Ameri- 
ca thnt Guacnl Howt) had Ktmek dceiiive blows. 

The eon^iiie^t of tlie Unitod Statw proMoted appalling dtf- 
AoullWa, TluT Utile VM no leM than to recover by force of 
anuH tlio ivgh>n wlitrh }w lidwviin K<ivu Scxitia ai>d FluruU \ 
the firet campaign had ended in lh« cxpnkion of the Dricifh 
fium Kew EngUiid; the tt«aDd bad already been marked by 
a refnlae from South Caioliot. The old rratom of Ucdca 
waa out of place ; nor could the capacity <A the AmerietiH 
for renstaiice be dotormi&ed by any knowa rule of war ; the 



1TT6. OiN THK STATES MAINTAIN INT>Eram)ESOE f 23 

depth of their paaaiona had not been fathomed : they will 
long fihon su open battle-ground ; ereiy thicket will be en 
amboBcade of partiEans; eveiy etone wall a hiding-place for 
Bharpahootera ; every awamp a fortress; the boimdleBS wood^ 
an inipracticable barrier; the farmer^B house a garrison, A 
country over which they may inarch in victory wil rise up in 
their rear. iN^othing is harder than to beat down a people who 
are resolved never to yield ; and the English were nnfit for 
the task, for in abridging the liberties of their colonies they 
were at war with their owtl 



J4 AMEBiCA IS ALUASOE WTtn TRA^'CE. ir.iv.iCML 



OE AFTER H- 



TVt KJTKflAr F»OU XjOXa tSCAXD^ 



Auauer 1770. 



T«K wi>rl» for tJie dufonoo of Wew York Ifbttd^ including 
the fortilirntion^ in BitKtklrn, Iijit3 bocn iilnuuod li^' Leu in 
tvfit-tfrt whli a New Yorii: conmiitU'^ and a rominiitew frotn 
mngn<ML Jny lluiiigljl it |>ruj>cfr Ut liy Ixui^ laUiid viunt^ 
burn Xcw York, and retire to tbo Ui^budtf ; bui, &» it via 
the uioxim of congress not Ur giro up a foot of tcmcgrr* 
VTMhingtOD promUed " his tttmoet excrtiooa under crcij dis^ 
adrantigc;" ^Uic nppoftt," bo lud, '^nuj net tcrauntlo m 
h&p^j aa I could vrteh, yet tnj adrtota^ the eoemy Buf ^ 
gtiii I tnm v^U cost tb<em d^ar." To pro4Mft Nov York <Atj 
h& was compeUod to bold King^a Brid^ Qovoroor't Uani^^ 
PftoJoB Hook, uid ilie faaiglita of BrookKik, For all t&oaa 
poriH, diviiW trv ft-iitiT. jmit mmo of Uuna Aft^vn mifc« spoinf 
be bad in dw fiist ircek of Augwt but ten tboiuaod fire ino* 
dred and fonrtoeo own fit for dtttj. Of .tbav^ tnanjr woro 
often obliged to sleep witbovit oortir, eipoaod to tbo davi^ 
Then vas a vant of gwxi phyaidaoa, madicanea, and be 
tols ; mor« Uian tbiwa ihooauid 1^ stele, and their nmikbar 

ilKTMflillfc 

»0f tlie «fl&ctlr« meb^leos than six ihooMod httd bad uf j 
axpeHenaa, and none bad at^a. num tbaa on* jmi*$ aerrloa 
Some wrntT whoWy without nitM; not floa rvgmuml of Uibn- 
I17 was propeHj e>jujppn]. Tlie rc^gboMt of utiUerf, five^ 

I— lfl^w^l^ md ciffbtT^dsfat ID DUBlbor, ■n^iTpj iajT oflScClM, had 

no skilled gunners or ooj^von. Knos, its colonel, hid been 
a Boston booksdlor, Host of tha eaanoiL in tbo fiWd-woika. 



177C 



Ttm hetkeat frou lokq isulkd. 



25 



were of iron, M and honeycombed- Ttio constant amr&l and 
d^putore of EciUtm mA4o good dL^ii^Uno impoaelblc, Tlio 
gOTCjnmcnt <jf Xow Jcn^ij called Out cno tuUf of ita nallitia, 
to b« relieved at tlh^ «ud of on« moDtb Vy tJio otbor half ; but 
the call wae Uuld hooded, " We Bball ue^^r do w^ until iro 
gift n n^i\tiT army ; and thU wEIl fi6V«r Iw trntil mm oro en- 
1iKl<yI f>r n Itiiigvr cliinitioii ; Am] ihaf, vi<i1l ncvctr Ih> nutil tv^ 
are moiv (^i^rous ia oar encoumgi^uieiiU Tiiue doner will 
peniUMid ufl lo diis luaiaure; oiid in tlie muuiulL^lu wcnKall 
Titfj indiKirtotl^ \raMG r mucli greater c\pciLfie ttum would bo 
u^oeottrj for tUia purpoAc, in temporary calls upoii the tuUiday 
boiidoe li^Dg t]]0 loeaof man^ Uvte mid tuucli ivpntation.'' 
So vrot« John Adjtnis the ho^ of tUo board of war. Ho 
rejected ibe thoogbt of retiriDp fix-m Lonj^ IsUud. melinod 
to ji>dgG on nniijr eiijiitbitt of vU'.Utry vrlicii urdi'i^ for tliu nup- 
ji)^' c^f ittu» and tlxrir Mjuipnivrit hud gimr rirtli, nhd iievt^r 
duljr eatiutitcd the forc« at tzonmtfatd. Wliile be culuvated 
coniideiltitti reUtioiu vtlth (latcts be iievcr extcudod exordial 
fnnkows to 'Wuluofctoii, tivver cimEprcUt^iKk-d Iua aujierior 
Giip&citjr for war, nor fairJj: wcdgbrd tbc difficulties before Liin. 
31 opcorcr, oongrcee was a^umiD|> tbc conduct of the eampaijcTi* 
To Gates it iutnut^d n ^tomsr of filling up va^sancioi in hia 
Aimj, but rohxcd it to tlio comtiiAndcr iiH^of , Tbo gonoml 
officora, wbo«e idWc« WashiDgtoa wna instnicted to »aV^ inew 
not enoQgb of irir to aitiinitU danger ri^lttly ; uud tbc timid 
imvi^ witli tlioir e^ea on eongreffi, pot en tlio cTit^ap inii«V of 
voan^ bj jpiritinl T»t<#. 

On the fifth of A ugiitt, Trumbull wrote from rounti-tJCHt: 
^Knowiog our uujic r^btctiuA, 1 do utit i^i^atly drvad wha/t 
our tiiimcrou* ciMunicft on do ngiiiiist ti£.*' Wasluri^ton ad- 
•wcrvd ; " To true* iu tbe justice of our cauae without our own 
ntcuiiC excrtioD would bo tcmptui^ Frovidenco ; '' and bo re- 
wkd to lum thoweakDoee of liie armj. On rocoiving thfft 
Utter, TrwubuD oonvonod hk council of ^itAy, Ti^o rt^fn- 
fDoniH from tb^ eountiet of ConAeGtunit oearfflt If ew York had 
almdy b€«ik unt forward; he called out nJno rr^mcntA inoro, 
and Co U)i>«L' not t-nmUul m uuy iralii-ljHJid lie eaid : ^Join 
jUKinrlvfvi U} <«»■' of tlw mnipiinjt'* rmw (ink'nMl to NiiW York, 
or fomi vouTidroa into di^Kitct compailce, and cIkkwc c^Lptaina 



ae AKEEIOA IB ALLLiSOK WriH FRANCE. ». it. kth, a. 

forthwitb. HikIl od ; tbU ahaHl be your wuinmt : m^j the 
God of tbo lUTCJCA of I^ruol bo jour Icjulor.*' At tbow words 
llio fann^re— thoQi^b tlieir IjarvMl was but balf ;^T}ici«d, tltcrir 
mtidowi loU cm, ihdr cliaii<?d of rotnni fn fieK£o& to rov ih«rir 
j|[rain bcfoTO WLUttir lUiovrUthi — roatu fn vitik, fonnin^ nine 
regUnenta each of t1tn:e fiiiiidn.id and fift^ men, and, self- 
W|inpped. murcbeJ 1o ^«w Yurk. jiut lu dnu? to mn^ Ibo 
ftdrnwo of tbe BHlUh. True, tJicy «'cro rather & rftlly of free- 
men than ftdirifion of an imny; bat tlicirfipirit eYific«d tli6 
cxu»teii<KT of a D&dOD. 

In New York tbe conuiry p^|»lo tiimwl oat with sarpm- 
try* aJacrity, Iwiving tlitir gniin to perish for want of tLe BxM<y 
TlfcO bodj iuddpnly levied in Kew Yoplc, tbe nine nglmcnia 
jrom Coniux!ttc-ut, tbu Mnn-lnuil reginont nnd cotup&nice, t 
n^meut from Delawu^ and two wore bailalloiu tif PettTWjr]- 
mnia riflnmun, nuwd llie uiimlier of iiii^ fit frtr diiljr nndi? 
Waflliiu^n'A conunnnd to «bont fovcutocn tboiuami ; but 
mo«t of thero were &c8h itom natic Jabor^ Ulanned or not 
armod tt nJl. 

The New York convotitiot] dosirod thai tbo oomtnuid of 
tbo IIi3dwD mif>bt be eeoured ; rkod. on tbo rooommoiMktKni of 
Fnniam and MIfflLn, a fort waa buHt on tbe helgbt now Imown 
U Fort WashlngtJin, two milo* snd ft half below Kmg-'* l$ndgo> 

Of die l>auene6 by irbieh New YorV waa proteeted, tbe 
mont imprirtnni wa^ Uh? (i1<] Fort Qcnr^ ou thi< witit}! point 
of llie ihlaoil; alwirrier croittd Broadwaj D<4r lb© Howling 
Gretii ; a n^oubt wi» planted neir t^ie nrcr, we^l of Tnnlty 
cburcb ; viothcr, that took the name of Banker liiJJ, near the 
biit of tbe preeent Contra Maiket. EortbwoHa were thrown 
np horo and tlicro along tbo l^eirt and IIudiHm rtt-vn vitbin 
tbo settled ports of tbo town, tad at the nortbom end of tbo 
Uuid, on bill* OTorlookIng Kh^ BMga; bet many inter- 
me<tiito points, farorablo for binding^ wvro dofeiM^uo. The 
moment of Preteott, who oomEziiinded in tbo baitin of Ititnl^ifr 
Ilill, mid tKtti other n^tiMint^ were all tbal could be epoml to 
gifriMa Goromor*s laland. 

Tbe Amenoan lini» in Dnwiklyn, bcladinp angles and 
fonr redouUs which moan led twontv lir^ uid email cannon, 
nn for a mile and a baU irom Wallaboat bay to tbo ma»b of 



im. 



TnE^Bfi-mEAt ntov lokq island 



ST 



Qairmia^ oovc ; tliry ver^ tlclcxiiM hj dhcfcn anil fclW 
tteea ; the ootmterscarp uid pjinpot ijrero fniaed with £liar|f 
caod Btekaa. A fortre« of wren gotiA crowned Ijrooklyn 
lL«igbta. Tho entrance into tho EM livcr vjs giurdod b^ a 
batUiy of 6vo gm^ ^^ Kod Hootc. Six moomploto contibon- 
tal t^mvuu, with ivro of Long UUo^l militii, eonstitutod all 
thd force with vhich Groene ocmipiod thic i;rcaC extent of 
worlu. 

Ijriciftli ritinfon*omHiU arrlvQf] vitJti Clinton arid Corr^ 
itbIBs on tlio imt of Aiig^ififi, luid i>teven dnj'8 Utor moro ih»n 
tweulj-five himdnxL Urici&h troop& from Kn^Umd, and more 
tban «t^'hl,v-ctx liuiidrNffd UoAAlaijti. Sir Fl-Iim- Ffirker l>rought 
OunplxLI aiid Utixituoro, wlus Arith Tryon nm! l^nrtin, hf>pc<l 
from rictoiy tii«iT r^toratioQ to tlicir govommcnte. Uq tlio 
fiftecblli tlM HotttdtDi^ w-lio woro In exc^Uent health after tbdr 
loof^ vofogo, Unded on SUtcn Inland. Bcforo % conflict. Lord 
novo Ortoe n»oire propo««d the often rojoct^ pliin ; nnri "fli'MTi- 
togion^on cbe Iweiitledi, anntJiirtt^ed to the arm^ " tliHt no oiT(>r 
of pco/T h:u1 Tiucii inndc, nnd tliat cvrr^ inxui iJiouM prrpiLre 
lib uiijid And Ills aims for Actton/^ To con^rees he oii tliO 
ttfno day vrroto fnnkly t^iat it "trufild not he ponubLd to pr^ 
rent tho l-ioding of tLc Untuti on Long Ifiland. ttying: *^ We 
bIvU haroffi tbcm as much o^ pceeibJe, which vill bo all that 
wo cin do.'' JtMt at tlua timo Gi^cno bocfuno ill of a nging 
f^Tor. Tho loss of )m ^crvioo was irreparable, for tha worto 
in Brooklyn had been tmilt onder lUi eye, and ha was fai&ll- 
brwiih the oavirourt. HU pUco wa^ on llw twcniu'tli, hi*- 
dgncrJ to Snilivan. 

Aliout nineoQ the monungof Lim Iw-iitj-flfit^Jiid ihe men- 
oT^nr m(wcd n«ar the shore m Graycecnd bay, to protect Iba 
kftding of tnovo than hitccn tLoiuamd men from ^tatcn laUjKL 
Tho Etigiish and tho IlijU^hlandcr^ with tho pillory, oonftiot- 
lAj^ol forty cannon, were the first to diecanbark ; laAt cotnc Do- 
DOf/a bri|;ado of )*roDadieie and yt^T^ in larfce flat^boata, atan^ 
la^ vlth tbcfr a^oakott m hand, in order of baUl& 

Tlw BritJjdi amr «pi^d itself ont upon ib« plain which 
■tTFtf^hffi from Gravesend bay toicArd the eaal ; t1i« mmp vru 
tlirotiged by fanuiiry nf Uut firiglilHtrlioffd, winrirjg Tin<J|^ of 
loyalty and aecldii^ protection, nhile tko patrlota took to 




SS AMSBIOA is alliance wrm FRAKCE. ■r.n.ics.n. 



flight, driving ctUk bofort Ibooi wd bamtng iU Idodi of 
foragix ComvBlltf vith the r«8errB» tiro bottAlioEu of infkot- 
ry and Uie oorpe of Oenoaiu, ^Tsnc«d to KJatlnafa ; Hantf • 
Pcom^lvuiia nflcmcn retired befone liiin, burmn^ ffbick« of 
wbottt and bsj on (hoir marcii ; tho ItritiAh trtilletfy dn>TO tbo 
Ametton^. front iludr §tf^X IttrHer vitluD the t^I^ co iho 
VOOdod IptghlH iMjo&d. 

Tn HvB ioHavnttg dap^ daring whioh Washingtoo ditid^ 
hai liiue Ixrtwetvi Brouklyii atw! Nrv TnHc, (lir ailTanoesd pan 
tivc of tli€ two armBw enoonntonN] eacL ctli^r, and tbo AmeH- 
GftD rifiemen {ircved tbetr eoperiority aa flkum^flber& 

On ilic tv^nty-foorth, lanci Putcam, in right of hm nak 
IS «ooood Co Wafibingtoo, took tbc command on Loofr bbnd, 
but witb oxpUck inatrocttoos to giiud tho pttasoe Uiroogli tho 
wool:! ; vliile the X^w York ccogrtta iont iodepende&t ontofs 
to W«>odL(iU, a provincial brif^idior, to drivo oH tba boma, 
bonded caltle, and fil)««p, and distroj tbo forage whldi voold 
otfaorviM: liari- falliffi Iji thu vimnj. 

On tbu twcnijr-fiftli, two more farigadea of TiMidaiia witb 
n«i«ter came over to Flatlmiili, inctnunng tho force of Ifave 
on Long Uiaad to " upward of twcutjr tbomud " rank and 
filo;* aapportcd b^ more than four bondrod eblpe and traa»- 
porta IB tLo bay ; by ten M^ of the line and tircnt^r frigates, 
bocido bomb-koteboap gAliota, and otbcr ftnaQ vcmIl Tbe 
Am«ricfliia oo tbo ialmd, after Tepoat«d rauiforooRMnti^ ^rero 
ao mora than olgbt tbouund mon^f modt of vliom ircre Toltin- 

* CbrTNt B994^ SttftHi^ p. 4a, wfan b« Mid ba a^ iqivo La^ UUmA 
bctvMV Cikw iWaMcid >ad iui«tii tlK>nud nok Mrf Sc, ivl iW bit mhiM 
fc«n oooablcd •! tawtr iboMad OM hnfrv4 uA t««««;^«» <9C^ 1 a > > nak ttd 
■KorvhU^MM baD*«4 Md MrM94WM(|^)««nriA. Ob Ai^^ 
tvvU^^enaiiU iTifK Iva rutk tad tk aoioivAnJ i» tvehiT-bMr ihoniBil laa 
bsdHd tad facff-wrm <e4»347L •?«« frm la* rojiAtt font* ante- Brtnalin 
Dii tAMtf. VS. rMUfM ti lb* vtPf «f !b*« fiott Ae EWlkh hum fijM )B»jfc 
tlii It WBOnml b^ Sf a««t* CoExrt rrpori in !CaTil Gkn^cK KUfi« ITI. 

f TbI* i^MnnHil ftf lti> As«r4cwi fnr# la fhiI* itftv ^ iiiwiMrtiw of all 
tfk«raCafM«UcbI«addfad. Tb« »daDc«[fel« ^ lio-«, AlvoD** IM»M^ vL, 
m. liii[ifilitlij ftifli^.l. 1TI ]a imUrdOMi««Sik«M«vtk^bah>tt 
ihe DHoA boiaa of ee mra aM aa aabw^^gii "Et wm gipow t J ibertib* 
AmHt^JUd >I> or ^bi ihMi^ tttaOALM^ Mi^" Aha^^ Da^a, 
dL,9i Qtfttat B ilaHflP M<liM*tf fton M wwa rtp^ iMal, A^m^ mU ail 
M opt f W Mf at ^gbi to Ma -— — ■ Alitf^ lUL, M. Of ihna GknnllM ia ia« 



TUfi BCrRHAT FROM tONG IdLAJJIX 



29 



teera or militZo, vitU not a platoon of cavnliy. T1i<i nrmiM 
wes^ kept n])ait 1>>' tho niilgo vludi niiu tlirongh Ljtig JaIaiuI 
to tbo cout^-wcet, und, at tho di&toocc of two mUc4 from the 
Amencan liiwe, tlirou'^ out to Uie north tuitl «>iith a ncncfl 
of hilU^ Oft CO many liuUtvm^it nfitiiiut tlio Wy. Over tboee 
daneeljwood^ hoght^, whicli w^r^ ?t^p find broIc«iif tJireo 
obriom romcs led ^m tLe Bridsh en^SAmpmenta toBrooklju; 
th« OHO wTiirJi Mlnwt^l ■ )nxn^ tlinjiigli « g^gio Botitti of the 
prOMfit Greeuwootl cemetery to a coaal-rcad from dm h^y to 
BrtH>klyii ferry wju griorJed by PnitijiylTAniw lEiuoJurhion tnd 
i-ifleiucD uudcr AtW aeuI Kichlioc; acros the direct road to 
Brooklyn iho rcgv^enta of HeiuhAvr of ltf;kfiMc}iiu(d't4f twd 
Johiuton of Nl-w Jcwoy lay cncnmpod, nt tbo fnimniit cf tho 
ridftO on I'roepool Hill ovcrriooking Flatbiuh ; while tho '* clovtt" 
rood, ivhich div«r]^ from Uio jtccoml, And m litUu furtLor to 
tho <a£t doceuKled ioto tho villn^ of Bodfcid, waa |];aarded 
dUofly by Conneecknt levies and liLfantry from Pennaylvank. 
Thi; tinmber of th« AiiK^riruinM ^tAdoncd od die oout-rimLl urid 
■Jongthe ridgo fts far aa their poate extended wa^ about twenty* 
fi¥« buDdriN). 

On the tvciity<«ixtli, HVa^hington recuuncd on Lonf? Island 
tiU tbc evening, Pittiiftni and t^iiillTan vuitcd the party that 
kept guard farthest to tho loft, and tbu uiovernont» of tho eno- 
mj diictoMtd th«lr intantiou to g«t into tlio rear of tho AmLri- 
oaofl by tlio Jamaica road ; but that road W3« nc^loctod. 

The plan of attack by General Uowo was aa elaborate aa 
tf bo had had to oncounftfr an L<i|ual anri/, A te[uadron of flv« 
aldps under ^r Peter Parker vraa to nionaco Xow Vork uid 
act agaluat i\t& right fkink of tbe Ainbrluan defeuoea ; Grant, 
intli two bt%tdo«, a rc^unont of Ilighhuidonf ind two oouo* 
panieaof JJew York provincial*, waa tc advance upon the ooort' 
fvmd toward (lowancut ; Uio thri>c Gcmiuu bri^oe and yiHSOTe, 
tfatioood half a mile in front of tlathuah, in a lino of nearly a 
mile tn Icnjjtb, vcti> to forco tlio direct road to Brooklyn, while 
■t tbo oreniag ^^oax Howe and mndi tlie larj^r part of tho 
army, under CUntoiu ComwalliA, and Peroy, with et^tecn 
Sulil piocr^ Imving tlwir tenta an<l f'c|ijtp*^* l>rhind, tiiove<l 
from FbilaDdfi acroea iho conntry t1irr>ngh Uio N«w Jj^tM^ to 
turn tbo taft of tlu Aiiurneuu (flit|HwlA 



30 AMERICA IS ALLLk?fCK WITH FRA.VCB- KP. IT. ; OL tu 

At threa la the morning of tlie tw«nt]r-mTent]t, PntouiL. 
vut told Uml (lie pl<-k^ wkidi goanled the approa£!li to 
ooftfrt-NKiil hwl Ih<uei [lnvi-ii in; ami, witUif tit ftJrlLrrimjiiinr,1i 
orttered Stirtiiij:, tJien a bn^;idiQr» vith two rcgimeute oeaicct 
ttt tiiind, " lo udii'ance tx-jond the linca and repulae tli« eaeiujr/* 
The two regiments were the huge And \rcll-c<imppcd cn« 
Ddttv4n^ and that of llaryland, wUoh waa compooed of 
iOns cf irooLolden and nuMi of propeKy from Baltimore ani 
iti nga^lyirbood. Of b^tl^ t]i« c^oiiebt and li«it«&aat-eo]i 
n«lB diancod to be abeent on duty in Xew Tork ti^ty, Tbej^' 
wore ftiUoved bj a regiment a( two hundred and fift/ iu«^ii 
fmm Oonnn^Bciit, iindrr iUn li«fl nf PiLnaniK, % Uvryvr tit Ui 
tUate, who eighteen daj's b<:fore bftd hwn ncu«d from the bar' 
ic tltc rank uf brigadier. Ptitiiuii'H r^i oidur Erected Stii* 
Ung to ecop the approach of a detachment which mt^ bare 
b««Q *' ten tim^ hia nunaber*** The pceitlon to whidi ha iraa 
auDt wu diuiit^tou^ in the ojtremc llLi oiiurtto wa* obliqnCt 
m^^QJQg to Ujo ri^ht ; and thu nwv«mont| raJinqnicliiDg the 
direct eomiiiunicatioii with tho eimp, pUoed in hie vtmr a 
msTfLl: fxtf-iidbig on IfOlh iiiiluft of Oowamw onwk, whU^h wmt 
flCerciOy forTlnl»li.i iTVdn n( l/jw tide, ind wa* rr«»od hjr a bridge 
and a caii«owa;r tiut sened &i a dun for one of two tldo> 
null* ; on Iiu kf t hi; bud no onnnecting aopport ; in fionl he 
had to eocovuUer Gnn^a dirinon, which outanmbcrcd hhn 
fOKT to one ; and on hJb rifdit waa the hair, cocnnunded bji 
the fleet of Lord Howe. ALmmiI wlicrc now nina Nineteenl 
rtneC in Brooklyn, he fonnod his line akn|? a .rid|-e from the 
laft of tiM road to wooda on a hvi|^ now onelottud within a 
eemelQij and known w Battle IlilL Two li{^Id'ptoc<«, all that 
he had to oppoae agiinst t«n, wef« plaeed on the ttde of the 
hill i«i iw tj^ cormuAnd tlit! t>iad aiid the only appnmrh for ionia 
hundred j^rdjL lie biniMlf oompitfd the right, which wbb the 
point of greateot dAU^:cr ; Atlee aud Kichluie foniMd hia cen- 
tre ; Panooa oommanded the left. 

EarJjr in tho monung I'ntnain wai informed ilut infantry 
Bood cavahry were adrawiii^ on the Jamais road. He pve 
ViihIngCon no noiiee of tho dangor, aent i^t&rtine no onlor 
to TVtroat ; but Snllivan want out with a soaU partj, and took 
*'^"'««"*^ of the reghnanta of Qeuhaw and Johi»&>x 



md. 



Xir£ KETREAT FlEOU LOXG ISLAKa 



31 



The £&n roM iritL tn ui^ry red glare, foreboding a ctuingfi 
of iratbcx; tho lirst objocc eocn &om Ifcv York was the 
■qtudroQ of Sir Filter Purki^ aCt«mptuij;; to mU uj) thv baj as 
if to attack thd town; but, tlio wukI voi^rin^ to tho nonliwanj^ 
it evno to ftnclior at tlio cliang^ ot tidi^ and tbo itoebodc 
vn« thn oul^- iildp that fetcIi«Hl lilgli criiouglt to eu^biiigc idiot 
with the bftttf-rj Ht Ritl ITcw*!!. TJi'lirvrd fn«n MpjvmbGnsion 
<if AH UUtck ou tlie city, Wa^hiugtoii repaired to Ixfii^ lalitnd ; 
bat he rixlc Uuougji the Hnea only iu lime to vriliicv» djMttorv 
which were bccomo incritcbJc 

Tho Tan of the British army under Clinton, gaidod bj 
toiy farmer* ol tho ti^ifc^djorlioijd, Litvlug captured a patrol of 
Am^noaa officere in tlto Tii^ht, g^jLi>L tiiv. lH<i^hu on the tir&t 
appearaBCd of day. The foroe with llowe, aft^r p^kfiaiuj^ thijin 
wicho«t olMtruc^tion, and baltiug to give tha Kuldtcira limu for 
rofiwlunontf mticwed iU niJLrrli. A:. Ii.-ilf-puHt «<ig^it, or a liule 
Intor, it nsu^hud Itudfurd, Ui iha rear of the Aiiierj[:un kft^ luid 
thio fiigiuil WBM givdi fur a goneval ftttaok. At Uiw moioetil 
about fosr thousand Anicricaofi wero on the wooded piuea in 
advance of the Jkookl^'Q Iidca they were attacked b/ the 
latgcet Uritiflh anuj which appeared ld tho field durini; tiie 
war. GaM the AmoHc/tn p&rtio^ have ucted t^igctiior, tlic 
diifwopoition wonid yet kivo becta mora thna five to ono ; but, 
ai liity wero routed in a ancoeuion of jiklrimiih<«, tha diiq>ro- 
portiooi wa» Mo ffXAt to be cnlcc]ati.-d. Tbo regunoots oa tho 
cotreme I«ft did not pcrecive tb^ir don^r till the British had 
nni«d tJieir flaiik ; timy wero the fiml tu fly, lUid they niiched 
the liDTfi, tlw^igh not without grieriTue Ihkw. The n^imout 
ef Ward of CoEDecttcut, whicli made its way Maflooahly by the 
Btill-poiul, Ijurpcd tlic bridge oh it poned, nmcJndftU of the 
eoundea whom they loft behind. 

Whco the cannonading from tho main arruy and the bri- 
gidoa niMlcr Grant wm hoard, the IleMiaiiA moved up tlno 
MgBt the yi^i^era nndcr Di>nop and some voloxttoen gvinff in 
adfvioo as flanking paniGs and deaHng the way with their 
mnll eaonon; tho battaliom followod, with u wid&ly erteod* 
«d ^ifit, ftiid in raiiki but two deep, uang only tho biyonet. 
At find, SullirAu'jt jxirty Gnvl wilh atT><>uH ra|^r]itr, and too 
high, doing little Injury; then, becoming aware of tiic dan* 



33 AVEBICA \S AlLtAVCE WITH FKANCS. M^.n.;m^SV 

gar on cheij flank and rettr^ they turnod to retre&t The Hefr- 
«uuift t0oV piMMHiioQ of tbeir dtseitecl re^ubc^ itt three tin^ 

diHfied Uid fugitiTes iiekoUeMij through the thidtcU. The 
Ameriajofl, stopped on Ibelr war by Britiali ftgimenMt ir«re 
thfown bftck upovk the TIoAuan^- Fcr ii lonf tiiDO the forest 
ntnjf vitk tho orice of the pamicre iumI the porraod, the noue 
of maaktfirj ADd ArtiUerj*, thd notoe of oomiDaQd given hj 
trampets ukd lauthojt ; ihe groaQd vtia ictreini with tho 
iromided uid the de^d. Tbo Jenoy Biilttb fought weU^ till 
Jotmitou, Uieir eobitel, wu ihot tn tlie bmst, after showing 
the wtxt dfttirnnimH) counge. f^tdlinn, ivwiiig liiDM^If sor- 
nxinded, iWred Uui dua to ahifl for Lhemaelvea. Some of 
tlittiK fightii^ wi\h deApenCe T&lor, clcftved m pitBgo through 
ibe Britiah to the American Since ; otbcn^ brcaktng into Anall 
putiee, hid tlkemfielroe in the woodd, from whkh they e»cep«id 
to tho IJnot} or wete picked np da priMcen, SoUirtn vu 
fomhd hy three Hevian grenedwri^ hiding in a ^M of mniEo. 

The ooQteit «a« over at the €e^ and at tlw orntro. Xear 
the bay Stiiiing atiU moiiitiuned hi* poodtipoin. Lord Howe, 
having learned th.it Onnt'R divuion, vhiHi hnltcd at tSo edge 
of Hub woods "^ hi wit of auunnoitAin, wt-ut himwrlf wilh 
a Mnpply from hw chip, Ktiding his boat'* vtv^ with it on 
tbeir baclca up the hilL while further eaf^itioe followed frecn 
tbo Atore^npi fiarly in tho day Pkirj, Uc«t«&aot«oloDol 
uidor Atloot was ahot in the licwd «a bo wm dkoovnging faia 
men. Pusone left hiA moo, ooneealed Jninself in a ewamp, 
ytd ff^ w* ^ Into cnnp the next tnoRiing by way of tho Kwt 
river. Ilk party wore neariy all takoo priaowti ; amoi^ them 
Jewvct of Lyme, eaptaJn of voiameen, who after hia mneDder 
vra« nin throngb the bo4y by ibe office to wham be gave up 
lib iworil, 

"Souc naniined in the fidd hut StliUn^ with tbe rcfinunt 
of UaiyKand wd that of Delawaiu For wariy foor boon 
they stood hi tbeir ranks with oolora flying* wbca, pcrcciiiiig 
tbe main body of tbc BntiAh araiy rapidly ooodi^ bdnad him, 
ho gave them tbo word to retreat They witbdnw in perfeet 
Qfd«r; twaity roaiiikes were bvoQi^ otf as pnsoikors. Tho 
only aTcniw of eeeipc w by wading dkroogb Gowians cMd; 



inf. 



THB B£TB£AX FR03C LONG l8LA2a>. 



33 



and t)u« pfMmgo vae Ahno^t ctit olT bjr troops nndcr Corn- 
vftllu, StirfiDg timet hold Comw-aLli^ m ob^k* or Jua ptut> !a 
loft; ho ordered thv Ddixwaro to^qivqI aud one bnli of tliut 
of IkljayLuid to itulco t)i<r IxKt of thenar wny sicroj;*^ tlio monli 
and <treeL, while lie confronted tho ftdvEtudng ISriti^h villi 
only fire (?oDipaiii» of MHi^laodera, Tlio ^omig Mjldli^r* lli-'w 
at the <'nrrny uillt ** uniHimlldi^d fimvi^v, in vwve of nil thd 
Aiamcau |i;Mieralfl and D-oops wiiLin tie Imesk who alteniutfilj 
l>iaiiied and piti<H[ tlicm.'' WatJaugton vning hit> Uandtf u 
lie cxcUimcd : " My <jod I wlmt bmvo men murt 1 tliu dfiy 
Josol" Wbca forced to give way, they raUiod and rettow^ 
tho onaot. Id tby manzier ten uiiautca nuro ^luid, m tJint 
ttiO niMi of DuUiraro with thjjir pruv^iiwre, ami half the Mary- 
land r«fpiDant poaaed tho croelc The devoted men who had 
waved thon vt*n» boat^u back liy iuji^mk (xf tnx>^)H, arul ciil to 
|)ieCG8 or lakirn ; only nin» of th<>iri mcc-i^iTd in crowing the 
cruelc. Stirling ^ve u^i Iua bWLnd to Ileiatiir. 

Dijruijif tlio cEi^gcinmit a Bntir^h eobimn drew near tho 
American !]&«« ; ooold th«y hare been earned^ all the Am«ri- 
am troops on Lcn^ Mftnd in\int have aarrondered; but tlio 
worts wcro protoctt^ by an obnttie, and tboir dofcadcre wero 
sMngtbeood by throo rq^mcnte. joBt omvod from Xew Yi>rk. 
IVaibhigtoG wai proient lo direct and u> onoounigo, Tho at- 
tampt to Btonn thtt radoobc, without nrtilLory or faaoiiie6 or 
tMS or coaling'laddere^ might liare been repulsed with tofttca 
gitAtrr ihait ml Batil(i:r Hill ; aiul HrwiT iinh^njcl iJto uolurnu 
to wi(h<lniw from tlic roacli of muKhetO', 

Of tiiu Bnthih, at tiia leaat tivc ciffirvnt And fifty-iti^ othcrm 
wero ki)h<>J, twclw ofliC'Ora and two hondj'c^ axid foriy-five 
otbcn wf^onded, one odicer and twenty nvuHnca UicKta piV 
OMra. Miub uioro tUnn on^ half of thi^ Jq9# fell npon tho 
tnx^ who mcccedmly ^ootrntirrod Stirlin^c- Of Che lice- 
idaiu^ two priratcft H'i>re killed ; thrw ofiloeia and twuntythroc 
psmtM wton womdud. TIkc loM of th« Araoncaas, inolnd- 
(n^ offloCT^ waa, afctr caroful inquiry, found to be leai than a 
tltoiMUid, of wbuHn tbroc fiitrUi*^ wcr« jiHuonenL 

The extent of Iho dlnistvn of thi? day wa« due to the in- 
capacity nf Istrai'} I'ttUiaiii, vrho *uffeiL-d hiEum*1f to \w mr* 
priud ; aod. hiVLog sent Stirling and '*tho Howcrof the AiDorJ< 
ma. *■,— ^ 



31 AMERICA m ALUANXK TSTTn FRiVKCE- iP.iT.;c«.a 



oon innjr -^ into tJio nioet dnngeroui poejtion into which bnve 
DKin could bnvc ticc^i lhn>wii, ni'^hrliMl (^ cf>iiTit<*nn;irul liiu 
ordete. The Ilewian's who A^tviv.?*! tip <:iinviid<?r of Siilli- 
VHTi, Bdrlhig, ajul ]tii>i« Uiitu LjOf Ulu cnptivtw, iwule no Invant 
of liaving njutod diMT0ii7Kiutri! gnnip^ of iII-anTJcxl piilitin. 

A Hook zxjnh-ca^lcrly wind Fpiimg Tip at ercouig. Tho 
Brituh anuj, wUr^ tcjii£ haU not yet Irccii brought up, slept 
io front of the Linr^ nt Brooklyn, wmppM in blotikcUt and 
wamod by &f9e. Of tlio pMriot oriDy mauy paMdd die rtifrht 
wftfaont fhedter. Their dwl lay unburled fn the forast; the 
KTVily woiltMJud luigiiixljctl whL^rt> they ML Tho ccipUTw 
were hnddled together in cwiwdoil tnonu or [iriukri-chipg. mt 
olT fmni g'xVI air luid whi:i1i^>toe fuud, aixl ttuffen-d bj wimte 
aWHy &nd dio. 

Tlie next moniitig wu chiU ind lowering. ITnahle to itlj 
on dthcr of hb majorgonenib, Wachuigtoot at tho brcok of 
day, ruDowcd the inepocdon oC the Amcman works, which 
trom their great eaXtmi left many points oxpoecd Tho BHtiah 
ODcmapnicntii appeorod \aT^ cnou^ for twenty thouMud in«B ; 
whQr97€r ho paaaed, he encoongod tlio voldiere to ocgBgo Id 
oofitliiiml Akfrmlabee, During the momiDg IJifain bronghl 
over frxiin 77<tw Tfirk n miifoivnnicait nf iitiarly imn thmiNuid 
m^D^ composed of Glavcr'a rvginiont of lf>Hacbiiwtt« fishf^r- 
meOf and the PcnnHylvauia n*giiiir[itA of 8hee and Uj^^v, 
which wero '' the beet difoipliocd of any in the trmy." Thar 
arrirol ww grwrtcd with chcenL In the aftcmo<w rdn fell 
bca^'ily ; the lince were «t *oinc ploeoi iO tovr thot inco nn- 
ployed in the treochea stood in water; proneiocifl ocold not bo 
r^iriikriy Mrrod, and wholo rogiiiDeaCs had nothing to «at but 
raw ]»>rk and 1>Tcad ; but thdr eoonraoDdtf^Jxi^hiof wi« nmoiig 
them, cxpofiing himself more thun any one to the storm, and 
the riglit of Uieir grau^ml, 4-ndiinitg lumhJiijM c^^pialljr with 
tiiciiiBcIv^ rraoncilDd them to tholr v^oringa. For eiglilHmd- 
foqrty lioLLtn he gavo no raoioent to tkst^^ and for lUttriy all that 
bobCt by ni^t and by dn^yi wu on bonebeck hi tho Iido*. 

The ifridfih comma&ideiHO-chief, Gcncnl ^ir William 
Howe, by Jlk^tinuite dceocnl on oimIc to the kJi^, wn^ of a 
Tcty difforcnC cifit of mind. Six foot toll, of an nncocnin<(&Iy 
dark com|:dojc]i)o, i ootno founot and a dng^^ mould, he 



17T«L 



THE BETBEAT FROM IDS'© JBIJUnx 



BDCcutabcd unresiAiingljr Ui hh wtmmX njitiira Hu wtu not 
mnch in rflniwl Hgninvd Uks Am^riwuiSj partly 1>e(?au6^ he 
WW persTifldcd that liicj- could uut Le rvtluo^I bj^ Jiniw; 
pArtl/ bdouue ht pTiofeu^t to 1>e & liWni) in p<jIiH^; partly 
bvcaiuo ho ncTer kmillcd with ted for Attythin^, Ue bad 
Lad militai^ e^pciicDcc, and lia<i read book^ ou wixr; bot, 
being dudituto of eviitjttm of thought and ^11, ho waa 
fomied to oury oq ^vat by mid. Od tbo 3e)d of battlo lie 
Bomedmes flfaoired taUoxtaa aa execsdvQ offioer; but, except 
in TtKiineubi of higli cxcsteinent, ho unw l^^fl^iiupic, vranting 
alettncffi tuEl fugavdly. JIo liat^ bnslnes ; and bU hnpatienoe 
Bt bang forcod to atUruJ h> it TuiidelnTii dliTu'ull <if luujtuttf 
and gained him tJie Trpntatifin of hcing li^uiglity ^nd niorara. 
IndcJenoo vfl« his banc : not vilfolly mcrdteca, he pennit- 
ted hift prifioncn to sniFer fnaiii atKickma cruoiUy ; not mcon- 
tng thAt his troops dumld bo robbed, ho left pocttlntora im< 
ooottoUed, and Uio anny and the hospilala wore nron^ced liy 
oOBtiacd^AiL flifl aotioQA of honor In money niatt«» v-t^ru not 
nice ; bnt he vaa not t;o muclt rapjiciaua a« tnRntinblc lie in- 
dulged freely In pkaiiare, and tov«d to shako^ off ^nggUhneci 
bj the hazardfi of the farr><tidi1n. irin tilTirt^tx wvm I'.xiHfici] lo 
be [oMraaiUe to dan^r like hiiiiwlf ; in their quarters he w:^ 
iriDing tbi-y ahould ojierdy lead profligate lireo ; and lila vxam* 
pie hd mAny of the young to min thcauclTM by gaming. 

All the folloKiDg night Wuftliington, who waa fixod in t!ie 
p urp oeo "to ovoid a gcnonl action,'' kept watcli over tho 
Brittah amy and bia own. In Fhiladelphiiu rumor quadrupliHl 
bia foreo ; coogrcaa ox]tootud hhn to atay thd enemy at the 
dnttbohti aa had boon done at dtarloeton ; but iTicr miming of 
Tbinday abovod luia that the Britiab had broken ground 
vithin aix hundred ynitis of the lu^^ht no^ knovru ua Port 
Gt«•Dll^ ami that d>ey intended to loifo his linra by n^gnlar 
■ppineLbin. which tlit? natum of thugn>ijiid and Lin waiiL (it 
hmry cannon cxtromdy farorod ; all Long bland wia in their 
handjs except tmXy the neck on which be waa intrenched, and 
e part of hia camp ironld noon be oxpcacd to tlLcir gaas ; hie 
CKO veie falHnf aick from hard eorTieo, expo«iiro, and bad 
fiaod ; on a chango of wind, he might be eocueled by the en- 
IzVKse of tba BrMah Avet Into tbo Eari Hvcr. It iraa no longer 



sd 



AMERICA IS ATJJASCE WITQ FBASCE- B-, it, ; c«, a. 



«iiJfo to delay a retreat, of wtiicb the mccCM nronld depend on 
preparing for it with imt>eaetriiblo eocrecj. 

ThraiLgti Milllhi, in wb^m L<; coadded mora than in mj 
gcoernl ou tlio isLajid nnd who ngrood 'vriA htm in opiaion, 
ho dccpaidi4^ at ^n earlv hour, a wiitteti command to ileath, 
at King's Bridge^ ** to i>nli-r ovei^* fl»1-1>ottoriiE<d IkhlI Hiid other 
Crtfl Bt Ul* post, fit for transporting trtrfipa, flown to New York 
tAEOcin Mi |k»uj)tIi<, vFirhiiiit lIiu linut dt'lu^."* Ifi hke iti^uuu'r, 
bcrforo noon, ho tmat Trumhullt the couunboUT'gcTicml, to 
New York) mth orders for llu^h lIiighc«T the lu^^utunC qnar- 
t«niivtc^geiienl, " to impress ovcry kind of watcrniraif l, co 
cither Bido of New Y'ork, thut could ba }ccpt otioat, nnd Ijad 
either oai« or vniU^ or could ho fnniitdied iv»th them, and to 
haw them all in the Ewt river hy dark."t 

TliOM onlvn worv let^u^ ato fcocrutlj' thtt not even }ua 
l^enl officers km-w his pirjwwr. All rlaj Imig he I'uiDtinued 
jilnTJucl 111 tilt; wind Aiid ruiu, vUitlng tUti nULiaiiH uf Iuh men an 
before. Not till "Iflte in the dnj" { did he mod his cooncU 
af war at (he hauae of Philip livtc^ton on Brooklvii Eld^jtn 
The ftbrupt proposal to TelJcot vtartled Joha Mono Scott, 
«hO( ogainA hie better judgment, iinpuleiveljr objected to 
^^girin^ the enemy a ^in^e ineh of groiind." Bnt unaiuwor- 
tblo rceiioiiH were urgi^d in favor of Wvilungton^s deeogQ : the 
Americ&nfi wore iTt^wtcd by an army of mneh mora than 
double tlieir number frou^ water to water ; Uaedovtgall, whose 
naatiaai experiftnw gHvr wnight to his vofl^deeki^d ''that 
thejr wero Utiite every moment, on the chai^ of wind, to linvo 
the communiciUion between lliem aud the dty «ut off bj the 
Uritinh Fi^iktes;" thcdr a&ppltea were acmt; the rwhi, which 
hod fallen for two daj* and night« irith little inccrmififiion. Lad 
injured Uieir anna and ^Ued a gmt part of their anunnni* 
tioB ; the ioldietj, of whom nanj were iidtkont eover at ntght. 
woTv worn out by inconaot dntioa and watehti^. The reaoln- 
don to retreat «afi therefore nnaiujnoi^ 

To 0ODe«al the dealgn to ibo vary iaai, tlio rcfn^iH^nu aft<>r 
dark wem ordcrod to prepare for attaddnj; the enemy in the 

* Kaih'ii llomfdn Tij liEcaietf, i7. Kor (lift fmltt. •» f^fc*, Aamnn Ar* 
ddvw, nrUi mHo^ L, L91L f aifiiKrrUIaf nv|;linBftb»i>^Cie> 

I Julu UuKd Somi U> X Jiy, 3t|i1SLDbic H-O. 113. 



THE RETREAT FKOK LONG BtASa 



3T 



a&gitt ; scTtn] cl the ru>liliurv piibI]>Ji«il to t}]«*ir cctmniclo^ thuW 
iiDwrillen wIUk; tint ihin Int^ pnqx^^e wns e^iciii 8iimiiwd> At 
«l^t o'doek Kacdoti^ul) wita at nrEhAIju ferry, r^iju^^ to 
napcrintciul the cmb&rl:aticin ; nnil Olcvcr of MssMcbtiiett^ 
wkb his R<guii«bt of Eawx cooutj liAlkonuen, the beet manners 
in tbo vwld, mmncd the milin^TCAtoIa and fUlfigntM. Tho 
luwtft trooftf vi;rc the fir»t to be eoiIjiLrkod ; ^itilin. \Titb tht 
rcnuv^lvaaia rof^i^i^^ o* Hand, Mfiffftw, aiid Sliee, tlie jaen 
of Dol&vans uid ihe reiunaDt of Che IVIar^vkufl^r^ elaltucd tlio 
honor of twing tlielwct to Iniwllio liiu%, A^cjiit ritnothe ebb 
of the tido wtt oooompanf fvJ by a hic&vyrdn nnd the oondnQed 
■idvene Vi'iud, Ki that fur thnm hiiiint th» uitl-lxnU ojmi1(3 do 
little; bat nt eleven the nortb-cast wuid, which bad raged for 
three d&jti, died awa^; the wat«r beciUDe bo nnooUi tliut the 
row-botlit ooi^kl be bden ninrly to the giiuwl<^; and a bn:<ic 
spnu^ np from the south md 9omh-wc*t> ftwcUin^ iho caUTa* 
^m the rj^t quarter. It wila tho night of tho full moon ; 
the Biitwh wcvv go cigrh that choy wcro boftrd with Umir pick- 
uce» and ghorelfi ; yet ndtber Agnew, their general officer for 
tl>c nlgtit, nor any one of tLcm, took nodco uf thu tuunmir in 
the cainpr or tln^ plafib of oar* on tlie river^ or tbo ripple under 
the nU4ieftta. AH night liuig Washington vm riding tlimngl 
tho ram{), Uwtring tho rcpiiUnfy of cvtrj- movciiicnt. Sonio 
time before dawn on Friilay rmimii^ Mifflin, through a mia- 
take of oHcnv began to march the covering party to tJie 
Uny; WaUungton diiCover«d and conntcnnnndod the pro- 
matnro moremeni Tliv <jr«icr to rc^mo thuir posts waa a 
ti^'ing tM of younj; aoldicre ; tho regiments vIkwIuiI about 
whh pnctfBOD, aifcd recovered their former ttatioQ before the 
entmy perodrod that it had been Klimpji^ht-d. Am day ap- 
pnochod, a tbick fp^ rolled in fn>m the e»^ «hnmdtid tho 
BfiliA fftnip, hid ill RnjuLlyn, and himg over tlio Kajut nrer 
witbodt wiTulopirig Nt'W Yijirk. Wlirri vviyry nihvr n-gluiMit 
wm mdtty cared for, iha covering party came do^'n to the 
wiAeriide a&d wcto cmbArki^b l^ut tnan of alL WA^ingt'in 
Alcnd a boat, ]i was Mren o'clock before oU the oompanicA 
Roobod the 2vctr Ti^ aljorc At f<Jtir. Montrceor had j^iven 
tb« alann tha£ the Amcricnne were in full retreat ; but MMmo 
beim elapeed before he and a oorpond, vith ox men, dam* 





38 AUCHIC^ iS ALUXSCZ WITH FRANCE. EP.tv.;<(V.a 

bored into tho worlo, only to fiad tliom orftcuftU<L Tlio vhole 
Am«ric3]i Army who were on Long Uknd, viih their provi- 
>ioni, mltituy >tore«, fl^ld-urtOI^ry, and ordnuioe, €xe«pt a few 
wortlilrw iron ('Aniuni, liuiili^l Mifrly in Ntiw ^'ork. 

"ConiJi^ermg tbo diilicultic^'* wroto Gtvene, "t]ie reircnt 
from Long Idind wa^ the bc«t ejected rctruut I mTT niad or 

lb* UoKfii|ili»r uT JoAtph Hiul. BmC!^ E«id, L, ft^l to Vfn^ Tli« ntio tiiUkor- 
{1j af Iho Idvp^pW tor liin AUUnioa U a pBp«T jmr^rliajc lo bo ft lollar frvD 
■D oM uiu oC ti|Gtit]^«ui, ju>l lilt*? (Itpi brfoiTi Ub draUi, wlica be nu tv> lU la 
vTlt« « 1«itoT cir td dj^ I1U riAnti, nr iTrm b>Diftk« hk n«rie. nniJ jvI^m d pr^ 
Undcd, fttito 14 dcUil tilts BuWuiMn tJ coaTtiwllinu buld bj ibc iuori[>iiuJ Hfij- 
di ^Mit bcCorv, wlUi Cvlmct Ci^jRoacrf VlnJalAt teo or dorca jtanaCia lis 
totnftl from Lang f lUnd, Bo tU<Ai IIia tfnrerMltatf rtCan«L Htl fllorj lumi 
on ft «faftik^ uf trinil nljSdi b« t^NNnti ft* bftviafi Uk«a |i1«M htfrta UU ooiu- 
cH of mr WW tftJii.*] t taow 00 uch dmig« of vioj iD?k pU«t before At ootuidJ 
nT v» rnct^ Ln nfipnam fmm ihi>tr iimuiininiiK t^ndnidnf ■! IIlo dr>«L (Prc^v^I- 
bp cf a cm^niJl of w«f bali Ai]|p»t S'J, 1 .^1^ at iMd-qautcn La BnxiklTB, 
fmntfd bj Ondonlf^k, 1(11,40(1 In Fffroo^ ArcUre^Aftli oertn, L, IHA.) 

Tbo UfliHK of thi^ fog on ilir tvinir-Blnib, ftad roiMqtMU sl^hl ol lU UriUih 
Ikc^ f<iriBi fbo fWoi oS tho hl<^T«phorV ftltrituilloft trf f|>HtAJ mffli lo ObJaital 
I^cvlL But llv ftccuuLilj uf ufiiicutiHriftj^A ftlL ki.tvt lUit tbc f^ did bul riie lQI 
ihA mitnifaigrif ibMhJrilwiTb- ItinUnn ti>ilfiTH9idi'iii Climdcl* Of Sqiumhtr IV. 
mfti ""it BaanH'^on tU llir1i<rib. Bonjftttin TdfaMi%t'i llvtii4irfl,K^ II t 
"AalWdwipof thg J>yoFi'"ftc>rtrf.a wrj J— MfagbigM ton'r." OvvdoQ^t 
mnurJU tH, K^l*h«4ttlniaf nftt; " A thbft tef iIkhiI l«o o'flluA la Iho 
laaioln" Ootikt vraia Iraa lbs Mtona At Otercr, bdiI lb* InlorKwzloa of oib- 
cn Hbo vert pltawL NoS« lu ib« TtualDctiUE «nHB ct Df. J«bll fta0<n«f 
HavTink,diil»m«d In Xoir Totk. D.wmbtr 11, i:»3, vid ptiutA In 11«4! 
"KotloiisftfiariAiVbiiolHsftbcavrloK rtM." IIil|7dM mmlkw ib« f d^ aftcf 
Uie mombi« of ibf Uilrtklh* OsQfan Ikitfj OwlvJaai't BfirdutkmHT <(»»- 
dvtiit Td ^jlTi^^h tn4 Khy'i OotialtM, UH, l«l. 

TlkcU>eniiiep<irK««ilB««nd a«t M bava bam* b ttiad tbt veadMf U pc«a 
of aecfter uf VTublajCMc, b «blcb ho unlM vrta FnaJlhi. TbM WftibUc- 
Ion Tui awo of liLi pntikii apprtJi frm bli ilbiatar Unvif m tkvp fior 
«J^bt4Bd'f«t7bMn(%ark«,iT,T0X«a4fn»hit ucoviiibibE btc ovu ^libcnt* 
poller vw " la *nil>l k fniffrml fteliDiL" b u of ibo aort iapcflia^'q' to Mt thk 
miiUn ii^>ic« u Vt>hlnfiim Inln;; *■* ail«lril t^ III* Mnr of Hfad. Tor a oon' 
«^ aolloff *r tb* ftinM, wham br Joavpb K««^ >0 AugaM iTTi, f«« Scfirvkb** 
Uf t «f WIUkB LM«ttciiw toil 



1TJ«- 



TOE PSOGEEdS OF TOE DOWES, 



80 



CHAPTER XIL 



Tits taO0US£S OF TUE nOWESt 

Cab* ftit hc&TLly oil tho yoimg pc^iple, wlio upere to be 
/onned to fortitsJe ant! endeared to afler stgeA hy funilianty 
willi •cimAnL liini Hi>wh nH^i^Ivwl BuIHvmi oh Uicm! nf lliib 
Eigle wUli Iioepilablo courtesy, approrcd lii« immediate cx- 
diange for UooeraL l*rescott wU^ was at Phikdelpliia, and 
tkaai ipoko m> »tr<iugl>' i'f Iiia o^c^ di^ictdty hi rccoguinug 
«oo^:ren aa a le^ bod^, ocd yet of hi^ ample powcre to open 
ft wnj for tlic PjdroM of K^oTanccB, tluit tli« Anurican gcutrd 
Yoliotoercd to rait Phil^uklfhia w a g^botwoon. A fow 
bonn after the trocpe piu«ed av«r from Lcmg Idand lie fol- 
lovfld OB i^aroluy talrliig no ininiir« of thti o&r wliidi bi; witi 
to bear, n»lyiiig cmlj on bie rernllw.'tion of desnltory conversar- 
ttunx Tlicf Aitiennui <\iritniuidcir-iii<Htit-f diAap|in!«i*d bih 
nuMofi, bi;it docincd U mil' right to prohibit by iititluny aa- 
tLanty an appeal to tbo cavil power 

TV^AiihiujCtan iritbdrt>w the ^>maon from Qovemot^a laland. 
Of tbo mbabiiant« of Lon^ Uand* 0omo from cboicc (omfi to 
«acapo the pmoa-ebip smi ruin, took the eo^:af^mcDt of nii^^^ 
aaoc To Gttmaiu, ttiu Britii^U j^noral alraKly unnouiiood tlio 
neoeodty of «Doth^ campiuf^. In hk report of tbo events on 
IjMig hhatd he niagnified tbe fom wbieh be encounk'rod two 
Of thiw ilnumt tlw kilWI luid w<iundH i-rigbt or tAti tijuv^ uul 
«iihrged tbe &anLber of Lis piitouerEL ILIa own loffi he aoino- 
wbai diQuiuabcd. 

Caaadoofl thai <X)CigrBffi wcm expecting iinpoadbi1iti», 
Waikingtoit renaittded Ibeu thai tba publio safoty m^ubn^i co,- 



iO -UIEPJCA IN ALUAKCE WITH FRASCE. w, it,: rti. m. 



Ibtments for tho wot ; tlio ctcfoit on Lonj- Island had Smpoind 
lh««oiifi<ienea of tl]« trnojict iu dioir olEo^rv and in oim 
Other; Uio militu, cUann^sKlf inlmeUblo, aii<l impatiotit, vrtait 
oH hy lulf-comi^aiLki^ bjr comp«ni««^ and almoet b^ vbole 
nTgtnioiiU at a time, Tbe BecOMity fur alttndimtng tlie dly 
of New York wm to imminontt that tlio quwt'ioti whetbvir its 
lioiuM ftbouM he Itrft to aUnd as ffiiit«r-qQarlet» for tlie eoent/ 
irould ^'ttdiiuc of htit litflc? £iui« fi^r {lGLihcnitJr>Q.** Itufnjf Pat* 
S4QI, the ahic CQginccr. rcporti?d that the cncmj', irom their 
comiDaiiii of the woter^ could bad al tmy point het^een the 
bay and Throg^n I^ock ; GitMste advfittd a ifvnoral retreat^ and 
that the dcy and it« eubiLrb« «h>ald bo burnt. 

WTwii^ oa the ucMod of September, SnUIyao waa Intro- 
ducod (o ttic cvingrcwKf J^thu A^liuiit bit^ki) out to the moml. 
who tat iioxt hiui : '' 01), thi* (Ict'o^p^'^hick ! woultl lli^t the first 
hiillnt fmni UwcuitiUtjr ui tlmdi-ffut od Loiif^ Ulttiid h;ul iKbw^l 
thruu^j hifi faraint" In dcUr^ng hi* DMiMg^ Bdhvon a{- 
fimivd that Lord Hovre md ^^ be v-oa over B^xnst taxing oa; 
that Amcnca eould not be oaQi|iicRd ; that he iroold 4uc aflfcde 
the ftcta of pariiamcDt for twdng the eolooioe tad olMmgiug ^lo 
charter of Mamchapctta-" Cosj^raa^ directed SuHiTan to 
doco hb commiinkation to writbg. Ho did ao, aod preeenti>4 
it tliv ni-xt morning, tta pvpovt vaa ^that, tbongh l^rtl 
Howe rouUL not at |>re»«iit treat vUh coi^gnm as aivb, 1t« u-aa 
vi-r^ diwniait mi a privntr gi-nlli-tnati to n>nK mwimi pf lU mrin- 
bera aa jinTaie ^utleuicn; lliat be, in <*ooju]kIm)ci will* <kn- 
ml tlowe, had full powen to conipromiw» Uie dujmite ln:twtt!iii 
Gr«al Uritun and AiDcrica : that ho wished a compact sni0%% 
he aettkd at tfau time ; that in caao, upon oonfervnce, tbo^ 
thould fiiMl any probable ground of an aocomnkodattou, the an- 
thontT of eongreaa must be afterward aekDOwledged.^ 

Congfetf haviuff raeaJTod thU paper, vhkih propoaad th«lr 
oiwn abdication and the abandomnent of iodcpondmoe and of 
miloo, proceeded to tbc bttnneaa of the day. In cotmnlttev of 
the wboto, they took hito oonflideralloD the imn o w ni ti vntit*- 
Am of Wflshlnjj^oUj tbat he }ad net a force adequate to the 
defence iif "Svw York, and they iVrifW that " tt i^Micdd in no 
erent bo dama^^ for tliey had no doubt of beoig aUo to re- 
oofcr ttf cTca thou^b the enemy ahould obtaSn poflaaadon of 



ITTfl. 



TUB PROGRESS OF IHB noW£& 



it (or n tiino." Tliej- ci\ii-rt^ for ift* dcfoDct tkrce oiort bat^ 
tolionc from Vir^tiin, wo frcrm North Uitroliiia, Aud one from 
Blbodo labud ; and th&y mvit^d the oeaomhliee otiil cctiivoutiom 
of cvotj «tt£o nortli of Vtif^nin to fi^r^-iirtj kU poefihile aid; 
bat thu nilUiKQ on speGuIatWe mnforcemenu iQcrotued tbe 
public periL 

Oil ibi* f'Kirlli ;iiid fiflK, ivmgriu« fli^bnt^^il thii mvf*^^ of 
Lord Kow^. Witberepoon, wilh a tot/ great majoiUj- uf tlm 
meMbers, bxiked vpou it aa an insult. *' \Vc Lavx: l<»t a battle 
and ft sotaU isluid,'' uid R^isb, ** bat vc bavc Dot 1o»t a £l^te ; 
wb/tbeoi ebould wo be discourofrcd I Or wlijr ^L^iould vrc be 
dftOooraAjed, oveo if vo bad lo«t n »tato¥ If Uiero wcro but 
one etato left, «ttll tlint ono ebonM poril aJl for indopendetioo.*' 
G«orgo "Rem suatained bis oolloa^e. "Tbo panio niay iei» 
wWb il irUI,^ vnrtc John Adama; "It almll not RdEomo;'' 
gnd, lite liii^ih anfl Wifhempooti, hp »^.»fce viphcmpntlj- apinst 
the jtn'powd (rcjiiion^iuu. On tliti uUitr baiul, KilviunI HuU 
Wgv favorvd i^ 3« a mmns of procnu;titiAlioD ; and at la^t 
New iUmpebirc^ Coimecticiit, and ot«ii Vitgixua gave wujr 
for the tfako of quieting tlio pcopla ^Uivim wiw di];1»^tcd 
to deliver to Lord ilowo a written " K6o1vx!; tbat the conf^rcdS, 
bcmj; Ibo rvprowntitiroa of the ftvx) aud indepcmdijnt atatcs 
of America, could aot »ond llioir nic*inb(Tra to coufor -vith bim 
Id tbeir private dianctors ; bat^ ever detitouB of peace on roa- 
•MohlA UHma, tbej would »aud a oommitieo of tbetr body to 
liatfii vhit atiUiority be ha^l to tn>at vntli ptrmoti^ authoriicd 
Ij tbem, and to beor bis propofiltloiia.*' On ibe sixth Uie 
eocdmittcv va* clcrtt'rl by Imllot, tlui] tW: vlmicc Ml on Fntilc* 
811, Jubn Adaiu9f and Edwaiil Hulled^. For the future, it 
WW ordered tliat no proptiKiln for peace bctwceu Cirvat Bntulu 
and tho United tiifllce AhonJd bo received uqIom tlx^y ebanid 
bo made in writing and elioold rcoognise tbo autbonty of the 
Haln ID ooogrevv 

TVadhlnffton, eoeJn;* that ii waa impofidblo to hold New 
Yoric, on Uio aereuUi converuyl hU ffcmural officers la tho hopo 
of tbc4r conciimuKO. Tbo csm^ wng pbiin; jet Mercer, who 
vsi diMmbiLvI hi Aiiihov. \rrote an untimely wUb fo maintain 
ik? po«t ; ot1i4m ii]ti<r|in4i*il thn v^tti? of i-ungriBi aj( .tii hi juiic- 
\MXt that jt wii to be defeiKlcd at all luiurdd ; and, as one third 



42 AMERICA IS ALL1A.VCE WITH FRASCE. n^.tr.;tm.m. 



of l^ urmj bncl no tent*, and ono fctirOi vrort ilc^c, many 
Hung to the city (or ahelter. The icbjority^ tlier&foro, dedJed 
to liiiUl it with livt* thuiiHLiul irurn, nw\ ti> di»trUrute t.fiF- n<*t 
of tho &nnv between King** Dndgo lutd Ibrlctn Heights. 
The power to orcrmlo tJie majority of hia ^Dcnl ofiiocre had 
not been cjtpHciily confcrrod on WaBliin^toa. Wluk% lUvre- 
fortt, ho romovcd hucL «ti>ro« u wvro not imtncdUtoly nooiiv^d, 
and 1>ef^ to tr&iufer th^ nek to the inland towne of K«w 
Jttsey, lid thtiB retsoned vtth eoxtgrcss : 

*^ To bo prv^vtrvd at tnch jMniit of ntto^ Itw ouCAJEtoned un 
eipeAAo of bbor wLieh now sueius ii^len^ and is re^^tled by 
t}tuM» nlm form a jud^nt-uL fmni aft«rkuowIed^; but tuen 
of dUcvmnicnt vili mx tlmt by vncb vorlu niwl preparations 
y^D have delayed the operations of the campaign Ull it is too 
lat« to dicot any eapitat ineuraJon uito the exiuntr)'. Evcvy 
niounro ia to bo foimod vrith eotnc approhcndon that all our 
troops will not do their du^. On our dde tho war thonld 
be def^nilve; It li^ e7GD been called a war of posts; we 
ihoiild on idl occaaion* av(»d a gi^Doral action, ami ni^vcr bo 
drawn into a Deoeaslty to pnt anything to r!«lL IV't^uaded 
IliaL it woidd Ittf pr<!9nim|ihi(mft U* dmw rn:1 tmr ymm^ tixKi|« 
into open ground agaLo&l thmr Hnpcmrs both ia number and 
ditcipUoe, I haro never spared the spado and plokaxeL 1 have 
not found that readhms to defend even etroog pottt at all 
hazards whkh ia uoceesory to derive tho (greatest benefit from 
thoot. Wo aro now In a post sdoiowlcdgod by every man of 
judgmont to bo nDtonaUo. A retreating arrDv is ondrolocl 
with dlHeidtlefl ; deelinlof; an ejtff^omb^ iubjocta a j*enend 
to roproochr and xnxy tTinjir tliKconraf^ement 0T4!r tho mindl of 
many ; bnt^ when the fat« of AiDerim may bo at ttoke on the 
Miiu, vh xhiiiiU] ]injlr:itrt tliti vmr^ l( poMiblo. The enemy 
iiioau to TCintf^^ in Now Vork; tltal tlioy cnn drrm ub out m 
equally ckai ; notluiig M«ma to xccnatu bul to determine the 
tune of thcar taking poa>o«aion." 

Congrces reedved this renum^tnioce with eoldnces; bnt it 
was nnantwenble, and they rosolred, on the tenth, that it had 
nOit been '*tboir soofio that any put of the amy chotild nrmttin 
ID JTow Vork a mooteot lonj^ than he ahonM tbJuk it proper 
lof the pubUe aervf ea" 



irrcu 



THE PROQB£Sg OF TOE HOWSS. 



43 



On the cIcTcntli I/ircl Hovrc tout n ba^ for Fr&nklxQ, 
John Adflmst and ICutlc^ig^. They were in©t by him ai tho 
vrat^r^B od^, and jmitook of a ootlation. In Uie diwnedon of 
bi]3itiiBa,a difficulty praented iUtU at tlio uuuot. A^t t)u-jhnd 
bMB fi»nn&ny uiriMuicod ns a committee from confp^se. Lord 
Ilowe preioiAed^ will] pome emliOTBaam^nt of aianuer, rbut lio 
Willi U>timl triMvWmnvi-nuMlivitl) t-lu?fn HMpriviLd- imiivirliiftia 
At thiji John AdaniJ! camo to his reliof, etjicg: " CuuMder 
uft ill any liglit yuu pJeaoe, vxt'.^pt thai of I1^Li^ll Hiilijccrj^^" 
During a cocrcnvtion whicli lasted for HcmnuL bour§ Lord 
Howe wu dificumvc in hia reonarkB. To brinfr the di»cnnioB 
to 4 point, ^l^'ard Hatlcdjj^ ciUsd to Iiiin tliu declaration of 
Snllinn, ^tiia/t ho would *ot thi> art* *>f pnrliaiiKrrjt wholly 
asido, became paitiun^nt had no right to Tax America, or 
meddle with her hiterual polity," 

Titttj Howti iLTiKWEtnTd, 'H)i[it f^ii})ivnn find €Kt4tridiKl hia 
words niaab beyond their import; Uiat his <Jommiftnu»ii in rft* 
cpoci to acta of pftrliitmrnt wnn C"nfiiit7d to jhjvl'uts of cofim)* 
tation with private pcnon&" rronklin inqaircd if the oom- 
mjABOocta wvuld recetve and report propoaU&na from the 
Americana; ia do oSjccti^n woa iDtnpoKd, ho rcprcffcmtcd 
*' that it was the doty of pood tnon on both md^ of tlic water 
to promote peoei^ by an aclaiowled^n^aeiit of Amorioon ind^y 
peiidaaee, and a treaty of fmndAbip nnd allinnco bvtwcon the 
rwo eovntrios ; '* and be cndeaTored to prore That Or^at BHt 
ain wnuld d^tHvci nintv dLimhlis julv>uitjigi?K fn>in mii<-)i oii alii- 
anOQ Uian from the coniLectioh irliich It was the object vf the 
oomnuMaon to realom. Lord llcrtro eo;iiJtmntcatiN:l to lib gor* 
anuBOOt thia oTcrtnr(\ which ho tn hie hi^ait was b^;inning to 
apprOTft The commiitco of coi^^rn^ on tbdr return to Fhib- 
<Tiplifr. roportod that ho bad made no propoctitioD of -pcacCj 
«iD»pt that tho oolonjpfi Fhonid nftnni to their allogianoo to the 
goPTenunent of Groat Britain ; and that hla ootDmlaskoi did not 
qipmr to oontatn any other ntitliority of itEiportancc tlinn that 
of pmting pai^oviB and decUrln;^ ATn<?<rica, or any part of il^ 
to b* la the kin^a peaea, upon »ubniWii>ii. 

By tfaia tinio thi* army of <i€ficnl TTowif cxti^'lod along 
tbeh^ grouiui Ibal ovvrloijJca the Euat nver and tho eoiindt 
from Brooklyn to Fltuhin^aDd occupied thetwoialandairLldi 



U AMEBICA in ALUANCC WnQ FRANCE, cp. m l c&, m. 

WO ciJ] Ward** &iid Racda)!** ; a better/ erected at Actorw ic- 
pJicd u> tlie Ainoncan ^orka oo tliG point jn^t north of 
goto lony. Xi^lit after ni^lit \)oaU cnma in and aochorelj 
jtBtt above Biuhwiuk. On tlio twolfth, WuthingtOD, Ripport«d, 
by t1i9 writtcm requ«et of Gre>«ii9 and six brigadws, recoD- 
ven«d hia council of wai' at ttte qxaatewaoi Macdoiigall ; and] 
tluK tintr it wnn <1«ci(l<vl tn ntHinrlnti tlip !owrr part of tli9 
island, cone diseentiiig; biit Spencer, llcAth. and G«or)ee CUd-^ 
toD. Tlio comieLl was liardlj ortr nbeii WaahmgtOin waa o&eo 
more in the linca; and at oveoing tho Amcricnna under lii« 074, 
donblod thoir poet« along the East riTor. ilo vra« eccn bj^ 
H^eaans; and Kmf-, a captain of the Ueefflan attUlery, tvicd 
Eq ffQ^^CMMifon pointed cannon at bim and hU fftai!, and irajt aiio- 
ing a tlird itbot, la ha nxU on. Tho tbirt^ontb, the annivcr*, 
Biuy of the victory on the PlairiFi of Abraham in wliidi lIowsJ 
Iniv tui Ijoii^Tthlo iMirt, wtui ituliiitvi for Utc! binding of 
Brituh in New York; tho wfttchword waa "QqcW^" 
ooimtcrsi^ " M'olfc;'^ but tho ehipa^f-war that vcre to 
the landluj- cau^ dobv. in tbo aftornooQ four of thtm^j 
kcopin^ up as incci^iant tiro> and nupporW by tbo cannon out' 
Qoviernoi^« I^lanJ, Milvd yost the Anieri»kn baitimof into the 
East river and anchored opposite tb© pn^nt Thirteenth slieet. 
On« of Uimr iliiJl Ktrm^k within nix fwt of Wuahlngton who 
Wiis watcbin^ thoir moTemeittfi. Th^ next <3av six nioro Dnt- 
i«U amuHi abipd went up tha Efict river. In one more day tha 
d^ mold have been eraeaatGd. 

On the fifteentii three fihip»of-war tif^mlcd tho lludaon 
fu* a* Bloomingdalfi. At eleven tiie bbipa^f-trar which ircni 
anehored in tbo atmm holcvt Illackwoll's Inland bogan ahcary 
ounnonade^to econr tbo grounda ; at tbe eomo time ea^ty-foar 
boata bidon vdth troopa, nnd«r tbo diroctfon of Admiral ITo- 
thaiOt camo one of >'ewtovn croek, and with a Mnthcrly wind 
tflilad up tho Ea«f river in four «v>)uniiift, tjH, tm a aignal, tliejr 
fotmed in line, and, aided by oani and tho tid^ landod btftwaQflLj 
TlifIIi? \my eltiiI tbt^ iritv. At Uie aoniid of iba fliat 
Watbin^^n rode "with all pcwible deapatdi^' towonl Ktp*a 
b&j, DeorThlrty-fottrLh atnct ; be found the men who bad bc«ii 
poitod in tljo hnee mrniin^ ava^, and tbe brigaded of FoUowb 
of UaeMehnecM and Tanona of Oonnoctkut, that vcro to have 



ITTfl. 



TOK FBOGRESS OY TEE HOWES. 



45 



fDppoiteid tbcin, fljinj^ in every dlnotlon- PnCiiam'fl diviaion 
of abool four UicusanJ troopA vrnt i^tiU io thij low«r dty, kuiu 
to be cut cff, tml(«B tL« liritifilL oouJd be dekved. ^Vh^ &IL 
<)1m fRib, tho G0iuiiuu]d4n^i]i-<iluef mutt iu \^'T*chi give the ex* 
ampla of dirinj^. WasliingtoQ pr^tmt^d bimsclf to nWy tho 
fu^iliv^tt ixnd liuld the adTaoeiii)^ fciRTti^ In uheck ; but, on iLd 
ftjipr-jiniiuri? [it H [Miriy of iitit iut>ra lima Hixtj or f*eYuiiU% tliey 
ran a^'ay wllhont Siing a ahot, Jcaving Llia \nthin eighty 
ytitdi of tliG euemj. iiemiiided that it waa m Tiin to witU- 
itoiid the Britbih oJcnc, Jio tiimod to guitrd Mgunai furtltt^r 
i^aotfter, and to s:^ciirc liorlcni lioighte. 

Aa tbc Ile^^ace took imniediuie poeaee^Q of the brea^ 
works vbldi gminl<7d tlio Boston rood, near the pru«eut L&» 
injfton flvontie, tbe brigad«« iMf not witboat loss, aoroefi wood^ 
fl^du lo BlooBiiitgililti. M^^t uf Putnatrj'A dSviium eacaped 
by A nwd wry ru^r ibh TTui!H>n ; it» i^uititnkiida'.r, btHTilli^Mit nf 
tlie intenee heat of tbo da/, loda from pest to poat to call off 
tlie fickeis uid ffu^rd^. Silluu^n's brigade ibrew'iUeJf into tho 
redoubt of Banker llill, vlttn;' Krox, at thv head of llae artil* 
Icfj, tliottgbt only cf n g^Lint dcicnco ; but Aarcn Buit^ who 
w one of PutDfim'a aida, ipiided tbeni by way of the old 
Uotmmeot Une to tba wett «1de of the Sjtlaiid, wbcrv tlicr fol* 
lowed the vinduigroul nowFupareeded by the Eighth avoDue, 
and r«gtiued tbi? Blooiiungd^dti road near ibe pn^iieiit SUtI«tb 
strMl* 

The respite wlucb saved Piitmm*s divison ira» due to 
M^LUy IJiidley, the wife of I£obcrt Mumij. Wheii tLc Brtliab 
aridy dr&v ncv W hotue on Icclcborg, as Murmy Jlill ww 
then cdled* Uovro and hia officers, ordering a halt, oocopled 
hor invitatu^ii to a lanoh ; and, by the oxc^lonee of Iicr repast 
aad the good'haTi3i>r wiilj vliioli t^ie fnrri^J Trycn'jt joatit at 
her >ympalhy with the rebc-ls, eLe wliJod away two hoars or 
nope of thi^ir tuao^ till ijvi,*rj AsutricAQ ra^mtiut hod eaoapod. 
The AmeriofliiH left behind a fev )ieary i^nTiifoTi, nnd inticli of 
llnvlr Ixiggige and alarm; fifu.-cu of ihvsn wore kilkd; one 
hnndnd and lift^-ninc wom misNOgf ebidly %-ilful lQjtcn.'nh 
Tbc lEntinb gair.cd tbo ifilacd aa f ar aa the ei^bth milc-Atoaew 
irith but two llcttfianf killtnL aiu] a^Kmt t^-Lijtj Bridfih and 
Uoettantf voocdcd. AX night their btvonac cartcndcd from the 





46 AU£KICA IS ALLIANCE WITH FEAKCE. ep, rr. ; en. m. 

E(hc4 riTOr noar QoU-f^ftto to tlio Qudaon At Bloomingdala. On 
Harient Urngbte th« Ainoricui fugJlivgA^ -vmiy from liAviog 
pwvod fifteen boTire mider mns, difibeanened 1>j the lo» oCj 
tlmr li]tribt mil] IjUnkcrh^ and vrel 1)y « ctoM ilrivit^ rain that 
oloaed die siillrjr da^t lajr on Utcir amis with only the alcy 
above tli«[ii. 

The dutftrdl; fligfat of the troopa «t Kip's bty wu reported 
to oongrew bjr Waahtn^D ; vul v-aa nrbakcd in a 
order, monacdng inatuot doaXh as cha pafiiafamcnt of oowvdictf { 
DO Um fieUL MoaatiiEke, bo uMd ovoty mctbod to roTiro 
coutngo of his uinv. At two o^eloci: in the dark and ctoud^' 
monni^ of tho uxto«tith SUa* Talbot bj hb otvkm nm doini 
cbfi liver In a fir^brig xmder n ^r wind, moAf gpif p4ing Om 
Boiionini4, let t}ie br^ on fire, etuqing vHfa kla crvw; Um 
T£«iiotinii^ (reed itwlf, bat, with tbu otlior slaiw-of-war, qi 

On tbc mme daj Ameri«An tioopt escteoded tbcir left inng 
from Fort Waahingtoii to ELarlem. As tn o&ot to tiua mor» 
DKDti LcAlk, wlio eommandcd the Brttiah advsnoed poita^ led 
tlie Bocood batt«lioD of ligbt tnfantrr, with two bittalioiia of 
HigfaUndeiB aibd »ven field-pwoei, tnto a wood on tho bill 
whkb Iks ^ast of liloomia^dAlo raad and ovwlool:^ ManliAttaD* 
Tin«L TVou tbla delMlunani two or Uiree eompaniM 4if ligbt 
iafsntry deaoendod into tbo pUin* drorv in an Aiiwrican |tteletf 
and tounded their bof leo in defiance. Kngainnic tbelr aLhm* 
tioD bj pieparatiocki f^ attadd&g than b frotit, Waaku^^toB^ 
ordered llajor Loitcb with tiir»T oompanics of \V««don'» Vir- 
giitta itfiioenl, and Colouel Knowlton with bb vohuilMr 
rangen, to prop«re iMvady m attaok on tbo rvar of tbo 
detacbmuCLtinibowood; and Seed, who bed knew tho jEnKiud, 
aotod M tb^ guid«. Under tho Ind of Oeorffo Clinton, th», 
AaMffcan party wluoh eng^^ the B^t in^trr in 
oom{v11ed t)ii-in twice to retrfflt« and drove l]i«n bade lo th*^ 
fbnco witli T^vlin^ Tbn Aniffricana in punmit cKunlnvd up 
the rock^ and a Ter7 briflk action eQSD(d« wUdi ountiiiiJL'd 
about two houra, Knowkon and Lciich began Ibeir attack 
too mon, on tbo flank nUkcr than in tbo rear. Bdrd^a bono 
wie wounded tmder Um; in a little ttmo Lciub waa 
off with three balls tbroiigh kilt dd& Soon after, 



1776. 



T1IE PftOGBE© OF TOE nOTES, 



47 



vaA monally womiKled ; in the o^uioa of deutb, aU hLi ifiquiry 
\nti ii tlio oiicmy liAd been bcnkn, Notwitttftjmiiing tho Io» 
cf their icddcre, the toon roec^utcly ooatinacd tLc cn^'iigeiiiciiL 
WwhiH^oE ailranood to tLoir support part i>£ :wo ?i[iLr^l&nd 
rv^^uulu, with dclucbmimEji of Kow Enj^lftHElcre ; l^toani 
nnd (Tre«nd| ^ wcU a« Til^limon and othera of the j*en«nl'e 
stifl, joined iu (Le action t*> anioiaUT (be troops, who cljai)^ 
Willi thit gmii<«t iiilntpiilit^. Tft^r Rrir.f^li, woivtml a thlni 
time, f^ll Ijaek into an oivhanl. jukI from tlieiit^ ai'rot<B » lioK 
Iqit iixid np tlic liD] wliurli Iii» i<a3t nl tlii? Kiglitli nvmuo atd 
OToriooks tho coantij far and wido. TLcii' condltioo wjia 
dap«rBto : thoy bad Joat eorcmtv klUcd and (vo liundred wid 
ten woundfid; tbo Higliluiidoni lia<i lirod tLcir lost c^rtridgo; 
witboat epoodj rcHcf, tlioy tnnst: cortunly bo ctit oC Tlie 
Heetiui j'ageN wdre the fixBt reinforoemontd tJmt nobbed Uio 
lilU, ind wcra in waton tc i>biu« in tho uctioii, j^niToriDg « IolM 
of oiie oflkwr luid mren men wouDded ''Cclninns of Eng* 
Uflh in/anirj, ordered at eleven to atand to ditflr iiniit^ ivom 
troitvd Jiliout tlinciu milcvs witlioitt a IiaU to lake hrehXh ;" uid 
tb& LiDfiing batt^Iiou »-as seen to draw near, ^lUle two <Jt!»or 
Q^niun 1)«tt4dii>nd occupied Macgowivn** pjiff*. Wmdiirgton. 
anvilling to ruk a gcncnU ftction^ OTdcrcd a retreat Tld^ 
fikinuuii reetorod tho epiiit and contidonoo of tlic Aiuoric«rut. 
Tbftlr ]om WM ab^at sixt;^ killod Oind wonndud; Viifp among 
ikom wa£ KnovrlCon, who wotdd hnvo b««n on honor to any 
eooBtrj, and L4<it<!h, one of Virplnia'a worthieBt aon*, 

n»wv would never ovni hoTv mtirb Imt bnd MifTi:'tT^d; Ui« 
gencnl orden rebuke<J I^te for imprudence. TLe n?fluit 
■VMidnued liim tn iin i^iitiiiii. Hit? ^nminl m fri>nL of llie 
Amcricfliw WOA so difficult nctd bo ^tcll CortMcd that lie could 
oot hope to cairj U T»v atonn ; ho thert^for^ waited more than 
thrao vccki, ptrtljr to oolloct mcaDfi of tnutA|Kirtation, uid 
ptrUr to form rodonbt« txrcm tho i^knil. 

l>nnng tl>c dcUj, Lonl Howo oad hia brothel', on tho 
ttint^antb, in a joinc dcclnntioni going far bo^'ond tho fonn 
pmjntod b^ th« Ao1Jotti>^^nenI, protniMd in the kin^s tmme 
s rwUaoti of UU tniCmiHtonft, nnd hU cancumTDce in tl^o m- 
rkloo of ftll nrtA hjr wldcli lik giihjrxTU iti tlm cokmiw might 
think dwouelvc* iggriered ; «nd, appediog from congroBB, 



4» AMEJCICA m ALUASOfi TITIJ EBANCE. ftp.rr.j] 



ihibj invitad all voll-aflf^ctcd cabjiictA to a confermioe. The 
ppcr VTAB diBingemiiMu; for tiic luUnictioDA to the conamtfr 
fiioncrs ivbich w«re kepi secret, dcmaiidcd m prvliuiiiuu^ gob* 
ditione gmnta of rovcnw^ and fortlicr changoe of choitcre. 

About <mo o'clock in tbo roonung of tho twoDty-fiist, moro 
tlivi liri; ituYii ufti^r Nuw VoHc had boon in diu cxdoiiTO po«- 
«ettimi of the Britii^^, n tiro cbaoced to hr^nk out m a oDfill 
vooden publio-home ot low chanwi^r near WJiiteh&ll slip, 
Tbn WTULthtff liiiil hi'ii b<»l itiiil Llr^ ; > tr*%\i giilt; ivmn bltiwing 
from tli« »ouib-wti«t ; 1lit.< tlamts «|imii] rtpiiU^'; luid ihe ctuit 
tide of Broad wa/, as far ad ExcUai^ p]ac«, became a bea]> of 
naiiu. Tbc \viiid reonng to tlio »Qtlj-<:ivft, tlic ftre crc«ed 
UroadvTftj abovo Morm «troot> doetroycd Tnnitj cbufcb and 
tbo Latticnm diurcli, and c3cl£Dd[^j to Ban^jr etrot-L Tlio 
fianua w«r« ametod, not to mnob tj (Ihi Engljsb goanl a» bj 
thfi ariEon wliom tb« admiral sont en abore. Of tfao four 
thoumd t«noEiMDl« of tlio dcjr, more tbftn four liuudivd wvro 
biimt down. In bU mport, Tlotri^ vitbont tlte ^WgUUxi 
ground, attribiiUy] tike awident to a coruplra^. 

AHien, afl«r tlio diufttuv on Loi^ IkUik), WaifatDgtoD 
Deodod to know in ^K^t ijuArtci tbc attack of tbo Driliili wa« 
to bo expected, J^athan Haloy a capum hi Kitoirltoi^a inffi* 
meutt a graduato of Yalo coUogo^ ao cxcoUcDt icbolaf, cooi- 
pnatircly a rauirui, but thrve montht bejond ono€iid-twoDlj 
j«t already betrothed, Tolootaer&d torciitQiia,iiikderadligaiae, 
within tlM Britifth liiioi^ Jiut at Um movant of his rvCunL 
bg waa i»ixod and carmd bofocvOMwialilove^iDlfffw York; 
bo fraukh avowed Ida naAe^ rmk^ and purpoap; and, without 
« tml, Uom; »nlcn.*d blm to bo vxecnitixl tbo fol1t*wing nom^ 
In^ aa a a|>^. That oi^ bo vras nxposed cu tlw iuaoleut 
«niel^ of hia jailer. The ooviaolatkin of ««ciQg a dcfiETVum 
waa denied \um\ hia Trqaort f or a UibAowaartfaaetL A mor« 
hnmau Britiab offloer, wbo via deputed to aupennteDd bia 
execQticai, fonbhod bim khmiu to write lo tua uotber and to 
ftooouwlo ia arva, Ou the montage ^ the twentj-ecoond, 
aa }m aacended ibe gallo«it he aakl: ■'! onlj repeC that I 
bare hot one Kfe to loae for tax covntij."* TTie proroaf- 
afaal deatiojned bia letten^ aa if gtud^^b^ tua frienda a knowlnl^^ 
of tbo finuiHK« vtth which ho bad oantnuaplaled death. lOa 




1776. 



THE PBOORKSS OF THE HOffSS, 



^ 



c&qdCvthmd never pretended ihat the beauty oi liia chomctcr 
iluKild hnTi> extiniptod liim fmui Uiit jiuiLally whtc-.h tho Uwa 
<rf war <rf ili«t diy iiriiMiw^il ; llnty carnplAinpjl thni ih*^ honra of 
fasi i!nj)riM>Ufitif]i< vfctv iiiililLTt^nN) hy lurlutniu^ luinliQ^™. 

enemy bycontiniul sldrmiihcs and nlorms. On tiio twenty^ 
Clutd, at the gtimmer of dawn, ia a wcU-pUnned but nnsuo> 
ocadful nttempt to rce^un) RandjUFi IaIoiuI, Tbomofi Hcaily 
of ChnrlMtown, Maeeaclnuott?, " <me oi tb^ hotit oflicGia in tba 
ftrmy " loet bU life. He wa^ bnritd by tba ^e of Kcovltoo, 
witbiu tbo prewnt Trinity cunictmy. 

Tbii priwiurm of war, five hundnMl in number, vbora 
dirlt-li>u bad ^'iit frtiiTi Qlil-Iki^ iin jia.ri)!r, ^^■t'ni Initdi'd rm tbo 
twtfity-fotLftb imiu Hltalt<i]H nc Elr«^abr?tb point. It wuDted 
bui an bour or two of nildiiight : tbe moon, ncftrly full, abone 
ekMidlenlj ; Mor^gon, a& be aprung froiii tbc? Xtctw i>f ibc iKiat, 
leUotithoo&rthaAif toch«pi^iuidcriod: ^- O my conatry I " 
Tbey oil ran a rsoo to EUcabcClitown, wbcrc, too bitppy to deop, 
tbo7 pftMod tbe ni^st in nin^nfr* dancing ccrooniinf]^ nnd 
rai^ng tbo Indina bfillcw fn>m excesi of joy> WnolJof^D 
hwl^ed Uorgan'a cxchan^, imd r^cnrum^ndo^ bis promotlofi. 
Ahpr tbo ri(nnnuncl(<r-tn'rbi«if, ho wiw tlic bii«t of&cor wltotn 
y[r;^iiu eeDt Into tlcu f eld. 

Sermbi^ly uTi;(ri>ttdl[kh1i! difTrrtrncwKif npitiion (IcIatli] tlie 
coDtinc^tal CDDgrvM in the work of coiifedfrration ; Edirard 
Bulled^ deffpairtd of vuco^w, except tbrougb a sptdul con* 
veniion of the «tatc«, cbo««a for tbiff [mrpoeo niono. 

On tbe eeTenteoDtb, after nianj iroeke of dolibcration, tho 
nxmbera of coi^^rMt adopted an dutontc pko g( treaty to 
W proposed to Franoa Tliey irwhod France to oogai^ In a 
»p«fai« war wilb Gr^ Btftahi, and by tbie dlveiaoii to 1«»t» 
Amerim the epjK^rtunSty of ocUbLitdLing her Independences 
Tbfpy wd^ wiPSng to assure to Spain frmtom from moloibw 
Uoo In ha UmUin^^; rJiry n'lmmirrj hx favor of Franfw all 
pTMit a ai conqncate in tbo Wnt Indies; but tbe>' clumcd tbe 
nle rf]clit of acqoiruif; Britisb eontineotal America, tbo Bcr 
■mdM, CapA Brvlon, imj Nc%^<>iind!anri Tbe^kinjcof Fraiboe 
migbt rotoifi bin cxclu^vc ri^bt£ in Nen'foundland, aa reoof^ 
BBftd by Enj^and in (be trtuty of 17>>3; bet bU mbjccta 



50 AMERICA TN AILIAKCE VrTH FRANCE. KP.rv.; en.in. 



vom not to lUh " Eu tlio bnvDTut, liavi^ ovuIcm, nxvJK coa^u, or 
|jlaco»," which tliu I'nited States v/btb to irm. The rising 
□alioia avoved tbo pTinclple tlmt free hlujx^ iuiiutrt fit.^vioTii 
to goodfl; tkat 4 Deutrd powi^ iruiy lAwfulljr budc wttli ai 
bcIUgc7€Dt. Frivatccnog wu to be much restricted. Ttic 
jrcotijf n^public, in tliie momoiit of lier greatest need, vrti* not 
wHlini; to nidEo 0110 oommoD eaiuo vnUi Fnmce; die ooly 
oJTL<red net to ankt Oroit BriUkln in tha wnt on ^snca, tier 
tmitt with IhnI jxkwrr hi rtii\\ni}taiu\ goo<b. The ocmnxis- 
Hunors mig!ii sti]>iilate t^iat tlitr l.'iiiu>d States wonM norvcr 
again be subject 10 die cro^mi or the parllanumt of Gre&t 
liritab ; and, ia cave Fi^mce tkouti booome inviolTed in liie 
wax, that neitW party eliould make adciGnitiTo tttatp of peace 
without sis moitthB' nolioo to the other. Thoy wera fwthcr 
bulndod lo Boli«it mutkots and bi^net*, acumuiuticai and 
bnm fledd-pi*ae% to be not under convoy by t'ranoe ; and it 
vwaddod: ''ItwUI be proper for you to piravfortho immo- 
diattt anrl ox]>]lril ilirJEinUKni uf Fnuiiv in tmr taviw^ upon a 
nggisUon t];at u rcuaion with Orrat BricaJn may be the oon- 
aeqneoco of a dday.^ 

In the aekction of tlic three nieml>ect of the oomnuflrion, 
Fitnklin was placed it its hMd ; Uoone, with whom Kobeit 
^OTTU liad afieociatcd an unworthy nMUibcr of bia own famiiy 
•I a joim eotaniorda] ■gent in France, vaa dkoaett next; to 
tham was adclod JcAsraon, who^ cariy in Angnn, had r^tir^ 
fa>m eongros9 to aaiist his natire gtaie in adaptiug [u cole of 
lava to iia new life •> a nrjmUic Vhao Jaflmn dedand 
hhnaelf ccnetnined to dcdiiw the a{»paintiit«ol. It «» givvn 
lo Ajthnr r^eeu Fnnklln jirofMsed that theoonuniiaio& ihoold 
have pow to tioat foitJiwitli for ptaee with BoglaiML 

The conduct of the war evtf taet iaereaaiag diScnltuL 
The attempt to rake op a nary waa batfdd by a want of gnnit 
eaavw, aad itt'*"'^**^™ In tlM pMOodtt^ Dccvnibar coo- 
gran had ordwod tha ooDCtioctiaa of thvtora dupe*of-nrt 
aadi of whEdi wia to tsurr fnm twwt^-foor to thJrty^two 
gnna ; but not one of then vaa raa4y fui* mm, and ths ™*^*T 
endaon ticuxialad of afaool twelve oMnliaail vvan^ pnrrhinofl 
and e<|uipped at Enaembh The cflken, ol vhoia tha fits! 
fbnnal appQcnlmont wit mde ctt the twuity^etcocul of Do- 



177«, 



TBK. PROGRESS OF TOE HOVfiS. 



51 



eombcr 1775, and uicliidod the naincs -nf Nichobs Bijdlo and 
John Paul /on^, were nec«BEeiiIy UkeD from mercbuit ihipi. 
AnwncBii priTfiti'cmp En the joar 1776, 4*£ptitrod tlu-i^ hundxod 
uid fortv-tw» Dritirih vi'Kiu'Ih; nut] tliffw voTirnt^t^r AilTentcrofl 
ii^ere au ]uc/attv« lliat few fiallora would eiilmt in iht) public 
MUTioe for rriure tkui a tv«IvmQi>iitli| suti nto^it t^f tlicm oaly 
for oDo crojAc. 

Beforo the tuiddld of JoDe, tiio Of>minittco on sputf, of 
nliich JoLa Adinu imd Edvroi'd Kutkid^ were mcicbv^, wcro 
doojod to iQTuo Uio ttitidoa of war ; afier more tliaa threo 
montJifl to impfovdd cod^ fonned on the Bridsh rogolfttioiu^ 
via adopted- 
Tim country wiw npon r.liri pvu of a d'nwlntion of its army ; 
Wadjn^ton, atmoet a ^ear liefm^e^ hiul foretold to mngreaa the 
erilft of their ayBtem vrith aa much JtL;cunu*y ai U he "Itad 
apokcD witti a prophetic spirit" Hia condition at presoiit waa 
mora critical than before^ for a lar^ force vr&t urrayed agaioftt 
huo. He bomivod houra allotted to «lccp to convey to coTt- 
groee yrith dnoerity And frocdom hia thooghca on tlio proper 
orgiDiaatioizi of the army, eayin^ : ^' £:rporieiLC0i whioh ia dio 
beat criicHon to work by, so fully^ cloarly, and dtfci«v«]y 
npcobetva tlio praotieo of tntatiog to tnilitla that no mm who 
regardi wder, n^ulaHiy, and economy, or hU own luinorj 
charaoter, or pinco of mind, will rvk tliem upon thii imuc. 
The CTiU to be appreheoded from a stundlng army are rc- 
moto, ac^ situated oa we are, not at ill lv be drcudcd ; Imt 
the cwiacqtienoc of waotiDg one y c«rtaiD and incritahle min. 
Hub ooctoet is not likely to be tbawork^aday; and, to cony 
Ob tbfi war ayateBi&tUally, yoa mnat catablkh yoiir army upon 
a ptJinanent footiiu;." The materialfi,h« esid, wcj« oxcelhMit ; 
U> Indnce enliHtrn^te for tho oondnu^oo of th« Tar, ho nrged 
tbo Q^irr of a iiUfDcic»t Ujuiity; for tho ofBceta he advto^ 
pn>per c«re in Lli«rir nomiruitioii, and euch pny «a wonld en- 
CDongi* *' geiiUeintfH ** wii! iwrflmH of lihT^j-al aen1iiaeEit» to at 
f>i^ : in thia mjmnor they would in jl little time have ac anny 
ahlo to oope with any advenary. But conf^reeSi without wait- 
tDg for hia adricc, fnmcd a plan of Uieir own. 

On th€ eixtccQth of ticptcmbci they roaolrcd that cighty> 
fi|^ battalk«u be cmllsted aa bood as possible to eenre doiii^ 



59 AiTESICA IN ALUASCE WITH FKASCE- mY<; CM.m. 

the wftr. bat without oSohag adcqiuto induoomonbR. Thotoec 
Id tli& oncv, whcte tetm would expdre with the ycar^ had been 
enlifitod diivcilj t>y contincatil tgcnU nnd oflloen ; cop g raw 
DOW apport]oti«d to the tfairtean stalei; th(^r rapective qnocaa - 
tnii thif mfcnnoo of the vubject tc aa mftny aeptnte Ic^itb- 
tam or govEmraenf« t^iild not biii occasoEi & ddijr of several 
monllia, eren if the be^t will ahouid preraiL Congrev bad no 
magutDOi; tlicj therefore left Hie fetatu to provide arm* And 
cloUungr CAch for il» own liac To coniplcto tlio difficuilj of 
or^nmDf: a Dational annj, thoj jicldod to tho eorcnl stitc^ 
tlie appointment of oil offlcdra «xoept f!«ii«nl offioftra ; no dis- 
croUon wac rtMrrod to tbo comroaadtf'Jii-flhiof, or formally 
OTen TO tbetnselvee, to promote tbo meritorioiu. Taeandca 
Qiunt nmals undlipoaed of till the ataCea, cftcb for itaulf, dioold 
eserciw iU pcnror. 

TLe cvnest exportulatioiis of Waal^ugtoiL oanunaitd4M! lit^ 
tie more roapect from ec/Dgnm than a refereDco to a commit- 
tee; throooC ite mcmbon were deputed to repair to tlie camp, 
bat their miMdon waa attended hy do poroopdblo reniJt& 
Ttoopa eoatinned to bo lavied by nqttkttkoa oti tho Mrveral 
atAtee,aDd offieere to be Dommated hy local autl>oritioii. Wa&U- 
IngtOD, thomfoce, rduccantly bade adkn to every preaeDt bopo 
of ooKunaodtiig ao eflkdont, tlukrou^ljr mUtvd annjr, and io 
momeutfl of crisu the«e was no nMosrae bat in appeala thiongb 
the Local goretmaeala to the |)^>1e* Bot tbe dtioma, witb- 
oat bcatig permanestlj imbodit'd, proved untiring in ical and 
cwi^ie; and it waa by tbem tiiat AiiMricsD libertj wia aaaert 
ed, defended, and made triompbanL To nsdiaeipUned militia 
bdoi^ tbo bonora of Coneord and LoxbgtMi ; militia with- 
stood the Hiiti^ at Bnnker Hill; bv tbo ud of militia an 
arm/ of vet^^raju wu driv^i from BoMon ; and we aliall iee 
the tinpraipiTTTlua cicio of nifalni, In the contnl atatea and bi the 
Soalb, timied hj the sudden vprifibg of vohmteenL 



inc 



OPDnOX IK BSQLASD. 



chapteh IV, 



oranoar or RsroLA^rp. k)bi>er vak in x:sesm:x. 

Is Eig^d, vbcD tiu domnnd of the Amcricaiu had 
ehajiged troax redrew (o iodepeaddnce, nj&otf-ni&o out of ctio 
LmiiLrvd ot llu'ir ttiA wcJl-widicnt dt^ircHl tLclr lEabjcctlon. 
U^Ulfi (livnnEiinaUrilnitod '^inlinite tionor to tlit^ btfl^ivi^d and 
tdroired Lonl Kumi,*' lie at«!ii(<tl after viirda to pmi^ "^tbft 
iolioni ooongo aiul nctivi? spirit,^ uul jmutliful fiiv, nnd wiw 
ezpcriciMO of QccotaI ilowc^ vbcm tlic king nominated a 
kaigflit-compiiitoii of tho order of the BfLth. The c^nao of the 
An>en«uu M>oaim^ now to bo loat. Fox wrctc to Kockiiij;h&m : 
** It «lKKild Ui » point of honor tunong tu all to support tho 
AmeHcwt pretondona in adrer^ttj a« modi ^ wo did in ihelr 
prosperity, and Dover dcaert tbow who bavo act^d muneoen- 
fu|]_T iipikH irhig priiidpliw.^* 

ThfT iFES»on of peiHaraeiit vtlia &l hand ; Rockinghain, Biirkf^ 
aoi) dwir fh«ti(ln proi>oi»t<i lo nUy Avay fn»^i it» nitfctiii^ aa- 
itgning M ihcir motive thot tlicir oppositior did botcihibit 
tboir wvak&ees, aod »o etrcn^honcd tbo ministry, Kos ro- 
nautis£«d : ^ [ ronjiiro yfTii, over and 07L*r Bg&in, to conudor 
tbo impontmoa of tho criaifi ; eooosnoi: ir^old ho coiuidond as 
rannitif; av^ij from i\t& oonqocrDi^ luid ^ci^^iog up a cou^o 
which urc Uiink t>o longoa- triable." But tbo niboUkm eoeaiiod 
io iu bit Qf-oDj : the? tborefore k^t aloof for die timo, will* 
iR^ (o iCep in ou (hL> iiUl« of moroy Mhhou the m^DEi^hi »!iou!d 
luru beaten H down. 

7^-,. t:.,.- ^ lie o]toi»ed niriaineut on tlio iLlrtj -fir*! of 
Oc' '<m1 &oea Uic declantit^uof iiidupvadciioc ^tho 



M AUCRICA IK ALLIA5C£ VnTH FSAKCE. sp.tr.ioair. 



one great ^viuiUgc at nnomiiiit/ at honiA ; " uid he prcfcffod 
ft de^n ^ to restore to tlio AcLencam tho Ucednga of hv and 
liberty-" 

"Tho principles opttimtiD^ imong tLo £uh&bitante of tJbC 
oolonice iD ihoii commotioiis,'* cud Lortl John Ca^t-iKli^lu 
^'boftr JLD exust uialogj with dioee which support ihe mo«t 
voltiiiblo ptLTi of our conn titudou ; to extlrpato them Ij tlio 
Aworcl, in any part of liia nuj*>tvV iltnijiniinus umilil «ul»Mi^h 
procedeutfi mo6t dAngeroiu to ibo 1ibcrtiǤ rif this kingdom/* 
''Ilu nrijxiwihlu fi>r tl^iit tuluid to coni|U£r utd hold America,'' 
aaid Wilkce; *^\ru iDTifit roaill our tlcot« and urnici, t^m^ all 
ftctd mjuricua to the American, and roexor«! their cl^aj1ejs» if 
wD^vould restore uuitytotlLO coipire*" **Socaoof the colo* 
nio«,'' eaid Lord North, *'wUI bivik off from thogenonl con- 
ioderaoj. lleooceiliiiJon has confltontly boon mj object; It 
Is my wUh lo use victory with moddatioii.'* Ttie hoose mw 
reitimdi^d hv TWrt'i tluit iHitJi PrntifA? juut Bjiuiii iriigTit intvr- 
fd^ Q«nDiiin replied : *^ Do jdh mppoeo tho hoiuo of fio[ir< 
boQ ironld Like to have tho aplnl of independeucfi arm tba 
Allntitic, or Uidr oirn ootonirto cntdi tiro at Uic anlimitod 
righifi of mankind?" '* Adoinifitn^on,^ md ^ox, "doserro 
BOthin^ but n]iiviLcli for hoTfinif brought die Americans into 
tuch D MtuntJi^ii tlL£;t it ia impoedblo for tbom to pvtmiofknjr 
othor coitdiict than what they hare pnrvned. Id declaring 
iDdependence, they luvo done no n\oro than tho English di4 
^ainat Jomw 1L Tlw nohle lord ^Uf Rpole Wt prides him* 
»«If on a l^^latura belug re-«tahlidicd in Nev York. It hua 
btjca very vrcU mud that Urn ^pcaJi ta a hypocritical ono; in 
imA, there U noi a iiltic hypocmy ixk mppcmnf: that a kbg" 
— lud ho xftude the ailaalon more di^$c^ hy ironically exee|>ting 
George IIL as ono who nxdly lovod liberty — '* that a common 
kinif ahould be eolicitoua to eatablisb onyitiinj; thai dcfienda on 
a popilnr aaficrabty, Kiuga govem by meoni of popukr a»- 
»iMnTiti<« only vrlion Ui^y cannot do withoot thorn ; a kin^ fond 
of that mode of ^TenUi^ b a chimera. It cannot e^su It 
ia GODtnry to the nnturo of thingit But If tliia happy timo of 
lair and liberty itf i<> be retftorod to Amorica, why waa it erer 
diatmbcd? It ivt^-Tisd tbero iSl the abomlDaUe doctrine of 
gaining moiioy by tftxea infatqateJ our atatcameiL 'fThy difl 



1771. 



OPINION Iff ^NGLAffD. 



hh 



yon deetroy tbo fair work of 00 tnmij agofi, in ovdu- to re- 
oeeAblinL it by tbo bayonets of dJecipUuod OorwiiiA? IS wo 
are T«^uced to tho diUmma of conqnonng or abftodoDlpg 
Ameri*^^ I am for flbandontn^ Amerfcfl," 

Thvfj^ liirre[ud wonb tlirillvd l!ie Inmfto of coininoix«, "1 
never 10 id}^ life hcAid a more moelcrlj' F]>««chr'' fAJd Oibbam 
" I never knew wij one l>etf«r on uny oa^ini," mdil Bcirfei?. 

Tlio diriaon left tlio nuiufitr/ ui the tuidbputcti poBscaiLiD 
of poinir in parliaoMnt; but letter from GeUGTal Howe to 
tho twcnlj'fifth of September, roccJTcd on tho eeci^ud of 
Korembtf, en]«L«d tbiir liop«» of uirly PQcccm in n^dncing 
America. For tlio next carnp^;^ io roqiiirod ton lin^of- 
bittle i]iip« widi finpi^n^iimerfirf ^enmc^ to jofo tbe dect En 
Febnutf}', aikd rwruii^ friTin E[ii-cj[>^ wkhoitt definite Itiiiit. 

TImw detiiinds Ocnnain (x^Tild not nieot. 11 is j^Iooiu^ 
foreboduijj:^ be kei>l lo bioifielf ; wliilo bis rurmere abtjut town 
iTDr© t4ku^t to ttcrcea Uie miiiiatrj bj llirowing tbc blamo of 
tlclajrs upon the ioadn<«» or ignorance, the nubnesA or in- 
trtWity, of Clinton, Carlcton, and llovo. But ho coul<! not 
eoncool tbo pnblio doolamtlon in wbidi tbo two brotbcre 
pMg«d tJ>o minict«n to conctir in tho rovwd of all t^ actd 
of parllaJnent by wbicb tbe AmorlcAnfi were ap^ortyl. To 
tot tbc ftiiic^rtty of Urn u3t^r» I^rd Jolia C&^i-uilUh, on tliu 
mth, Qbuvrd tbat tlio ioum bIiouKI n»n1r€ itself into n oom- 
■liit^ to oonader of tLat rcrifi^L Tbo utr^ioa perjik^xed 
Loffd Kortl^ who oertjiiiil}- did not vrud\ to root up c^cry 
olttDoe of recovoffiadou; but tho cxigcticf of tbo debate out- 
wd^iod tl»o c^iulderatiou due to a remote people and forced 
kJlQ to My ; " I will ucvor al]i>w tbo legi»btiro clminji of tbid 
•oontry to bo a prifivanco, nor n>lftx in pnmuini^ thoM claima, 
•0 toog ax tbc Aiuericane dispnto oar jwwer and right of 
legiiJatioQ. Tx-t dicm uc-kO'>w1i-dgi« tlio riglit^ und I mLuII bo 
rcadjr not only to minedjr evaI gn>TancE«, but even^ in some 
EnfllaDCv«, Co beoul t^i tlftrir prejudivi^^" Tu\ d]nH*ti.-d nltjTHttmi 
to tbe aeRUHptiOD of power to nuio iAXtty and of power (o 
BKalify or BJioibilate cbartere at pleo^uro, as the two pnncSpal 
(nemiocs wliidi ncctkd r^vuion. "Titl the spirit of indo- 
pondcDfj li aabdiacd*" replied Wodderburn, ** rcvMons are 
idle ; iLo Amorioaiu bave no terme to doma&d bom ytra 



M AMEEICA IS ALLUSGE WJTH rRA^^CE. ■r.re.^ cp,it- 



jnjrti^, viifttcvor ihey nmj ]iof>e from your gnee ftnd mAn^.^ 
Lofd John CtvondiVJi, on the clivi«ton, obuhted )o« ttian fifty 

die inomiii^ on pnrnto buAtictw, but la ioon u ptiUtc biut 
aen waa )iitr\>diicDd tlcj oAtcnt&tiooflly bowed to the 
mid witbJn^w, leaving Lbe mimatcra to carry tbdr 
without oppontion or tbluLbci. But thU polity did tiot 
Fox, wlioee Bftgncity and fwrUmiKiai nudo him, fit tw^enty- 
W!vvi\, tbo Tuofft important m^mbor of ihe house of commoiia. 

T}ic cliiLnLffivr uf l\m XinU\nQ num wu Dot n ehaptt^ uf 
contntflirticnH ; rrurh ^mrt <kf IiEh riAtitnr wa« in barmoay with 
all llu) ntiL '* J^tsrha^ uo liutuao being waa ever more pttiy. 
fccttly cxifaipt fn^iii tbt; tuint iif tiiaWvoIenoo, VAiiity, or fi 
hood ; '' but he bad no rcstfaining principle*, lud lookod with 
ooiLtempt on thoae who bad. IViding himedf on ignoranoo 
of OTVvy fdf-dcnying TirtoCt end dctightiiLg in cxocflsce^ ho 
feand notiunfi^ Unlucky at tho gaming-taUo beyond all oal- 
Adladon of chiDCtt, draining the eup of plea^ora to tho dng*, 
tha delight of profltgiloa, the «poTi uf iiKiiron, hs Ixavod scan- 
dal, And j^lfifH^fl xu n lorOTy rockti-MWis of his inability to pay 
Idft duljU, n» jf ttiJ|>fTb twlcnUitiuii m i:u«furliimT miiHLl him 
aboTo lib fcllow-ni^n. IIu Lad a strong will ; but bo never 
Tucd ittd bridle his paanooSiOTOLthon^ their inddii^eiicoaKv 
r^itod hia yoong admlren, and bmdenod hm own father with 
Ua CBonwKu lOMca. Som ic wealth and rank mid tsar ac^c^a 
to the corvioo of tbo Idjig, at hoart an aristocrat, he oonU moH 
at raooareby and hold tfie languago of s lerdJar and a dcnui' 
gngne. Ilv loved poetry and elegant lattSfVi fihakeepeara and 
Dryden, the aonga of H^^mer aboT« aQ ; bnt science wai too 
dull for hini, and even ilm hiGidity anil [lovolly of Aikm 
Smith oonld not chami bim to tho alady of poUUe&l economy. 
Ilia nocnrbed licetitionsneaa oeecned father to excito thao to 
eabavM hiapovrcxv; hi* porcqstioDB vet« <puclc and loetano- 
tiTcly trne; and in liia wildcat dianpatioD ho retained an ua- 
C3ctiD|0>>Bbahk poanon for acttrity of inlellecL liriog aa 
though men and women were loAramoTkta of pIcAtnvo, ho yet 
toAi Unuolf destined for great thio^ and called forth to the 
aerrW of mankbid. To be talked about, he would stake all 



iViO, 



0PI5I0S IN EXGLAKD. 



67 



bo bftd ftnd taoio on a iriigor ; but ;ho &ll<onqTieriiig inetiAOt 
of Ills tmbitioD drove him to the house of commooB. Tli«ra 
bii gGitlne vu ai borne ; aad Uiat UmIv cltGnAlu^d iiim MOi die 
tnrlnTgiicit [tntlii whiVli it aTwn^^v mniLLf'T^ to tllcw trUtt ki?np 
up lit) liigl] reputation ^ith the worltL A bnott^v Lnjw, & 
dark Ijroim oomplexioii, lliick, cJiiiggy c^cbnwrn, imit & com* 
pttct frame, nuukcd & m^gcd uidacitj aod a commanditig en* 
cxgft vhich tnadc him raUc and tcnible &6 an advotbary ; but 
witli aU thia he bod a lovclinfue of tompor vhtcb so endeared 
him to liM fncudi tbat Uio tamvora nnioD^ them whom I 
hare known n^ver oeaa«d the praise of tlie Bwe&taesa aad 
genttunew of hii faniHiar h)t4:Kuu»v. It wiu nutu^ Co h!m 
to %^enoTVt« gnudtvw Ilkie Eilimind BtJrW^ ; ftiid a wotind iit 
hia aSectiotifi eaalj' moved liim to le^Lrs. If bia life was di^ 
aalutc^ hia ^puech was uujttciv, ITin worda ven: all pun^ Eng* 
lUh ; he took no piinft to Imnt &f (or them ; the npticfrt c&mc at 
hia call, and aecuK-d to bolou^ to luitu Erer/ port of his dia- 
«oiLme lii'cd and movud. He iiov^r gnvc vp arrcn^h of atalo- 
tDcnt for bcanty of eiproaaoit, aiid Berer indulged in iiao 
lihnaai. His hoollhy dlotloD waa tmaffootiedly dmple and 
mrroua, alTi}ie oSoctivv, sometimes iD&j««tie And i^iioimdiiig, 
ru^ly omate^ and then onl; when he huprefs^d a enjinf^ of 
pu«ior phiioaopherto Up hut argiiTiicnit wiih firu. H»i never 
daukd with brilllajit colore, hut cmM ithiitte b/ fjoldtiftv m 
the ountrafit of U^t and ahade. He furoed hia hearera to bo 
attcntare and docile; for he apokccmly whim he had something 
tu aaj tiMt needed to tx^ wid, and compclbod ndmimtiou bccAuao 
be made bimaotf ntidersioed. Ue coold not only take the vsjit 
eompaai of a ^redt ^ueiiion, but, with lingular and unfailinp; 
B^^itdty, ootihi dei4K-t tlie principle upon which it hinged. 
What iraa entan^ed he (^ould nnfoM quickly ajid luci<IIv ; now 
ipa&kEng with oupiotu fliii^it<7, xmi novr muuveUiug point hy 
pmnt; at cine tinio confining debate within tW narmvRht 
Uicdla^ and aigaia dueuurning a^ if inapired to plead for alJ 
mmkipJ- He lud a w^mderful ^ft at finding and brining 
ti^getkcr what bo wanted, thon^ Ijing fir ofi aoid A0and<;r. 
It WW hia wont to m&rvh ^itruitcbtf^rn'ard to liis end; bnt he 
know how to itep aMdo from on onset, to dmw bock with hifl 
€je oo hia ft>o, and then, bj a qnioh revereiont to atrike him 



S5 ASEEICA IS ALLIANCE WITH FSASC& fir. it.; c«. it. 

niuiif&re* na vnih t^os. Wlien Fnvdved in dlvj>ii(e, tie <U«lieil 
fit the centnl idea^ whidi -vob of puver to docidc Hits Ntnfo ; 
gTR«pod it finnljr and liclO it fi»t ; turned it otct itod otgt on 
every aide ; bckl it up in Clio moet Tanous aspccbs ; cuno onoo 
more to dwell upon U with froah stmigUi; reDcvrcd l>low 
&ftcr blow tin it bacoin^ ftnn«a]ed liko irtwl. Ho liit tlm nail 
0^-^ ftad flji^n, iikI iUvtty« on tho Iwod, till be droi'e it home 
into tlio roiiida of hia bearers; and, when he wa» outvoted, 
ho lAiM U>ru uwiij t}ie wreotli im a wnvtler. Him nioHti!^ u« 
»imTn4<d up by M».^kittto6h, wura ''reasofif sunplimt^j and 

Yet Pox wu giCAl only aA i speatoer, And only ■» a spcciker 
in th« boaao of commont, and ibcro great only aa a epoaJoer in 
oppo^oiL Ug was toe akilf ul iu controTorsy to be able to 
proaont tho oonnoctiottA and n;lation« ct ertrnta w\& oompro- 
heneivo ^uhmim, and hut nroitf^ wont ont from him when bo 
oDdertoolc the oXce of an hi&toriAn. lie fdled aa ft atitacmaii 
from tho wiLjrvrardutua uf aTifixed pnudjiIeB; but liv tras tliQ 
TBTy DLin t*> ftform a etrotighold. In ninaiog down a iriliLUii^, 
hU Toico hallooed on the pai^, aod be wts sure to Ik Ua- fini 
ID at tho death. And now, in_tUe hoimo of oonimonir ihia 
iMdtcr of debate had docUred for the indepcndcDCo of the 
Coiled &Ut««. 

SubordntAtOfi in Canada pnid court to tho "confidential 
oircle" of Germain by cenAnrin^ Cnrleton for reatndniiig the 
IndiauA within the boTunliiry of hU ]>n>rinoo. 

Early in Scptoinbor, Hamilton^ tl» timtvDaat-pov^nior of 
neirott, wrr>te diroctly to the fieuY-lary of ftate, proini*3ttg ihit 
■oiall jMiii':^ ^* nf tlx) ffivagea aMcTiihlcKl *' hy hiiii '* In couDril^'^ 
**rhiefs and wairiora from tlie Ottawas, Ojibwaa, Wj-amlotii, 
aod Pottawiktoniio*,'^ with the Seneca^ would '* ^11 on tbo 
ecattcrc4 ccttlora on t1» Ohio " and ita bniiclic«. With fh^tful 
reatkaBnceB Gersaain enjoined hk aftcols to extend the maesa- 
OEM and dcalpinga along tho border of popniatton from Oonoda 
to Gaor^a, and chid er^ry Rign of rolo&tbg. 

In 170& CaHoton Bad nrgod tho ministry' to hold the line of 
coanmniiicatJivi ViwiHn tin* St. Tjiwrcuft* buJ Vvw York, aa 
the mmu of fiprurin;; ilir drjM^drtin? ^»f \ow Tori: and New 
Eughnd; Lnd be loi)J(tid npon the c^ce of reoorering tliat hue 



1770. 



DOItDEB WAB IX AMERIOA. 



59 



HA neserreJ ci£ ngfit fcr liini^lf. In tbe next yecL^^ <Muai|n^gu 
lie prcpoMd to adrAncc to Albany : for the i>Tc«ent, be do- 
vpied 0DI7 to ftoquiro the mastery of Lako ChanipUiiu 1b 
cppoitiug Iiim the AmoHieana tnot inrapcrablo diflkoltke ; tboir 
iddlful i;hi|i-!>iitlJoT« woi^ oUowburo crOn^duO -with em\t]oymiut 
in fitdog out pul>tio roesels and privflt)e&rB ; th« ecntity DJival 
atorOi whleh eoulcl be spared must bo transported ircmt tido* 
mtvr tiT thn lak(% nnir iiIimiHL imjmrtKCihV niiii3j<; utid <'Vi^ 
Stick of tinilie]" wae to be cut in iJw adjnwnt woods. WLrn 
dt^nnincd ztxH lud couAtnictod a fleel of dght gondo]^^ 
three row-giilleyB, and fonr *loop* or Hclioonetfl, tJiere wen; 
either nwX officore nor momcM to toko cha^o of thciu. 
Tho o)uof comawtnd fell ou Ani<*ld, a landeinaa; hia Eecond 
wat W^&torbury, a tirigadicr in tli€ Ccmxecticut militia ; tke 
CMW8 were moctlj Boldk^rA. 

On lU^ odier liaud, Ca.tleton, who overrated the American 
iuroe oil iJid laJEtA, n?tjtn.lr<l lljt-< i':t]iLputgii b^ nn rxcrsv of 
|in;|ianLUun. IJv vrw Mnl b^ (xnji^ructora froni Eugland, 
Qiicb«Cf and tlie fleet m the ^t. L&vrreuce. The miuitmlly 
ooeitributed luval e<|iupine[ita And matomle fcr Bbip-building 
is abanduLoo ; it ac3t from the iiritlgh yaide three veeaeU oi 
trar, fully propfirod for eervioe, in tiio <;xpcctntton thiil tlicjr 
eotUU bo dnggcd np thi> ra^>idA of fbo Rieholieu ; two hnndr«d 
or iDor9 fla^boatl worv btiill at Montreal and liaoIM to St. 
Jobn*A^ wheoee a deep channel leade to iho lalcu. The !tiiim^r< 
tnuk juniy, i^nifipMed in part of rhc ncrr cf B^|1tl«^^?k nnd of 
Waldockt vcrc mott amply pr<.wideii witli artillery, While the 
veascb and traaspatlA were being biiiltf nr tmivtfcrrvd to IjJce 
Ohamplaio, the troops for ncarlj thrtw months were tmincd as 
ibaqisbootera, oxcrc^eod in charg:mft upon imaged oncinicd 
in a wood, and taa^tbt V> rovr. TLcf became familiar with the 
maonm of die cnvago warriors, of whom fotu* hundnxl in 
CBOoea voro to form their van on tbo lolce ; and ibev ]oved to 
vaiefa die labors of ilie l-oat-bnildow. The large veMi-b which 
wwnt ti> hjtvn hvm t\n\^v] hy land round ihti portago of tho 
Bicbfllieii were taken in pieoc» and rebuilt at St Jo!tn^«. 
About mrcn hundred aallore azid the b«tft yunng ziav^d oQiceia 
warv inckcd fnxn sJiipivof-vjir and tmnspoitR for tbo ficct 

On the fo&rth of UctoboT-f Uarlcton began tda cautions od- 



60 I^UCKICA 1^' ALUANCE WITH FRANCE. ».iv.; OB. ir, 

vaoce; coi tlio Urotli all hk 6oot w^ in mationp Arnold, 
nlioM Jud^ent did not equal faU courage, moor^ bis sqcad* 
ron In the bay borwoca Tftlooni laU&d nod tko mtlo, leaving 
the greutt chnMnel of fTie laktr imdiKputvrl to lii» t'Ui^niu^ who, 
im tlie tiioroiii^ of tlje eleventli, widi a^ wiiid from tlie uonh- 
wort, panvd between Gnat and Valc^nir IaIaiicJa aiid 4:jiui« into 
Ui rear, with mach more thAD t^co his veight of meUl uid 
twice u« loan^y tljchtiuj; vcAsel^. Hb dcli&nt self-teliaiLCd did 
not fail him ; fomiiug a line Hit nnciu:^ from VaIoout to tl^O 
mun^ he adv&nood in tho Mhoonor Kojol ^^rag^ ^pport^ by 
hk roW'gftUeja, Thd vind fftTored Mm, vhil« it kept oS the 
Infiexible, which vnu alraady to tlio uulh of him; htit did 
C&rleton wha Mn to get into oction, luid was ausUtnod bjr Ui« 
artillery*1xiAt«L The f^atUftyu were drit'eo WV ; tli« RojaJ Sav— 1 
Age, rripiik^l ill iL*4 muitU luid rigging, fdl to th« kat^wonl mA 
wi« fltmndod on V&Iooor UUnd, wh«nco Arnold, with the craw, 
madfi hid way to the Coognoa. Mcflutiind, the CatieCoti, ai^ 
ooEnpnniod by tho artillery -Vxita, boat up ogaiiwt tho 1>n;cso^ 
till it caiDO within miuk^t^ot of tlie American hno, wIiitd it 
opened dre from both ^de«. The Coi^grMS, on which Amoki 
acted aa gunner, wom liuH in her main-cnaA and j^arda^ waa^, 
Iratled tw^lTo dmee, &ni] bit mvem titnm boiworai wind »ui. 
w^ter ; tliQ goiidolA New York lo»t all her oflken e^n.-jit ber- 
rjiptniLj ; in tlio Wn^JiingUin, thif HnX liciitiHuuit u'aa killi^l, llio 
capUin and Buwter wounded, tho nuin-niDet »hot throTi^h co 
that it beoame naelosa; agondoJawaa sunk. Of tho liritiflh 
artillcn'-boatA, one, or pcrliapa two, vent down. Tlte Carloteo, 
which, owing to tUo wind, oonld reocive no euooor, euSoiDd 
aercfoly ; Daeroa, Ila capt^n, fell acoaalQia from a blow ; 
Brown, a IkGtcJi^it of ntormc^i, lo«t an urn ; hnt PttUew, a lad 
of nineteen, who sWNTeed^ to the oonummd, carried on tlit. 
%ht, to provi^rit AnioldV eAcaju. Jmt before ilark, u'l 
f-i\ij or more of tlie Amcn^^AOs iind forty or mont i>f tlic Brtt* 
ifih hid htxn hlUed ur wounded, ttie artiUery-boalA. otx tho «ig- 
lul of recall, towed the Carletou out of the reach of ahol;f 
Ai CBgHt in tho ereaing the lirituh fleet anchored, ba^ 
theor left ving near the miinlnnd, the light near Valoour 
laland, with aev^d anaed booto etiQ farther to the right, to 
guanl tho poftugo between Tolcour and Grcftt labnd. A^ 



ITTft. 



BORDER WAR [N AVfn^lCA. 



€1 



nw Qo lioji* bttt in nuining tho b1oekar!e< An Lour or two 
before miiiDlgfat they hoisted floohor sQ^mtljr in the lltlclc 
dMricmtiM ; Wi^Ustwiirtli, in tliif Tniriibiilli loi! Uic rrilntnt ; the 
{^i}olju &iut siiLilI voci'U followed ; Ok^ t^Lina WaterluLiy Id 
tho W»hlngtoQ ; and^ last of all, Aivold, iii Uie CongrcM ; 
md, luving & fair wincJ, tlw^jr stole nnobscrrcd tlircmgb tto 
Bntiafa float, clo«o to ite left \Hr^ 

TbcQ d&7 nroalod their oecape, Car1etoti,advanciii^ siioTflj 
fl^uiurt Q unitlLurly 1>n>«SG, lu rbc saonbig of llio tltiHoonth, 
ftt half-psBt nvclvej was nvnv i^noiigh to tlio fuj^dree lo be^ 
a cannonade. At lulf-pafit tmB tbe ^ind came mddenlj out of 
tKft tinrtli, Kinkifig iln^ T^iilmli wilK fini; iha Wiu^biii^on wiw 
oTL'HAkcT] uwir Splfl RcK!l<,an<J Cfjmjirllfwl to strike, ThijCoo- 
gnM, witb foor gondolas, kt«pmg up a raaEang ti>;ht of five 
hour*, nitcred great 1o», ind wn8 cbaaed Ento a ffnial) crceic in 
Foaton on the cwt ado of the lake To oarc tbcm from his 
pntaaeRi, Arnold ml tht^m oa firo, with tholr oo1ot« fljiiig. 
Tlin btft to go oa ^re, he formed tbelr erevrs, aiid^ in aighl 
of tlni English ahipo, mRTchod oS In order. 

CarletOD reproved hU prieonera for enga^tng In iho pebel- 
lioo, foo&d an t*nii«? Tir tbntii Iti tbnir nrilt'n« ffijui tbr gov^rr- 
nor nf Connieot3<Tat vrbtk^e (TfliLuaJ character the king still recog- 
BU«<1| Olid dimtiiivM^ them on their puvile. 

On Ihc fonnCTmth, ma-rtcr of tbc lakcj he kndod at Crown 
Point, irilhm t^vo hoora' uiil of Tioondcroga, which mti£t hiivo 
«iirTvDden.-d for vaut of provUiond bad he pushed forward. 
But be iMvor for a cnomoiit (<rtcTtiiiood audi a doaign, and 
waEtod ocdj for ckUnga from Howe. Tboeo worv racoived 
oo the twcnij-MTcntli, and on the next day hTa army h^m 
Um ntum to Canada for whitir-jjuarti^ns. (>3i ihL' linrd of No- 
Ycmtier hi* rev guard al>aitdoned Crown Point; BritUh uHiccm 
wvm wdoninlHid nt bin rvrtrtait, which i««intd to the AmericanA 
m fli^it tlul could not }^ ao^nimlcd for* 

Tfo aooncr Imd Moultrie aiul hi& hrttre gama<m repulsed the 
sUick near Gbaricdtcm than Loe mcd \\i$ UDdoterred faino to 
extort from congTu» thirty tbouj^Lnd dollarfl aaait indemnity 
£er the possihlc foifcituro of property in Engknd. 

Actic^' ea the snggeatioii of m (tmngen without r^ection 



63 A3IKRI0A IS ALUASCE WlXn FRANCE, k-.it.; ca^rr. 



or exact iiifjiiii^f Lee^ iq the decoud wc«k of August, ut the 
tinlieaJtJ Jcflt «ca«on of the jcor, liutil)^ nurcbcx3 oil the Virf;uua 
tnd North Carolizia troope, without % ficld^jKooa or eren 4 
modiciiuH^oat, on on erpedltion ajcdust Florida. Hoirc of 
ISorth Carolina and Moultrie kood folloii-al, and ttWut four 
liuikdn?d and dxty mon of Soutli Carolina, with two fi«ld-pieceat 
xvv^rti Bt-Mt u> Savannali by water sloiig lh« tnUnd route. At 
Suabiiry u ilmulljr fever linilwj <ml in iJm i-Atitp, ri*jHxii:ill^ in 
Uw batlalioa from tho rallcj of Virginia. B/ tLis limo Lee 
»(Kiglit to *luft from himself I'll Moultrie the further eiffiduot 
of Ibo expedition, but Moultrie rcpliod tluit there were no 
onibbto roiourcce vliieh oould render nicccM ponibto. Karly 
!n September oonj^jeas collod Lee to the ^'o^tb, to coumuAd in 
chiof in c»o of mUlitp to Wmdiingtoa; be at oooe bogui the 
jotttne/, toldnj; wit^i btm all the continental fotce except the 
Lroope of Nortii Carolina, 

TTo left A Mivjign WOT m^ng in tlm muuiitiun« of thi^ tvo 
CftToUnae utd Geor;gia. The Clierokec« were amused at 
GatrBagemeot between Uielr ^ber oi-cj the water and 
ctdcr broHien of iho CuroHnoa; but Cameron and Btunrt^ Brit- 
ish agootit baring in ohnoat unliimtccl credit oq tbc British 
iixeheqn^ ewa^ them to befpu wur. The eolonkta la what 
ia Qovr outern Tenno«e«s were foitliful to tbe ]>iitHot oineo. 
Twice tbflj reoeiTed warning from the OveHdll CLc^iYikeee 
noDOTO from tb^ habltadcma ; but tliv ineiuocigvr tuok buck a' 
(1«iiian(n\ Mid tlm^Jitii fruin liie diririct then rvAM Fiiicw4le 
count/ UL Yirgini^ So ^tood llie Cherokeea^ wben a de^tfr 
tton of tbir(c«u or more Im]iai)4 oainetc tLem from Lbc fiix 
Nations, the Bhawncc* aiuL IK^Iawarc^ the Mingoc«, and tbo 
OttAwaa. The mtKaoit, they aaid, wie oobm to leooTcr 
Jo«t hmdn. Tlw Sliawnooa prodieed tholr wu^tokoM, of wl 
the young Chorokoo warriora laid hoJd, ebowinj^ in return t^ 
war-hatcliet leoeired about eix years before from the noribei 
Indiana. Wlien the nowa of the arriral of CUntcn and Oom-^ 
wallU off Cl^arleEC^m reoelwd tho lower aettlomenta of the 
CbeTokeM, their wiirn<>r^ on eaehflMe of the moanlalm^ twcn- 
ty-Sve hundr^ in number, p repaJtd for deeda of Mood. Tlio 
OreriiiUe collected a thottaand aldna for moccaH)n^ and 
their niaiiM into fioor. A few whitM wcr^ to go with tbcm 



17T<L 



DOBDEE TTAE IK AUERICA. 



63 



inrito aU tho Hag*it tne:i i^ join Ihuin, afUT vhi^li th^ xtrero 
to kill or drive all wbom tbc'y couVI tind. \VfEile Henry Stimrt 
wtf seeking U> eog^e the CUoaias' and CUblcuMiH tit. ivtliw^ t1iu 
Cbcrokoea «cnt n PMnogQ to the CrwLn vrith tbc northern war- 
tbkcou; but tbo Cr^cka returned for a&£wa Uiat '* CJie Obero> 
kccA bad plucked tbo thom ont of tLcir foot, and vero i\-dco«iio 
to keep il.*' riio rebotf eaine loo hto ; at tlw ncvn that tho 
lowor 8etilcTn«nt« hod ftruck tlio borders of Sontli Carolina, 
dio nilv wairiora of all tho wcfftem eettlemeuu fell upon the 
loluibiiAnUf of t-ai(U-ni Tf^ntitwtH.^ eliuI roved r« far ae tbo cob- 
Jos oa CliTicb riiTT&nd tlin Wi*lf Iltlliif now called Abliigdoc 
TIui eotnEiiOEi penl caufve*] a ^tiunil rlmig of ttit; people of 
cectirm TomicMoc and conth-wcetcm Vb]i;inia, of North C^ro- 
Ihui and the nploitdeof South Oarolina. ThoOverbilifirecelrod 
a choek on tbcs tM-cntieth of Jtil^r ^^ ibo labud Fluttf, iii what 
il&ywood, tikc rencmtic hi^toriun of Tonncs^co, odla a *^ mii^ 
^ of a bfttUOf'* for not one n'}iito niau waa mottallj wouiidodi 
vbilo tbo ChevokEKV kiat forty. Tlio next <laj a party tras 
leputsed ^om Fort Watun^ hy JanwH Robortton and bU ga> 
riion of forty men, C'olouel ObrlsLiiui, witb Vlrgiuin loTtti, 
joitiM) on tbcir innnJi by tnMipK fnjin North C«Ln.>bnn and 
'Walanga, tiude ihet[L4elTe« ma^tcrg of tbo Ti]>|>er fM*Ult'ineDta 
on llw Tdlico arid the Teiine«itee; but, when ibc Cherokoca 
«Qcd for peace, the arca^ng party granted H» except ihat tomia 
like Tiukega^ where a captive boy bad latoly been burnt alive, 
wororodneod toaahcfi. 

Tbo waniora of the lowor ecttlemeotA, who bcgojx :ho war» 
at daybncalc on the tnt of July poured down upon the fron- 
tivrw of SouCb OuvIitu, killing and ecalpong witliont duluio- 
tioD of age or ee^t. The people^ having parted with tbelr be«t 
tifloi ia tbu deftfident of CbaHcBtcin, II<?w fori^fHy ti>i(|i»o1uida 
bmiiL Tbo Indians wiem joined by the a^ni Cainrri>ii and a 
aroall band of while men, to |>roinote a riMTig of tbe loyaliata 
1b upper So^^i Oarotina. Eleven hundred patriotic of that 
•tatCh tmder the lead of Williamsoiu madu hoad a^^ainat tbe in- 
vadera, and. In Angnat, deatfoyt^ tlie Obcffokee towns on the 
Keoweo and the Scocoa and ou ono ddo of tho Tn/^loo, while 
a party of Georpana [aid waste tboae on the other. Then, 
druwii^ nearer the region of preeiplcce and walcrfidU, wlddi 



U AMEIUCA IN ALLIANCE WITH FHANCE. u-.ir.; c&tT, 

broko up tbo tomiA on ihe Whitcvatcr* tho Tcxftva^, tbe 
Estfttoe^ ind in tbo bcoudftil vollej uf Jocatti, iMving not odo 
to tho «aAt of th6 Oo(n»o MountAui. TI10 ofitoms^ vbo hul 
taken part in tcalping ftml munlcring, AotttctboCredcffWhode 
toutrality wsa rMpect«d. 

Tn Sejiteiiil ler, eflUbliflk!D|f a wcH^rrivined fo«t cai ihc 
Srtifyr,^ ftml mnnrJiIng np Wir "Wnm!ui*is cmrk, WilliamMii 
[OMed Uuongli lUbnn gap^ defttro/ed the towi» on tke lirtli* 
TriHTirflTfi Bs far u the Utuca Mountain, and then toDed ovar 
the dividing ridge into tJio Ilivrwioo taIIot, npuSng or ruing 
the towziB at luB ivilf. Thoro ho wae joined bj Kutti«rford o£ 
Keith Oarolisa, irho had promptly nnombled in the dbdiet of 
StlilbuiT an army of mow than two thoiuuid men, croMcd 
the AUeghanioa at the Swannamxt giip. fordd the l'>?ncli 
Broad, <^ penatiated Into the tniddk* mA t ullejr luwiu, of 
whii-h hu Uid wavte nxHuifl-tlitrty. Gennain, in XnTv^rrtl^vr, 
vroto to bis crusty agcQt: "I expect with mip«tica>oo to hear 
IhAt you hare prerailt.^ with the Croeka and Cboetaa to job 
tlie Cfacrokcoa hi a genetil oonMcncy Agaibct tli« rcbds.^* 
But the; (-^o?taisno7cr inclined to tho war; the Clikkaffts le- 
cctted ; the CmckA kopE wuc\y at homo; Bad Uw Cborokeca 
woro forced to bc^ for nwrcj. At a talk in OiaHcMton, in 
Fobnuj; 1777, tho Man-killor aaid: ** Ton havo d<«troyod my 
homtif hot it Kanotmyddartbroditr'afaalt; kUtbofank^ 
my father owr tljo vai«r ; '* and, &t tlie poftoo in tlto fntlovnng 
TkUr, Uwj gave up their landa »■ far as the vaterahed of the 
Ooonco UoiiDtain. 

If or wafl the orenvbg of tbo wild men the ody good that 
come out of thia bootlow i-iLgrmuaa of the British miniatcr to 
cm^Aitieric* by an Indian oonfodcfnoy ; boDoofonrard tho 
flcttlcn of Tccincaaee npheid Am«rioon todcpfadonoc ; and, 
potting tboir mind into oim word, (hoy named their diatriot 

TUEIKOTOK. 



1TI6, 



wnrrs PLAisa 



» 



CHAPTER T. 



WHITR I-LACC4. FOST WXSBVSGTOS. 

OcrmwiK l^NtiTBMBEB 10, 1T7C, 

TVis neailjr four treoks Washington and iho main bodj of 
liU arm; rcsnaiocd on the licights ci H&rloi]]. Tlu un&vcn 
upland, UUlo rooio tluin a h&lf niilo wide and, cscopt at a few 
punta. Ion than two hundred (i^t skhcv^ the cca, fille ftw«j 
predpito^fly to^;nrd the Hud^m ; alou^ the Harlem Hver it b 
bounded for move than two miles 1>y walU of priniitlvu nx^lc or 
doolivjtic* ftecp n0 an oBaupment. TowEtrd MHulmttaMville it 
eoded in pathU'W rmgik, "n^-ji; uxwtt^l iifi highuuj^ fmni thn 
wKttth t-io(-|>c tJ^e narrow (me whirh, noartlic Onci Tlnnrlrcd and 
Fortj-fonrth tttrtot, ;ct wtiuitt uj3 Dreakneok l!ilL TIlq a^k- 
pvOftcU from that quarter V1I4 guarded bv throe paruJIel Hnce, 
of wlilch tbe Jim tud weakest ran from al>out tlio <W Hnii* 
dred and Fortj-cighth ulroct ori tlic cfu^t to tbo Occ iiandrcd 
Bid Forty-fiftJ] tm tho wo«t ; tho sooond was in the tvhj, xi tho 
frtaooc of two fifthfl of a mile ; iha third, ono quarter of a 
iaD» MtiU fartJicr to l)to north ; so Oiat they oould be protocrt^ 
oDtt &om another, by mnnlcfitr^ aa well aa cannon. A little 
intbnr than the lliinl jHimlliil, tin? hoaso which Wiwhmglim 
CBcnpled stood on high ^Jiiod oTerlookln^ the plaiiis^ tlie 
blUi ahoTG UM^owon'fl p^M, tlie diaUnt nit^, and tbe baj. 

Korth of houlH|Karter^ tlie land nndnktoc for jrct a mile, 
to whom Monnt WMhington, ite highest peak, luea two him- 
drod a&d thirty-oi^t foet over tbo Hudfloa- Tho ^cop Bum- 
mil woi crownod br a £v(Mddod oortliwork, moimting thirty- 
four cutnoo^ tint wJthoat casematM or ttroiij? ontpoete. 

Sxift bejood Fort Wa^Ington the heiglitiA cleuve avundeFj 

T0U 



AVESICA is ALLIASCE Wrra FEASCE- ■p.rT.,<a.T. 



and the road to AJbHiiff h^ id oosy dceocitl, posm for nlwut 
& cult tliroi^h the rocky goTg& l^urd Hill, tho fiigjwet dlff 
oil tljc Iliulcm ndop wai oecopicd by^ ^ iwloabt ; the oppontc 
liill, near the Hudaon, known afterward m Fort IVyon, vbis 
still moTV difficult of accces. Tbonco both ridgoa fall ahniptly 
to a vuUifj wlUeh orottM this iftUod tom Ttibby Hook. Bch 
yond tluc pftM the luid to Kin|^« Bridf^ on the right Ua pLiin 
aad manJt ; on the W'H n now hut Kvh lofty t^nr K|inn^ up 
iiTid niim Uf Spjt Jtii DuvvbI rrvA.. hy wLiJi (ho Harlem 
joins thi^ TTiulMrn. Thin jKirt oi K<;w Vt>Hb IaUiic] wu 4lcfctiil- 
ed hy I-'ort Indcpeadenc©, on the Iii^h ridgo north of Spyt dca 
Dnyrel ; a aeried of ledoabta goarddd Fonlham Hca^ta, on 
the ea«t book of the liflrlora; oii csrthwovfc v^ laid out aboro 
WiOiaiEu^s Bridf:o; and on the third of October a gtiaid of 
riflomon luid tlidr ^danu-poit »X th« paaa from Thm^i Nook. 
Gioene comm.'uidod a body id J«noy, at Fort !«•, on the smn- 
mit of the paUsadGs^ where tboy woro B©venty*ihre© foel higher 
than Fort WuiiLhigUiu. 

Waflhtrgtoa took nil care to kc«p open (he Hito of retreat 
in hb rear; but he m>u1d hnxa aniti^ a» attack from tho 
aoulh, for it ironld not hare Eooikaccd }as GontmaQicadenj. 

The army cngcriy looked forvrard to the coming of Ixe. 
'^Du arriva]/' Mid Tilghmao, the mort ^thfnl tnctnb^r of 
WaAhinji:tOTi*a ataff, ** vilt groatly rrliero our worthy geDonl, 
who hu; too mtich for any mortal upon hia handa.'' **PTOy 
hasten hla departure, ho i$ much wnntcd" vaa the oiena^ of 
Jay to a f riimd in Fluladdphia. Vot Loe bad not ono taloat of 
n conunandOT. He nailer could conootra anytlun^ aa a whole 
cr enrnprclHTnd n pliin of action ; bnt^by the habit of \iU mmd» 
u-oiild faet^ai upon some detail, and alwaya And fanlt> .\fi an 
E:ig)ijJunaii, bi: alTueled to hxJc down nprm hht jtniRirt iim[>- 
cutca as ^vei7 bad company ; " for bo liad tJio national pride 
of hia ooantrymeD^ though not Uieir hiyidty. ITU alienaLion 
from Britain grew out of petdanco at bcmg m^locted ; and, 
hid a chanoo of faror been Ihrown to luin, he wenid have 
onappcd meet eagerly at tlic hail. He e«bocnicd tlio pcoplo 
Into whoM aorvico bo had enterod nnw^)rtfay of a place aniong 
the nations; and if, by fita, he played tlie part of a ncalot In 
tfadr GKDSQ, hii mind always cune back to lua fint idea, that 



ITT*. 



■WHITE PtADTS. 



thsy had only to cuikJJpr haw tliev eo\i\d *^ return Ut th(?£r 
fono^rr vftiia of rplalicjii/* ITi^ mctl nflfrrwarrl U> «*y tLat 
'^thingB norer Kould bave ^do ^o fir Imd his advk-e ht-tii 
Utkesi ; '^ tad bo reocncUed Umi^If to the dechmdcn of Iiido- 
pcii<lciic<^ bjr tiK AmcricjiTi.-t, <'t\]y Hiu-t Uicre might be Bomo- 
thing "to ccdo*' m the ptico of '*accomni<MktioiL" AwaJltri^ 
tha <iLhI»f dommand in oase of a vaciinc7> he looked ui>oa liim- 
Mlf i* Uie bead of n poLrtj, and wcoricLl <}oTi{rro«s with cl&ioor 
for a npante comm^uid on the Dchwaro ; as they pemBtcd in 
MDdfng liim to tbe cainp of WuiililTigtjn, bu Kecn-Uy inockod 
At tlifMn iw **» )(bi}]1ii uf fuif.tl:< t^EUi fjluiTibh<d at cvi^ry £t^p." 

Lee bad '' adviaed that dom wa& Uis tlioe tu iiiukt; uji vritli 
Croftt Britjuii/* and }uti promi^L-d f^ tbftt end to '^luo his 
inflmiKc witii coDgrcM.'^ On that question Pcnndylvimia irae 
divided. ItB co&veution, compoaad of new men, and guided 
numlj bj A »cltQuL'mfttftcr« the Jioncst but incxjKrioiiCGd Juuc* 
Gnmoii, ft>nQeda oonatituticia, under tho complex uiflaeQoe of 
■bttnifit Cnithfl and an angry quarnl willi the sapporten of tbft 
old chftrtijr of Hm ooIoilt, Tbo clcctivct fRLnc^liiMo ww oxt^ded 
to cToj reddent tax-payer, and Illative power concentrated 
ID n idnglo amumbljr. Mcm^jver, tJmt arnvriLhlj^ iei juini luiIUib 
irfiL a raiincil vbow mrmbcrni wcro too iisvr to bu of much 
niglit in ■ dL-cinou bj Qumbere^ vraa to ^Ject the president 
and TMo-pmidcnu The pre«ident Lad uu higher fttncticns 
titan tlicMc of the prcadcnt of a connciiboonl. This conetita- 
tioLi whicb Mtuticd ncitlter tbofceHngBnortberefli'ctive judg- 
ncnt of a nmnfirical majority In tliD ftato* ^vueb pat in acdoa 
witboot boiDg proTiottily 0ul>nuttt>d to tho dtLzeofi for ntifioa^ 
tion ; and tt protid^i no mode for lu amendment 1>ut tlirongli 
iba TOto of t^pTO tUrd^ of all person? elected to a hiv\n\ of i^i'-n- 
Miif wbkh waa to be chown fur one ^ear only bi fleven. Front 
•WT" A'riir, bd'ore Wia vote could be rvceivi-^i], an orttb or 
afflraiatlan wm n.?>[»inil tlut Im would neither directly nor 
iulirrctl^ du Anything iDJnnomfl to tbo coiutitiition aa cetalv 
fiabed by tlw cmiTCDtioa Thi» re^riirttnecit, whii^ a ]arg« 
part of the Lnbal)fta&4fi> ccpcciitlly of tbo Qnakcn. oonld not 
aneept aod t&flL-rcd in oouequenoe virttially dU&anobiaemontt 
nat the etotc into imbtttcred &ctaon£. To tbo prepri<ftary 
party tbo ncvr govfimineot was Latefnl w a luiupatidu ; u> 




tiS 



AHEBICA IS ALLIAKCE WlTa FBAKCE, si'-rr.! tot- 



Robeit Uon^ O&diraJAder, Ka^ Wajne, and mhuy othci? of 
^'Huo tkOflt oi tbo wbigA," ttte unoontrolbd wiJl of a ^ngh l<ij^ 
[atiTo afliCBlblf iconicd a fonri cf Ivranny ; wLilo Ihc voitt of 
executive enerf^ took siway all Iiopo of OAlliti^ the rwourcus of 
the etato Inlly into juriion. 

TIrt* ooii^ttttuliJin of Xt'vr Ji-rwv wctjM t>e lit'lf-ann idled, '*if 
a ro(V]irtciliiitinii tH*twi?<>i^ Grc:t1 Tlritnin :itk) tlin nnfontm fhlimjld 
Ukt^ pWe ;" tUo [jrtsatleiit of Uih body wUcU framed it ojj- 
poMnt indcrpcnr1mc« to t)irt Luct, nxid Atill Wned to a mmtoo 
vrith Britain ; tho bighcfit offiocn in the public mttico vctc 
Udtcii from thoae vrho had etood againet tbe clismptioti ; the 
OAfcniUy had odjonmod ou tbe eighth *'tfirou^ Eoon vaot 
of KDombora to do boanMt," leavtnp nnliiiubed almovt wtfrj" 
thing vhioh they eboitld hav^ done ; iho opei ooimtrj «oidd 
not hope formocMa bi n*lstliig%n invading anny; "the torio, 
taking new life, in our 4>f tlw Urgw* contitu's wewr cirwjlndiig 
ftLT »uWTri|)lion" mmjilunU ijf t]]« dn'.Umtiim nf tixk-|M.-o- 
dfrnco, hoftiino it wn* n Ikit to a tn?«r» Ijtc^ alleging the cow- 
cufTcnTC of '* tbo mo«t Mtire friends to tho caiwo in Now Jc^ 
acy and the oUier pn)viiLc«^ he had |)aaied throsgh,'* from 
Princeton propoMxJ tliat coitgiXM thooU authori» mi qGkt to 
open a negotution n~itli Lord Hove on bl« own xenn^ 

WaflhJnpoa at thU time^ " befoft of ot'Oj pt»ocfci] tno- 
ment, loriiig all t^omfoH and happln«t^" i)0CBp^M to vatch 
the effe<i» of tho wrilfulufus of ooaigiav In delaying to rabo an 
aniiy, aiul liiud of hII thinking tbflt any one could com hift 
office, ttv the difficulty of doing any easentia] ierruw lo the 
cauM by ooudnning in oomniatkl and the incritablo ran that 
would foliow hn reitinancnt. " Stich u my Eitnation^^ aaid he, 
priTately, ^ that* if 1 «rcre to wish the iittereet eane to an 
enemy on th&t ddo of the gtaTo, I abodd pot him in my rtcad 
with my fooling*.** Again ho addreeead oonf^rcBfi: ** Give mo 
le«Tfi to 0tj your aff^ia are In a more anpromUinfr way than 
yoQ aeem to appt«hend ; your anny ia on the eve of ita dUa»- 
hiljon. Tnw it 18, yoa have roted a Ufger one to Ueti of it ; 
but tbo waeon U laUs aiid then la a maimal difference b^ 
tveea voting haiUilu^n^ nnd noauig moiL*' X^th thu vraniing 
in lua bands* John AtUins, tlie otiaiiiDati of the board of wmr. 
said: "Tbo Uritbh fcne ia ao diTvikd, they will do no gnal 



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WHITE PLAIKa 



m 



matter moro tliia fall;" imd tbough dfficUUy informed that 
Lhti Aincricvi nntiy ironld liisbuid, tliat ftU tlio mock£:uroa tliuA 
far ndoptcd for ntisi&g a now ono vcro but fniitluM cxperi- 
tnenb^ bo aakod, and on tbo U^ih of October obtained, I«avo 
of ibienco at the tiitio vrhuu tiwiv wu tLo moat need of mergy 
to dimm rcltcf. On Um morninj^ of tlw oluvmiUi, ppoviow 
to hie departnre. new* came tbat, two day^ brfoa'^ tvro Bril- 
ijlIi nIiifH, uf furt^'-fu4ir giiiiK twii, wIUj llirvu iir fuur leudem, 
nndi^ an cuy laouthcriy bnw£«^ ran tlm>ugh tho ini])o[liiot-nU 
in ihe UudAon ^thout tlit leut diflicnltj and cApturcd or 
dcotrojed tlte four Ainencnn n>w-gaiJe>6 in tbo river. Yet 
CoQgf«M urouJd not conceive the necceu^ of further ivtrcat; 
TdfcfTing iho lottor to tbo board of wuT^ibeyinatantly^'doair^ 
Waibiiij[;tOD, if pnoticablii, hy cvttry urt und at wUat^vor ox- 
peiuo^ to obctmct oftoctiuilly the narigatum liotwcfm ibe forU, 
as well to previpnt iLe regrew of tho etiomieg' fn'gnte^ lately 
guuo ii|i wi Ui hiiidnr ttinii fnim nis-ivrng nui^cun." Gr>?t'iiu 
vDConr^ed tbu nd coofideuce; AFUt tht^ Bntiiih tihi|>»<)f- 
w bad pttsdd Dp tbe river he uid : '^ Our army oro eo ^troDg- 
ly fortified, and to much out of tbc commA&d of tJic tJiipping, 
wo have iittlc moro to fear this campdgin." 

JiuC thcc Hov<!i, IvAvin^ hi« finvbcd titcd abovo Moo^w- 
ai*fi pcus to tbo oofo of throe brigadea tmdor Percy, oonbtirkod 
tbe ttJk of bia atmj on tbo Ewt rjvor, and landod &t Throp['a 
Xeck- ITvJiiii^cn), wIlo lud foreacon tbii ultempl to gala bia 
n»r, avnsotiably ocf^Qpiod the catiseway and briJgv wbk.b Ictl 
from Tbrog'i NecV by Hand** rffleuQen, % y«w York repunent^ 
tbo ir^mont of Prwcott of Peppor-ll, ii»i an artillery com- 
puiy ; ported ^uardi on all tbe defentille grounds bchvecn tbo 
two nfTRiCi; began tlio cvnctiation of New York Inland by 
weaihig Uacdou^aU'e brigade before nightfoU* four niiltu bo* 



^ tW <ftfln <tt Um ntinzncDt M iKo Amalouk annir fnm Jfcv Tork bw 

Mil t^a^'* »rilM Stadmu, IliiL of th« War,!, 311, util b* b ixibiUnlUlIj foU 
laimd Ib Bm4'« Btol, L ^1- &J far i« ihu rrum tb« inifi* the maiitiicnl *■« 
■JiwJ farfiwa Ifta Ite lad fmUivl ibr rainJ of Lut, %> dO|>nr« fniir lila Ictttn 
M It smI It (N^obnT. %nA wan rrtan than bi^f »i«i-uUd A 1J117 or riro btfor« hi* 
Vfttai 7fl* cridcDM <4 ib« bcatnaliuc cf ;hT noTcra«Bl, wt BiiiAllw<aed| IS 
fTllott nT«,«kVD ba vfaumMgH tlu: rv^lplof hts onkn on ihfl tff? Jay 
Ifta Sviaali kadtfi, 1^«c«a, IL. IDU: miUnned t^ Ucalii lb bia joimi&l fnr liko 




70 



AMZRICA 15 ALUASCE WITH FRASCE. 



IT.; 



T, 



yond King's Brid^ ; and dctedicd ft eorp« to ^Tbitc Pluns, to 
which plocfk he cirdered hu iXorM in Ccmneoticiil to he tmu- 
f«md. On Ibe tMneenth a t^oandl of war vu ctlled, but tni 
fuljounii^S, tlut Gnv.mp and Mi^rrvr might recelTo a mnnmofis 
&nd Lee he preiejit- On tho fcuTte^nth^ Id obedwDce Co the 
in<Iiff<!mTt order t^ congmtK, Ooloael Ruftu Patniua wm 
charged *^to attend pttrticaUrJy to tho works abont Uonnt 
Waahingten, and to increase the obettuctionfl in tlic river ta 
iu£t a£ po^Uo;" whUu Lcc, etUJ in Xow Jonoj^ blamed 
tho oommaiidor-ia-chiof for not tlirutt«ning lo rMign. Later 
in tho day Lee erosBed the rivm-^ &nd fonnd New York Uaad 
alnsad^' tnom duui half evacmtlL^. Biding In ptusnit of Wiwh- 
Ington, who waa directmg in p«a^onthf> defence along Ka£tand 
"Wcit Cheitor, ho wa« owtgned to thu divUiou bi>f ond Slti^H 
Bridge, with Ute n.^]nfet tluU ho wonM esEordae no command 
till luT €uuM tiuke hluuielf acquainted wStli the arranj^iKiik 
of hiapostn 

In the fi^IowiDg niglit U«rc«T, st &vt aoconiiKUiied hy 
Qm^c, made a descent upon Statcn laland, and at da^hri^ 
on (ho fiftooath took eov'Dntoon pmonor* at Richmond. 

To the oouncal of warvhSdi asBemblcd on the atTtocnth 
Waihington produced ampio orSdonee of the intention of tho 
enfmy to tfurmtind hie anny. In tiieir reply, all except G(H>r^ 
Clinton aj^reed diat a duuige of poeEtion was neceaaary *^ to prtv 
vmtt (lieifOfuny ciittiiig nIT titti oErniniuninatuKi vritli the cjnn- 
try,^ Lecv who came to the meelliig to pemuide Ita inemberft 
that then? wan no danger wLintcvrr of an attAck, juincd in tho 
wlae deeiawo which tho beet of the gefkerals Jkad fonwd before 
diej eaaw tc^etbcTf and dktingniahod fdmaeif by lik vehemimt 
anpport of hia now opinioa.* Tho cotincil with appAront tina- 
ninUty adrbed the oonunander^b-diief that ** Fort WaghingtoD 
bo rvtoinod qm long as ptMible.^ 

MdM^Aj.BMlKie; b7C«laBilK«lA« U> Uarrktal Cnncfi «l SU«C7, 1 S Oct*, 
bcr 17T4. tk Ksn, D^ 10^; b| I. tLati t* U» idfc, IS OcUAcr irsi^ In Bnfl 

IMIM Wn aU vriUn M«Tt L<« urivvl inJ W4«n be bunr iBTthliig tte«l 

■ ThHlt«^«pliihnniwvapp«ai«t«a«U* Am iMUn. Gartwi, In Ua 

Cnmt VM a«t pctwai M it, u ibc T«ocir4 aba«^ Forot, IL, HIT' 



ITU- 



VHtTC FLAIN& 



71 



After fivedAji, which Howe paaidd en Thn)jf» Neck Id 
briagii^ up more brigidoe and c<»Doc1mg etoros, ho gnvo up 
Uid bap# of KettiJif? dinxtly in Waehinj^cn'e ve^, and reeolvcd 
to ftrUce at "WTUw Plains. On tlie eighloynih tie BritUli, 
QTcnnng in boau to Pvll'* Neck, Uiided JD£t beluw Eajd C\u%- 
ter, ftt ibo month of Ilutchi[r§oD river. Glover^ with one 
brigxile^ CugBged llttur idvjiiii^i-i) psirtj In ti t^liort hni .^tlmqi 
ocdoDi vliicJi was c^mmciidod in gcncnJ ordcrv. Tbnt night 
tlie Ifntuh laj upon UifiJr anas, with their left upon & creek 
towftrd Eatft Chueter^ tind tbi^ir right nuor Xuw lliichcUc. In 
the mirch tol\l]itc Fl4inji (Elc Americans had tho ndvantogo 
of tho ahortofit distance, th« f^reateet nnmber of efficient EroopB^ 
and the Kropgect groond. TIio river Bronx, a fmmll Rtr«jun of 
W«etcbaet«r county, ne&rlj pur&]1i*l with tlw IIudwoTi, M^rcdy 
tMrtj mit^ '<^?9 draining a very narrow v^LlTey, and almost 
eveiywlicire funlalilc, nij tliruugli tlili'k fitrtwU liy tJir ><itU' of 
ft Baecoeaion of steep ridgc& Tlio hillA to tJic north of Wliitc 
Flakifl contdnue to the Jakes wUieb &re the eoureeft o€ tite 
[ffonx, and join ihc higher ninge which bouTKb the haflin of 
the Crot*>Q river. The Americans, who wcxc in tine Aplrite^ 
uoTod upon the west aide, pr^ng the Britiah toward the 
jtomul, taking care not lo hts ontlbiakod, and protecthig their 
oureh hy a aeries of intreiiched campj. Deficient in the 
UMana of tninsportation, Uiey thcmaulvtui dm^^z^d llieir arttl- 
kfj, anil earnril what tlii^ eould vf ihWr biiggnge on tlicir 
hack^ 

Howe mnuiftiAtMl extn:iue eaiitionj hiA mnrch w^ clfMCi 
hia encampcQcnta compact. Jie wna bcaot hj diScultics in a 
'^oountij do oovered with for^ta, «wain|iRf and crecka that it 
wae Dot <^>CEi in tlie k««t degree to l)c known but in^m poet to 
postf or &jm tbc occoimta of the inhAl»tants who wore ontipft- 
ly ignorant of military doaoription." Afior halting two daja 
for two rogini<Tiit« of liglit dri^^>tu. on tin; twentr^ltnl, leav- 
ing Hellter with three brigades 1o oc^ipy the former encamjv 
mant, ho ailvani^i?d with thi» n^^hL and inir:tni of liU anny two 
mllfN alxiTB ?few Itocfaelle. To cf>nn(cract liitn, Waahington 
tmiafmcd hii heQd<<jnarf(-ni to Valentine*a Ilill, ;ujd pnt in 
motiun Ib^albV divi^on, which marched in the night to \Fhitc 
PUinl^ and on tiio pillowing day occupied the strong njeundB 





tS AMERICA IN AXLIA^SCE WITH FRASCE, ■P-ir.^iflLV, 



Qortii cf the vUliigo, ^abmio protect tlie nppOT road from Coa- 
iiecll<nit Intbeftanw nlgl»t fTii^bt of Dehvarc snrpHaed & 
|Tii^H cif "Rfig<?r>t% n'^tni'Dt cif nuigrn^ »nil linmglit. uJF iMrty- 
aix prlfionerE, a pair of colcre, and aixtj miifikot«. A few boura 
bi«r, Hand, with tivo lituidred nfio», «ucaimter«d ui ecfual 
n-Jinbcr of ysgcn cuwl <lroTc tJicm from tlic field Howe fclt 
tbo need of A greater foroo. On tho twouQr-eoooikd, tfao eecozKl 
<liviadoii of tha HoouanB and tho rcf^icfiDt of If aUofikerB, who 
Lud ornvod from i rery long voyn^ only four dnri boforop 
woro landed hj Knjplticifioii 9it Now Koch«ller whero th^j 
remained lo protect Urn miiimunlcadonfl w!tli New YoriL 
Tliiit nUt-i^vn! i\iv. thnm lingiHli*:! wttli Hi-uiUrr; Tint, Uifbro 
tfacjr could movtx Wa^ikgtuu, dii tlie inonuii^ of ibe twenty* 
tbird, iiutallud \m Ltskd-qiurU-m at Wluiti Pl&iiu^ tni thoM 
bftfflbd tbt plan of gcitang into his rear. Od tho twcntr-fifth 
the British annv cro«eed the country from 2\ew Rocbellu to 
the »w York road, and cocmnpcd at Scondolo with the 
Bromt la front, tho ri^bt of bin osnij Imng nbont four miles 
from WTiite Plainjt. AVhilo ilowo'a w» waiting to bo joinod 
1:^ Hvist^r'fi dividoD, the over-qneraloiu Leo a&d the reft/ of 
the AmeHciQ xrmy tUMchiA y^At\^i0otii romp, without Iom^ 
exoi-pt Af nxty or wveticy baireU of provifiioEkA. 

The tweuty^evtmtli ww mariced hy a cocnhbied movement 
of tht* BntiiJi wbo hwl bccti hit at l^cw York affAJtUft Fort 
Vr'AfibingtoD, A ehipof^nmr aatto up to cot off the com- 
iQDDicAtMKi iLcroM tho riTtT, wliilo tlw troop« nnder Percy, 
from Jliirlcm piam, mido A dispoe^on for an attack; hut 
QrooDo Aoimatod the defenm t^ a Tiait; MAgaw prompUy 
mannod bis lin« con tbo tonth ; tlio tomI of war i&ilend «o 
B97€roly from tiro dp;hleon'poTmderB on tbo Jersey and ooo 
OQ the New York aide that ahe clipped I>er eable and efi- 
nptd by tha aid of tho tido and four tow-boatiL I^Utcd at 
tlio remit Greene bbdc to oongren by expn«e a l^loviog bo 
GGuut of thtt day ; *^ tlw trocrpa^'* Iw nud, ^ n-ere in bligb epir- 
il«, and in evoiy eng^feiDccit^ lutce tbo rcircat fr^m New 
York, had gtven tbo enemy a dnbUttg.** Laaher, on the next 
day, obeyed orden eont from Waabington** eamp to q«il ^ort 
IndepCDdoooo, which waa icfli]ated» and upon a&y eoosidoraUo 
atuek tati?t bare fallen ; bnt Orwoo, under tbe illutiona of 



inu 



WUITE PLAINS 



fuexpenencd and hst^ij judjfinc^nl, c^rtifilniiiMl ot tlio vvnrva- 
tion, and wr^tc miiroitinQg^ly to Waelti&gton that tbo ■' fort 
iDiglU Imrc kept tho caomy at bay lor eevetal daya." 

Oa the bright mormn;; of the twenty eiglitli the army of 
Howe, e3Ep«etutg a batUo whicii vm to bv tho cri^U of tho 
vnr, ftdvniKwd in two dirjsioiis, ite right under Clinionf Jt< Iftft 
tmder Heister At Hart's Corner they drove baolc it ]ar(^ 
jiuty of AiiHTrinuiM cihUtt SpciK'jTr. A« tln»ir several oolumoa 
came within three qn&rtere of a milt» of Wljitt? Fluins, 'Waali-' 
tngtna'n amij wm ^eeu in ordj^r iif Irnilli? uwAiliug an ottaclc 
on biQy grooad of hia onm choice, dc-fcadcd by an abattiB and 
two neariy poiulkl lince of intreochtueiilA, hb rl^ht dank and 
foor protcctod by a bend in tho Bronx, Lid hit renting on Tory 
broken ground too diSioult to be fie^lod. 

Howe ivas blamed for not havinfi^ immediately stormed tho 
Ameaiean oentre, whieh wiu lie only vuhneiuUe |>o!nt. WmJ:- 
ington hjui iirt ndi^vingi^ far hig nrtny, niimbering r^tJjer 
more than tlitrteen thouaand men a^net tlilrleen tliotiAoacl^ 
ni in good KpirlU^ iruiiliilcnt hi lUclf mid in him, TTowc 
OOoMdeivd that die chancer of a rcpaJra iDight be agaiufrt Llui; 
tbatt ahoiild he carry one line, there woqM reiiimn ucothcr; 
that* if ho »ca3cd both, "tfio toVkI anny could not bo dc- 
etfoyod,*' becatifio tho ^^Kfund in thoir rear vbs ouch m they 
eotdd wiah for M^onriu^ a retreat, 90 that the ha^eord of lui at- 
tach encoded any adTantag^ !lo e*juhl gain. But, 2» ho had 
e<iiiie m> far, be ie«med forc^I to dc E(*me1hiiig. A corp^ of 
Ann^rtcann, about fourteen huiulred ^rvfiig, iirulvr tlie com- 
nsand of Maodongall, occuj^cd Ohattcrton Hill, vtvat o£ tho 
Untux aitd 1e» than a milti wefit'«outb-w^ of ^VaaUm;^ton> 
cmip, oxtA thna corerrd the rood from Tanytown to ^VLito 
Plifofl. Jlowc directed eight rt^mcnt^ flbont four thoiuaad 
neni to cairy thia poeition, while the rai of his armyf with 
^hm left to the Bronx, sooted thccnfelTe* on Iho ground im 
loofceiB-on. 

A beary hot fneffcetivo mnnoomdo by the Britidt acroM 
Um mronx wm feebly n^tnmcd by tho thr^o field-ptecee of 
ibo Americana on ilie hill Tlia Heailan r^^mtTnt XoBbet^g, 
npfidrteil 1^ I^vlii* with IIhi MTKirtd EnglfRh hHgado and 
Donop with the Hessian gn^n^cra, forded the ^ronx and 




Y4 AMEPJCA IS ALLIANCE WlTfl FRASCK. w,nr,;mr-T. 

muchod under ooT«r of tlie Ktll, until bjr Hxnng to tbo left 
tUcir column becjime n line parallel witli tbat of tiie Ameri* 
cana, wliicJi WW (uiriEpiHi'c] nf thtt nnniittiH ut dw regtuivoilft of 
BrociltB of Mi«achuM.-tte^ IlaUet of Dchwanx "Webb of Cwa- 
uvoLicat, BinallurocKl of Marrhzid,a«d out of Ntv York. The 
caouioiiado cciuod, and Hie British troops Uir>ngU & uliowcr of 
baU«t^ clunbcd the tocky hitleide. For laitcen miuutce they 
mot wiUl a detoroinod i^Uunoe, ttpedtJly from tbe men of 
Maryland and Dclnwuv. li: ibo Amoricitii camp ;t R^«wod 
tliat the BritUh were wontod; but jost then ICaU, trho Imd 
bruiigbt lip two r^lxoeuts by a more BOQtharlr and eaHler 
rOQlo, durgTMl ibit ATurnnitm on tlicrlr ftank. Ifwlon^ll, at^ 
tacked la flaiik aitd front by tlince bis own DumberVf oomluci«d 
bis pvty lyvvr tltu IJroux by lIk; nxMl sod bridge to Wa^bing* 
ton's camp. The \om of tbe Americans in kiUod amd wouikdcd 
waa ten tbau a bondrod, of tbe llntbli and Heaaiads at Isaet 
two bnndreU and twenty nine 

Th« oconpation of Cbatt«rton Bill onleebtod Uovrft by 
£vidbjc bis foroea; and be iraited two days for fonr batta^ 
lona from ^nw York wkI two from New RctcbeJfo. Waablnf^ 
ton diDpIo];^! tbo roapiU? in nmioviog lus sick and bis ttoica, 
ijxl tbruwing up atmng worka uu bt^ier gmnndH iit bU r«ar. 

A drancbmg rain in tbo monuiig of tb» tbu^-ftnt waa 
liowo'a ttxcnae for postpaaing tbe aUack one day luore ; in 
tbo fioUowiDg night Wuhington, porocirin^ that llovo hod 
fifiiilied batXcrica and rccciTod rcjafowamapta, drow back bia 
army to bi^ groond abovo Wluto Ploim. Tlicrt, at tlie di»* 
taoco of loDg ttnaotv^iot, bo was tmappffooGbaUo in bwt^ 
and ha held the pasaee in Lia rear. But under tbo ayrtem of 
abort oalUtmcttta bis tti«Dgtb wm wietb^ mwiy. T1« uiiltda 
wonld «ooD h&xo a right to go bocnes *^ *^d not alnn wait 
for tbi?ir diacbaige. *^ It vaa a— ntini to kuep up tonm tbaJciw 
of an army ;^* Davfiitlieh«a ^'not a ain^ offiocr wa» yet oom- 
mieaioned luru-ruiL" 

Tbna far Hovo hod but a poor tale to tell ; bo ttuut do 
more, or go into winter qoaitoiv in abasMb I'ntnain bad aa 
overvQonlng confldcahoo in the improgDabfliiy of Fort Waab- 
ii^;toa ; on bia parting roqiiaati Omoo, wboao conuaaod oov 
included lliat fort, bad not aemplad to incmae ite ganriaon by 



1770, 



roBT WASHUffGTON. 



75 



sendinff orer betwooo tw« and three bundrad meiL Tlie mo- 
ments "n-liicb liod Aiogo of ita dcfcDGd mro cbicAj Pcniifijl- 
TSuiaiLa under the «{>mmADd of Colonot Msgaw^ who had paM^d 
from tbe bar of rhikd^lphia to tl^o armj. 

On the Iiui diy of October, Ureene wrote to WafihinetOD 
for m^tmotioiu ; hut, w^tUoul wuiting for th^tm, bo ^gfi^ rt\n- 
fcovpd Mapaw witli the rll^o rr^'mcint of KawUngs. On tJi© 
nn-uiul (:-( Xuveiuljer, Kiij'j>Lwuwu lirff- Nitw Hoi^helle, and 
wiUi hm brigiulo lo(»k ptrtWHSwUm of llic upper part at Kew 
Vorfc Ifthcd. On the tifth Uowg buddvol/ bniko up hirs on- 
campiDeDt in fmoit uf Wuluugtoii'H lined »nd morcd to Dolib'ft 
Ceny ; tLc Amcriow coiLndl of war which wa^ called on tlic 
dxth ftt Wliite Flaina agreed onaiuitioiisly to throw troope mb> 
Iho Jet^ey*, hmi tnade no chonj^ in iu former doci^iou **U> 
retain Fort Wafihiogton as hng aA possible." That ded^on 
rested on a refiolntion of eoDgr^se ; to that b^ij, therefore, 
Wubhigtni]|On the t\tiy <if the RiiuiLi-!l,rfxp1iiirir4d tKe Rpprooch- 
iog diffiohitloD of liiH onu anny, sLud '^tltat the eiiem^ would 
bend tbojr force a^utwt \'f>zi Wjuihiugtuti and invest it imme* 
disfctdj" Unt "the gcatr/ at Phibddphja loved Ughttu^, 
nd, in tiicir pna^ion for bnllUnt anions with mv trdops, 
widwd to Boe matters put to the hamid." GrccQc «^ poe- 
•OBOd vith the naniit inf atUAtic>n ; vhcti, on the H:ith, throo 
Toanola paeeod dio obetrT;<:tionf: in tlw Hndfii^n, ]m vrrt>tc to 
WiiliiAgtoD " tliat they vr«ro prod^^ioofly ehotterod from tho 
Sro of hU cimnoTi ; ** and at the laino tliuo, reporting tluit Kail 
tnd advanced uith his column lo Tnbby HtioU-, he ivMfid: 
" Tbuy will nut be able to penetrate anjr farther." 

WWiingt^n ntv mom r-7fUtrty, niid <>n ihi; ujj^Lth h& gave to 
Gf«Kiii3 bia iWI inritrur^Uimfi: ^' Tbo passage of tho throoTCtfceU 
tifi Uhi Xorth riTur if m phun a proof of the iiiefilc^5 of all 
tbo obaUncdoos thrown into it that it will fully JQ.itify « 
cban^ in tlio di^ponilloTi. If wc cannot prevent vc^cIb &om 
pasting np, and the i^mntxy uo poausacd i>f the ffajTOtindin^ 
eoimtrr, what valnabb pui^koeo can it &tk»w<rr to attoznpc to 
hold A po^ f n^m which tbo expected bene^t cannot be h^ 1 
I tm t1i«i^ore inoljiied to thmk (Imt it will wti Ihi pnuhnit to 
huani tlie mim and storee at Mount 'Wiuhiiigtuoi j bnt> as yon 
■m OQ thd ^jiot, i \rxvii it Ut ytia to f^ive auoh oiden aft to evao- 




76 



AVERTCA IK A1LJA?CCE WITH F&AXGE, ER.|T.;cn.v. 



tukdog Kount Wofihii^on as you mty jndge beet, sod so hr 
revoking tliu order glv«ii to Colonel Mag:iw Ui <k-feiMl ft to the 
Ust. So fiir w i^ii Ih^ ciilliT-bv] fitttTi tlir vanotiit sonnies of 
iiitelli^uee, tbo durm; mosi dceiga ft pccetratioti uiUi Jv-rm^y^ 
and to fJl down npon ^our poe^ You will tlicrvfore imino- 
diatelf hflT« ftU tho ftorcd rcmorod which yoa do oct deem 
neccfisafy for yty^ir dofonoo," 

On the EiDth ho b^^ bu romoval to the J^ncji bj 
fieodixig oiror PutDim wiib ^vq ihonsani trooft^ of vhicb ho 
tru bimMlf to toko Uu? <y>iGniiLDd. On iIju tooth, L«o, who, 
vllh about eereu tbontand five hundred contJiientAl truopf and 
militxo, vmi Ui n-nmiti bi^hmd 111] all douirt nwpjcUag Tfow^s 
moveiueut£ eLould bo ov~cr, was warned, in written ofdeiv^ to 
guard jkfifiiiut aiiqmiee, and to tran0|>ort all hi* tiogga^ and 
otoroa to tlic oortliword of Crotou rircr, with tlua final tDetmo- 
don: ^If the eocsDj should romore thcgreotor pot of their 
foroo to tho wM aide of IludcouV rirer, I havo bo doubt of 
jour following, wfcfa bH ponlblo dnf^t^h." But to I^o tho 
proepoct of % Bef»rate conuosad w so alluring that be vat 
reaolvwl not to joiu hU ND|)«{or. 

On tbo iDCiniirg of tlic cl(Tvmth^ thi* mmttiioidrr-in-rlifef, 
alt«ndei1 Uy [luoUi, Bltrllu^ the t^-o Clintoiei, MiAlui, and 
otlii!r^ wcviC up tlw defile of tine HighlaQdi, poat Forta Indc- 
peiid«iioe and Clinton and the unfitted Fort ]loittgomci7> 
aa far as tbe iiibiid ou which Fort Con^tutkw commanded tho 
sudd«n bend m the rircr. Aglaaoa of the eye rvvcaloil Ibc 
tmportaooo of the woot pointy vtndi it vua now dctormbod to 
fofiifjr according to the w^ of the New Yoric prorindal coo- 
rention. Vor; oariy on tlio twuUthf IVMhington raio with 
Hofttfa to recotmohre thegoi^of the Highjanda; ih«n giving 
htm, under writtmi uvtnintttvui, the comuand uf the puiita on 
bodi aldea of tine rirer, with thfva tfaouam] troopa of Mana- 
chnmrtlK, OtKinrfiictrit and Xcw York to aeeun theca^ be crooaed 
at ton o'clock, and rode throogh Smith'a " dove ^ to Hackcn- 
aack. Hia arrangemcnta, aa tho 0T«aca prored. wore the very 
beet that hfa drcamatanooa pcnmttcd, and he might leaeonably 
b<^ to cheek the pw graei of Howo ia Kev Jenej at the 

But Groca^ fnuucd mouuroa eoatntr; to WaaUngton'i In- 



m*- 



FORT V^ASmyOTON, 



n 



tenHoru aiul onieTV. Uc fell to qncAtioiiiiig tbc propriety of 
Uic directions which ho reooi^od: maat<*d that Fort Wtialdiig- 
ton aho^d bo h*\tly <j7cn i^tUi tko Mirtiuuty oi its invottmcnt; 
gavo ajsarftnco tiiat t)i« gairiwm wjm in do great cono^vable 
dflcgor. and ooald easily bo brooj^bt oS at tny lime ; and dwd 
M^^q**it ojiluioti, ibat ihu furl wJuH afuTid a FU^git till Dqo:^- 
bcT. TiiRti :ul nf maf'^itiiTg it, he tooV iipoi himself, la dift- 
rv^iunl uf ilia itislnirllonH, to untd wvt-r rtTiEifurv-i-uiJiiilH, <'liii"rtj 
of Pcanwylvariiariis ik^jc fmnj Nvw ETigleiid ; and, in a direct 
report 1c congrcA, Cfmntorikcting the iirji^t rocnoufltruiceA of 
his duef, L« encouraged that bodj to Uilierc thai Uio att'cnipt 
of llowo to poiBCM hinuolf of it would tail. 

Before ^e end of the tbirtcontb, WciBliiD^u arrived at 
Fori Lce^ and, to hb great {^ef, foond wb£.t Greene had doDc. 
^^Tbo iinponnnco of the TIii^Imiti rivi-r, and lb<i«uuigitiiie tvUliw 
of all to prevent tha enmiiy fmm |w>s5c-'«my ir.'' hnd induced 
anignstit tii ii)It;rv«TttO Lj Jiu onJt^r, which left ^Vajihiuf^tiiii iici 
authorilj to €T«ctiato Fort l\'a'sliii(£toii i^^vcpt frurn iif.-rrM'itv ; 
A full eoQCcil of gciwral oQIcori lad dctcnuiiied to hold the 
pott; GroCDC, the COTiim>vid<T of tlic jwst, \a4 iiwi.*tcd tlwt the 
eTtat&tion waa not only uacalJcd for, but would be attended 
bjdiautrouB oan&eqtiencee ; and, uudvr this advice, ^aa)ifu^ 
toD debjwl to give an absolute ord;n- for witlidrawing tho gar- 
rifion. 

Od the &igit fuDowiiig the fourt«en:]i. thiHy 3a^boat« of 
tho TtrJtWi fovHod titu jjost »ndi«rijv«roil and bid Himnmivm in 
Spyt den D[ijrvel ere^'. Having Unl^lied batterlea on VoTtl- 
Imni lIi'JgittH, IIow-, ID tJje Aftuniofiii <if tlio fjftc-eulb, «uui- 
moDed Mag&w to emrender Fori \Va£bington, on pain of tJio 
(■nison'a being put to the avot± The g^ant otiiccr. romon- 
•Cnting i^fatiLrt thi« itilinmiLtL rnciuicc, tn^e answer that he 
ibonkl def^ad Jus pwt to tbo laet oslrpmity, and acnt a copy 
of fcif njpjy to GroonOt who, about dunset, forwardc-d ic to 
Wa^lungtofi, and Idmaolf aoon nftor rx!}«ir«d to the Ldtuid. 
On nnlviti^ tlie niefisa^, Waflhiiijicton lode to Von Lee, and 
wm erowig tltc rivt-r in a rciw-lu.iut lat^ at night wlieii hv lueC 
Fntmuii and (treeu^^ and tpoke with tliem in the Atrvnii]. 
Grettu?, whn w^ui ]>en4iuwlei1 ilmt he Iiad htut over '* men 
GMNigb to defend thdosdvc^ aga£i»t tbc wholo Btitlah uniiy," 




78 AMEKICA IS ALUASOB VfirH FRANCE. Kr.iT.;cs.T. 



report(n) thnt die troopft wen* ui high spirits, and would do 
weJL On this report Wuhington tnnivd bock with Uiotu lo 
Fort L©c, 

Tltu grounds wlucli ]\[a^w vroR cLur^^d to defcoid rcaclKTd 
foom tbo liilU above Tnbbj Hook to a sigtiv luio a little 
w>utli of the pro^cnt Trinirj cemetery, a diBtaaoe sonb and 
M\it\i of bvo Htid a lialf iidlai. :i dnmlt of sbc or wren. TUu 
defence of tbij nort)wnmi*»t jwiint of tlin ttviglitji over llic 
ITiKlrtiii HU'a LoiitmitiiKl Ui RawUn^ willi tlie Maryland riAo 
rc^inont, in whioli Otbi^ llolUnd Willimtifi wm tbo aecond in 
oonunand ; on the ilarlcm ride^ Baxter* with otic Pcmuj-lTtnia 
re^bnent ^om Buoks ooimt,T, occupt<<d the rodoubt on I^or^l 
Uill; Magaw roCoined at Fort ^VLUiUJn^^ton a amall rcttorvt; 
the linoe at tho couth woro iatnistcd eololy to CoTotiol Lamboit 
ddwalader of FhiladelphU, vith eight hundred Pefitii]^vanip 
ans. Tbo intervid of ti^ EoUea btstweon the north and aoiith 
hhw VDfi left to oo^al FiipptiM of troojjfi. 

Thi? Aiiitirk'uiiA li:vl l4k di^id imt i<itl_v with initni-TiNTl^ kiw 
periur foixM*, I'ut with tr«u=oii. On tbe e^cond of Xoveinbor, 
Williani Deuionl, a umn of good powerft of ob«emtjon whoTti 
tlic Pbikidfllplua oonunUtcc of lofc^ had i^^pwated Magavr^s 
adJDtaQi, doeorted to Lord i'ei^, taldi^; with him the pUaa 
of Fort WaahingtoD and iu approachoo. By tbceo llcraro 
pTcparvd tho aj^^iuilt. 

A caimonade from tho hoists of Fotrdham wae kepc tip 
on the tixt«ettth tlU about noovL Of thmo ia^pamto attaclu, 
the iiio$t diffknlt vwi msAo hj Ivarf bao^en with neartv foar 
thousand five )iiuidre<l nivii. Tbe briguk on tlio riglit tu»r- 
Oit the HiidMHi waa led by Hall ; another, with KiijrphatiBei], 
marched nearer the road tuward tlie gat^^ olTici^r^ Itku the 
men, on foot, Tbe high aod riccp aod tMc3c1y woudod land 
waa dofoDded hj felled trees and ihzvo or four eaiinon. The 
aM&Uantns thinned by the Ameriom rifles, dre^ thomaolTOA up 
over rocka by graepitig at trec» and hnabca Kxdtcd by tho 
olifitmaey of die ooateit, Ball erM etic: ^ Forward, my grooa- 
dlerSf every man of totl" All who luil escaped the Uro 
thuutiid "fliuTah!" and pusbod forward without firing, till 
Hawang and Amerieans were mixed together TIte other 
Oenaaa ootunui wait miliamHwil liy hIjII t^lewr thiebtHti und a 



ITTI. 



rOET WASmSOTON. 



79 



fft^per hiUjido; hut ITnvpl^aiiB^, tearing dcnm f&ne^ with 
bin iiwn l}ADit, and L'-xpoMug liliiiv^lf UkfttbOCOinaioii Holdicri 
was but littk behind lUlL 

For tho accoDd attack a bri^de nnd^r Lt^rd Comvr&Uu 
cmbfliriccd in flot-bottomcd boats &t lving:'d Bn<ige on the 
atitdiDf vrhicb i« thoro rery lUbrrow ; tho tiro of mtuketry on 
the Vko foremioel battalioiu wo^ so heavy that the eai]on sltink 
do\m La ihe boabi, )6a\'{t^ it to <be ftoldicn to handU tho omv, 
Whwi thvj b»d ull InnJf^l, ihi^y (.-limbod *'lbo very atoop, un- 
sven" Laurel llil! frcini the Dortli, aiid elormed tW American 
battr^y. IU.\tj?:' fril whili'- nuconnigjiig hi* mvn. 

To tlw scuihf the diTision nud^ I'ercy movtd ttxKn whni 
k ncm* tho Oui; IDukdred iiril T'^i-nCy- fifth tdrt^ut; bQt> nitcr 
gntDiog tJio heights, VortTj fljclnrcd hi* grcfltJy superior force 
behind a i^vc, ecnt word to iloirc th&t ho had caniod an 
ad^-anood work, and for thc: ni>xt hour and a half rcnuiiied 
idlo. Hovro ordwod thno rr^hntpntJ^ tuuicr Cokmcl Storiin^, 
to land in ihe re«f of Cadw^l^ei^a tmec ; Cadwulader, fn>m his 
TOy«caril_v fu^ee, deUcbed om> biiudnHl hitd fifiv itu^ii t<i i>jv. 
poec morv tlan firo ttnu!9 thsit nnmbor. 8lcr]iiigiiitd thoni^h- 
lawftoFOj ivbo led the way in boats, were Sred upon while on 
the wntffr, *nd, »ftflr ijinding andcr oorcr of a hwiry cmtnfto* 
dtk from Fotdham Height^ they dLconDterod a gallant ixmir 
WKO BA they atrti^ed up the etocrp pa». Gtuniog tho hci^hle, 
fttkd followed by two other rc^lmcntar they lugun to ptOM for^ 
ward aoiy^ the inland. To prov«nt boin^ oATi;>;Lt between two 
firen, Codwttlflder had do choice liut to retreat by a rood near 
the IIud«OD to Fort Washington, 

WhJle this waa going on, the Qeaiians at tUo north, clniu- 
bvringoTi*r f4dl<vl triuM mid f^iirtnoitiiiiitg mt'tty belgbU^ gained 
no the Ami3Tica.t8, wlio in mimher were bnt aiS ono to four or 
fire, Bawlingaiml Qthu Wtllittiiis were wounded; thcarros 
of tlkC rirtcmcn grew fowl from nac ; a^ th<y retired. Kail with 
hh brigado poehed upward and onward, and, when vitliin a 
hrodnsd pocoi of the fort, aont a cuplom of gi^adi@i« wiih 
■tunmona to the garrison to mrrendiT lut pHwnon of war, oil 
rKaining their l^a^^ffe. and iho ofilc^m th^ir 6Word& Mit* 
gaw, Co whom it wa* refcfti^J, iiked five hours for consoltv 
ttoft, but obtained only a bitf-hour- Frxini rLtttreAuty htr Hiurett- 



80 AUERICA IS ALUANCE WflH FRANCE. mr^ioiuT. 



dered tbc |>laco U» Kiijpliau3on< Tbo honors of tho d^j bty 
kfflgod to tho HoKiiuift ftod tJbo IIigli1iin<li!r)i; lUll tnd StorHi^ 
ireie dEadcguiahed Id ^^eneiul ord^ra ; the fort took Kajph&n- 

The kilTtitl uid WQUtnlod of tho <TrniiaD troop* tikmn wvro 
more tlijin ihret^ Iidiii1i¥<] ami fifty, with those of the nritish, 
more iIlui live LuudnnL The Aniericaiifl het in the ilM iiot 
above oco hundred and iorty^dno ; bat ^cj g&rc up nliublo 
artiiletj uid somo of tli^ir boat arma, and the c^>tivee ox- 
eewJcd two thousand st:c hundred, of whom one half wcrowoll 
tmitiod Kildion. Groono, to whowi nuhncM tlw (Ueaetor woe 
dQe,wouldnoTora»a]Dohieabai«of r«ftponeilAlJt7forit Tho 
gri^rf of Iff aihtngtOQ ww duupou4»d bj Mlf^raproodi for not 
having imtaLHil;, on his nttim from the inflection of the 
HighlxndM, eouutennandod tJie on]ei>i r>f the gviti^ml nflir^rr nf 
the poBt; but he luivcr oicnvod himAcdf Wfont (hn worM by 
tlirowuig the bUmo on another ; he ucTcr enflerod his o|)iDkui 
of GrccQo to l>e oonfuaed ; and lie inlerpmed hu orden to 
that officer ha harmg given the higcrt i&crctioii which tboir 
langiugc ootild ho etmned to wairraat* 



ITW- WA^JmSUTON^ ECTKKAT THBOUGll NEW JERSEY, $1 



OffAPTEK VI. 

Xovnamitii II-Dbcembeb 13, 1776. 

£aBil COBNvALi.!^ took the oomimtLd in >f ow Jenof. HIa 
flist ob}90t vnA Fort Loc^ wliidi lay on Uic narrov ridgo bo- 
tweeadie nudiOQand Iladcciuaek rirort. Dixvpaftordjopitf 
«onuw wiu fib*t rxllict^ triti) tlic; trii^^ of W&filiingCOTL On tLo 
mvMLteeiith of XovembcT he gave ordure to Lee witfi bii divis- 
ion to jvin liim^ Ijiit tLe ordfita were wUfallj elicited. In Uie 
foUowiag vc«ks tlioy wore repeated eoneUatJy, ruUtw! wifli 
maooii^ and eotna^, and irero dwa^-A liuobc^cd vritli Btolid 
uid uupcTtioent erasona* Coogrew at last gnnted the 8tate5 
Uberlj to cnlUt men for tlic war, or for three jcars; aad, after 
tfacir ovD dcU/ had deMrcjod orerv hopo of good reBuIta 
bitm tbc expcrimcntt tJicj forwiuded to Wu^in^^ton blank 
eocnmUfiions whi^ ho might fill np^ 

lb Uio niglit of tiko iiiji^lcenth tw^ Ittttalions of Heaaion 
pQciadi«n, two companies of j^f^r^ and (ho «tght battoliona 
of tli« En^^iab reserve, at leoat five thouaond mea, marched np 
t!ho cwt nilii nf thu HudM>Ti« urtd iIm? iiarxt rtMnihig, ukiut iljt}'* 
brmk, unwed iri'Ji i!iotr arliltpry to C1i:«TJ7r landing, iivr tiiilM 
aUiTi: F-in TjA. Qrvece had pUced oti tha post DCttlic*r j^anl 
nor watch, bemg certain m hJa own mind tluL the Brituh 
woold tuk tDikti thedr atbck l>}- that way ; m thai the mmblo 
aatam wore niuoolcflted a< theydnggcd the cannon for ticat 
half a mOo np tbd narrow. «eeop, rooky road, to tbo top of tbo 
rtBffvlff Keoclring a report of the neir approach of tbe 
«Man5, Grooui cent an oxproM to ibc oommandortQ-o^Ii^ff and, 
hxfittg ordered hid troopa imder artM. took to flight with 
liL Ti— a 



gg AMERICA IN ALLIASCE WITH FBAKCC W,lT-:CH.in. 



iBOro thaai two UioTismd tocn, Icariog bbnlccb and baggago, 
except what Ziu f^vr vraji^oikfl could bear &waj^ a hrgo amount 
of proviiloBSj camp-kettlofl on the flie, above four hundred 
t4uil» litaiiittng, and kll hiA rminoii rxf^TjTt f^VKi twi*1vi>poimcleTa, 
but no militai^ etoree.^ With Lk utmost £peed li^ bfttvly 
cecap^dljebgcut off; but WaAhm^^:,lir&t Dnlcringfim^it, 
hia aidonio'CUiip, to renew the summaD^ for Leo to cTcm tbe 
riror, gaiBMl tho bridge over the Hackcnfiock lir a rTipkl 
lu&rch, and covered the rotrcat of tbo gorrmon, «o that Idfl 
thjui ttiagty etroggLors wcro tftkoD piiffODor^, Tho mam bodj 
of tho«e yvho escaped were without tenta, or blaaketi^ or oanp 
uteiuUft, but tnich lu thev could pick up lu Uxoy wone along. 

To jimvonl \mug licmmii.l in uii thr iiarmw p^inBula to< 
tweeD tlie Hackennax^k and Pa^paJo rivern, wbidi Dwet In Xew- 
*rl: Uiy, orden* wi-rc girun on the twi-Ht/-finrt for tiioriiig 
be/ond the raasaic. Tho gOTcmor of If ow Jersey was romuid- 
ed tJiat the coliatmciit of the Hjriug caiup bdoogbg to timt 
stato, FcnrLfijlTuiIaf and Siafyland wins near expiring, bo that 
tho oQ&mjr could bo stopped onlj bj tho immediato uprhuug 
of tho militu. At Xuwark. whcra Wuhiiigtoii arrirod on 
the nigfat of the tu^QUt^-detTOiid, ho nwntuiUKl Idawolf for 
trts dnj^ devLdng meoiifl t^ cover iho conntry, axid await- 
i!ig tlio oontioonlAl fon*u iiudtTT I^<a and volitutccim of Ncv 
Jerwy, 

Od thtt tweaLt>4,7iinl ho ftviit Ib^&d, wlio waa a lutlTC of 
Nov Jeraey, to tho legislature of that date tlidi at BorlingtOD, 
doid MiffliD to congre^j^ l£oed« wlio had been djugod to ci>ri- 
vcj to the New Jcrwcj govermaent " a perfect idea of tlio 
cfitical eituation of affairs, the movenwRt* of tho onemj', and 
Iho ahaoluto nocouitj of further and immediate eicvtions," 
abrinking from farther dnty, mtumed ht» communion to tlto 
pre^dent of eongresa; but a cold rebnVe frt>m ^TaAhingtcn 
drovo him, at tho ^lul of f<mr d^yK Ui retract hia reiignatJo&r 
tTiniigh ho contd not ovrrciitne hU nhicrlann* ut "foShiwtng 
the wrH<'lMHi n-nuiiiM of a broken army/'t 

CVingnva called on the ancx^aton in l^hUadclphia and Uie 
nearest four ccontice to jcdn the anay, if but for alx montha ; 

* 0*ww 19 thenar (MkOy 81 JhomAw !?«, b F^rco, ifc, lUf, IWJ, 
t A B*f>tno GvDCai JL Ecofa EoMll^ 14, la, )L 



I 



im. TAAllIKQtONB BSTREAT TIIR0003 KEW JEBSET. 88 



L 



hegged bltnlEets and woollen stockings for tJie boldiera; uiid 
wrote Korth viJ Boiitli for tniopj^ aad iitortM. Thi^ KtAti? nf 
Pcnti^lvaaiA wm pftroljrc^ V iliipatcs nbottt it« ncv consti- 
tution ; but Miffiin eucccscfullj oddrcfieod the old committee of 
ta.1tXy and tlio u>;t a^Mmbly ; lio rovicwcxl tmd eucoungcd the 
city militiii; with RittcoboiiM iii tho ulmir, oud tho gcnoru] 
fieeeiDblj and couiuH of tafetj in attqadauo6, be spoke to tho 
peoplo of Pldhddpbk In touTi-me^tJitg w!lh ferror^ iui<l wu 
uifwuvd by acclajondoru^ All tliii} whilo tbe BiitUli officers 
were HTLtiiig Iioiqe? from New York: *'Lord Comwfttlift :« 
CiUTjrIng 111] liefiim bfto In tUt! Jfivcyii; jii^-^ inttut luion Iw 
tbe cocwqneDCC of our eticccff.'* On t^o twoii^^-eigliLlj tlie 
kdracofrd guard of (^mwAUin readied 3Ievrark, juAt &« it wm 
left by the rctr of tho Americans, 

At Brunewick, whoro tba Amoricau army omved on Uie 
Otqujh^ of fbo twenty hji^IiUi, it found dfiort repOM. Luc, 
though importuibe'I dfJly, &Eid aornQtimw twico a duy, Imgered 
OD tbo cut of tboHuddou; Poim^l^aDlabadTiogoveniiiient; 
ih« «Aort« of oongTOM woro indfi'ctivc ; Aiid tliu apprnl of tlit) 
goT^mor of New Jeraey fa:» its eeveni! colonels of militia conid 
not liriiig laUt iho Saitl tmn Uii\ cj>iu[Kuiy, All tlji* \vhi!«i WraIi* 
iBgtun was forced to bide bis woakoMJB and be^r loads of een- 
nrfi from fjUae colunAtetf of lua strengOi. To expnwiEjnei iif 
lympitby from WilLiuD Ltviugitton he fiotwarcd : " I will cot 
daipair." Aa bo wrote thoeo words, od the biAt day of Norook- 
bor, be wnii p«rtui£witb tho Xew Jersey nitd Mnrrland t>ri< 
Ifidtft wbkb formed ncariy bolf his forco and olaimcd iheir 
diftclurge uow ibut tbeir eogagemoiit oxpLrod ; wliQ« tho broth* 
m%t Lord ulJ Sir William Howe, wiero pablljtbing a new proo- 
limtCkm of ponloD and amnesty to all who witbin dxty days 
Wimld prviuiiMu not to take up unrut ogiuiut die kbg. Tbe 
If^^ilatiiTO of Xew Jcr^y did all it could ; Init tbo eocond 
offioervf the IkfimTUiJiilli laiulum refuj^ed "^Utkiu^ tJie tmtJis 
to t&o ebtc;" Clurlc« Bcid, its colond, ^'snbmittod to tli« 
eaemy ; " tJie chief Janice wftrered ; &ad Somiid Tucker, presi- 
imt of itA coiudtucnt oortTcotion. cbainnan of ita cooniuttGO 
of Sifotyi traidai^, tad jndgo of its fupromo ocort, ognod 
tJio pledizio of fidelity to tbe Briti^li. Prom Philadelphia, Jo- 
wpfa GftllmFay w^nt over to Jlovro ; tfo did Andnjw A Hon, who 



84 AMERICA IS ALUAXCE WTTE FBAJJCE, bt.it.^c^Ti. 

hACI b^cn n mcmlicr of tlio continonUl oongroos aud t^f> cif 
hifi brothers— all confident of l>emp goon reetoi^Ej to iheir fo^ 
mor fortuTiM ftud paUttcal iniponaiicc. £tcd John DEekioaoti 
for two or tlirm^ montJiK longrr rrifiM^ loHitfwpt* fnmi Drlit- 
w£re Au appointmeDt to tlie con^'is of die Ignited Statos. 
Tlie convention of Marjbjii on tlie ttTilli of Nov«inl)er+ tu- 
tfaoiiud iU doIcg»U)« to concur in the docwioiu of th(} [Iujo^ 
ity of congrees. 

<M the otbcr Land» Schuyler dcUtcliod from the nortlieni 
orm^ to W«uJiin^toif« aid Mvon oontincntAl rogimont< of 
New Eii;i;1andf who owed eetrje^ to tlie end of the year. 
Wayne, tho ooiommdcr ot Tlconderogn> burned to go " to tlie 
aKf.ii4ttn<?t.' »f p<H>r Wtt)diitigtj>r)/' l^ninihull nf C(innivrltfTnt 
fl&id for il« )itK>plti and for Tiim^f : *' Wo &re dtrtomiiDud to 
mtutilAiii *iur CJinw to tiie Wt citrvtiiity/* 

The fate of America me trem1>ling in the acaIc, ivhon the 
Oovcrt ruiidy diridLHl (heir forcxA. Tvo K^igUfth and tiro 
llotcinn hin^cis under tho oonuuuid cf Clintoiu a»uTod hy 
Eari Pon^ and Proeoott, poesod thvonf^h the sonad id fiot^vnty 
truisport^ jwdt od t^ Ber«Btli of I>cc<^uher, wero oanvoycd 
liito the lurl>or of Xewport by eleven riiip#-of-wnr. Tho !«lu)d 
of Bliode lal&nd 4x>iild off^ no realfttanoe ; and for ita oseleoft 
oecupadon a Urgu inimljer of troop* irure kept imomplojrcsd hH 
Lho neJEt three yvnih. 

Or the flrst of T>et*niTxrr, juMt lut WjtsWiigtou waa leaving 
BnmtfvricW, he renewed hii urgt^ocy vdih Lee ; " The enemy 
maiD to poab for Philadelphia L uMat entivat yon to hatVm 
your ninreh, or ri>iir ftrrivd may bo too late.^ On the cvciiis|- 
of that ^i^;; CornwoliiB oitf^red DmnsiHeL Wn^dn^toD, u 
he retrcatod, Imke down a ]>ujt of the hridj»e over th« Ran- 
tan. and a «harp cannonade took place aerow the river, In 
which it U rMnembered that an Anwncaii bslfj^iy wa« tronu 
tutndod hy Alexander HamiUoru Witli but thi»e ihonHfind 
mni, ho mar^lLed by night to PriuM-ton. Ti-uvuig Stailiag aud 
twelve hundred tuen at that place to watch the motioua of tbe 
enen^y, ht wcat witli tho rwt U) Treatoa, where ho found ti:ao 

» C*iar R«dii4T t« Thomitf Jt^ntj, 93 Jhmthm HTA. Fork, Fiflb AktIm, 
Sh« IATlX John IrliUusoa U> Gforfit lUid. 90 isd tt Juauaij IT^- nobart 



I 




Tfr*. TTA^irrxctTOTTs setheat TrmoroH kkw jebset. 85 



to ooinu«1 oongrcflB bow to pvovide redoorc^ for the campaign 
uf the next year. Hftvlxig traiafamHl hht bu^^gt; um\ atorn^ 
lii^-i>i){l tilt? IX-Iawhtit, hv- fAi^i] iilmiit Willi 9ach trixip<^ tu Were 
fit for Mrrice. But, on the ^IxtL, CorawaJtui wah joiiiod }:y 
Uoiro nxid oeaH)' a iuU Itngsulr^ of fnvli tii>«]t0i. WuiBliifigton, 
ou Jiirt way to FriDCCtoa. met Ihc dctaclinitni of StirliBg re- 
treating bcCoro tk VAPtly euporior force; he theroioro returned 
witb bis army ti> Trenton, aud OKi^iCKJ tho DcU^Tarc, Wlii> 
shall lay wljftt might hnvc happened if Howe had pu&ticd for- 
ward fotcr ttiooAand men in puivuil l But^ roititig ftevtrntoeai 
licmiH at PrUi^toit, uud^ en the ui^litli, takl:^ tovm honre 
to iiwrr^i twr]v« tnik*, hi^ nirived at Trenton jurt ta time to 
aae the lart «f the j^silnufA wtftly pauw ihfl nvor. Hb anny 
oould Dut follow, for Wnj^hm^n hm] <\v-tTMyK^\ or facwiired 
ercrj boat on the DeUir&re and its tj^butaricA for Gcvecty 

Philadvtpbia waa m danger. Congnes pnbKshod on appMl 
to tho people tqwdaJly of Pcruu^lvaida ind tho odjiieoiit 
lUtM, giving BttiLTiTioo of aid from f oruign povr^n. Wojih- 
iofrton with all hv gonoral cflic^re ontroated Leo to iDorch 
and join him with all po^hle cxpedidou, adding : ** Do «om4 
on ; jonr airivid wittiont doUy may ho tlic* mi^finH of pnsttnw 
hi^ a chyy T^te at night arrivod an evasive an«wer. 

fj^\ vi» tin|>aLii*nl Ut gain tiit? tljief toitimanJ. Fivtiii the 
tatt iide of tho Iludfion be wrote to Ituih : '^Lot mc tnik vain- 
ly ; I fi<mld d^i yo« much good, might 1 htii dictate one week. 
DM none of tJio congro« crcr hmmJ tJio Kimuut hwtoryi^ Tho 
dajr i^t^ ^ l^'tt ^f 1*'^'^ '^ ^ roooiv^ ono oKpticit onlor, 
tod oDOthor pcnHsptory oiio, to paw into y^w Jersey. To 
Bowdota, who was thon at the hoad of tho j^vcmment o5 Moa- 
■kcJmMtta, ho deioibed thew ordere aa *'a^ohilo inouiity.^ 

Of other mrtro claN^nLto inttniction« lit! wnt garbled ex- 
tm^ Co Bowdoin ontJk ihemces^: "Tn wt imjHirfAnta criMi^ 
«nn) tlw nvnlvi-4 o^f tin! onngna* nnj»t no looger Bioely weigh 
irith OS. We moat evf<i tho crnininnity, iD «pote of the iof^ 
latar^ Hum ore t£roeA wh«ii wo mnat commit trcoaon i^;ui»4 
tbr kvs of tho «tatc for the ralvstion of the atato. Tho prcfi- 
oil crUa denuoda thia brave, Tirtuona kind of troaaon/' A 
Ibltflr Co Loo 6i>m Bead, who wm hima^ irroooliae and do> 



A^^ 



e$ AU£R1CA ]N ALUANCi: WHil FRANCE. 



C8.n. 



BpondinfTt ran tiiue : ^ Von have docidoQ, n quality often want- 
ad in min^ otLfirwifto Tahuble, Ohf G<S)exot, nn Endedidvo 
tniad u ono of th<i groaxwt inhdorttmca lliLt con bcfull nn 
uxmj; how ofion Live T tamented it thU e^mpnignl*' Lee 
gracdily iiilinlcd llio tlaltt^ry of Uie mwa wlio jimfeaAed to be 
tho frienil <'f Wwliinpon, snil on Urn tWFutj-fQHitJj wrote 
htcV : *' My dtat Iteed, i lament with tou that faUl iadecirioa 
of mind wLicb in war b & niucZi greater ili^qnaKlication tlun 
etupldk^r or oTcn want of porsonal coatngc/' iicforc tho cad 
of the iDOOtli this anewcr, having: outwardly th& form of an 
official (iMpoCd^ U)X undor (he ojo of l^Mhinglon. 

On the soQond and third of Docotnbcr tho d&iKuon of Leo 
paieod over the Undson ; bttt not to join Washington : he 
chdmed to !)0 *'m guricnt! (lvliu>hi<d to malm an Im{)ortantdirer- 
^oij," and Lo wb« bent on making Iiu dctachmu^ lv]^r tlun 
that of thtj ctrinui^iiler-iii^iiiif. lie demanded of IXeath in 
tho I]ighlaiid» the transfer t>f hU be^t rogimcnta^ having fint 
aid to hiiti : " I will and mnet be obc;rcd ; " but tho hoDcet 
olBoor refused, producing his Jnatmclioofl. At HavcsiBtraw, on 
tho fourtJi of Doo«iDb«r, ho intorooptod and incorpontod into 
bifi own division the three tboiB^d men whom 6chnylor had 
•ont from the northern army to the relief of WtidilngtoiL 
Frtxn Pomptiui, oo tho MCTonth, he dovpah^icd a Troneh officer 
of 1IO merit anil i^orant of luiglitJi to eouimand ihe tnx>|» 
ocdhwttid fur the d«fcfiK«- uf Hluiile Iihuul ^ eiid in a leUcr tu Um 
governor of that atAtc lie fliocrod ai Wadiittgtoa m deatitiLtc' of 
the qniUtioa which ^ alone ooiulitul« a geaenL*' 1->o«d Mor- 
ristown he annovnoed to Richard Ilcitrj- Loo and Rash, the 
oomoittoe of congrciM, that it was not ^ i&tcoitioti 'Mo join 
the amiy with Waahingtou.^ yrom Chatham he hnrried o£I 
ordon to Heetli to aond hbn thtt« r^pmonta jwt anirod from 
TlooDderaga^ wiUKWt hm of time, laying: ^I am in hopoi 
here to raootiquer the Jewe}*.*' 

Oa thv twolftli hui diriuoD niirr-lin] with SnTlivan d|^it 
mileaanly bnVealtown ; but Lca^tha huaU ^^lurd. proceeded 
three or four inUoi noarer the eivcnir, who were hot eighteen 
loiiea oO, and poaied the night at Whitea tarem at Biaking- 
ridgo. Tho next moniukg ho tajr in bed till eight o'dock. 
On rinn^ bo va^tod two boote with WiUtJatoo^ a mcMcugor 



ITTO. WASHiHOTOJTft KETREAT THKOUOD NEW JEKSET, W 

from Gfitce, in booBtuig of hi^ own ptx>^Qee, and oftvilliog ftt 
fiverjiLbg douo 1>y odk&n. It wm ten o'clock before bo Mt 
dovn tc iKVftlcfift, jifu^r wltich be took time, in a !«rter to 
GiUsBf to indulge liiii f^livn toward Wnfibingtoti, beginning in 
tlifj wise: '*My dear ciat^ — An/w *w»w*j a MrtaJn gmt man 

not jct folded, wbcn Wiikinsou, at tbc %rindov, cried out: 
*' liero 4P0 the BritUh cavalry I " 

Tbo ^oiuig LieuEj-naQt'Coloncl HarcotLrtp, tbc ooinmandcr 
of a MO«tin^ jxirtv of thirtv dm^ooiu, looJiting Loa'i foolbordj 
dioloe of lod^pe, eiuTouDded tbe honae by a euddcD dmrgo, 
ind GsJlcd oat to biin to coinc forth immodiattily, or tbo Jioum 
wnttUI l>e ml on ltn>. Within t^'ci niinntc^, be c;inie out, poJo 
irota fear, inmnntd, lure-headed, wjfhotit eli:ial£, in Bl!ppen 
iLJid bliLnket^uAt, bis culbir upeti^ hiji nbirt much ftoilod, aiu\ 
ontresUed tb« dx^igooDA to spare bis life. Tbojr seized bjin 
jiul AB 1m wa«^ uid eet htm on Wiikindon'fl bo»u which atood 
■mdcUttd 3kt tbo door. Ooo of liin aids ^ho cnnic out vit}L him, 
wAi nuMUitQd behind Uorcourl'a e^rrant; and, juA four min^ 
atM ft>om tbe dtue of mrroundin^ tbo houao, tboy beguu their 
r^tam. On tlio way Lw roosrcr^ from hig panic^ and ranted 
riolentlj about IUa having* for a moment obtained tlw cupreme 
comaand, giving maiiy uigii^ of ^ utird not p&rfoctly right. 
At Princtfton, he dainanded to be received imder the Ncivem* 
lier pnir.Uitialuiii uf tlicHuvfiut; aiu), uii U-ti>g riTTiuiiih'd that 
ho might be nicd as a deserter, bo fiew Into an exiravaganl 
agpi uid railed ^ the lutldoAaneofi of tliv Arncuicaiu* aa Lbe 
esnie of hli mwbap. Yet tbcy ntaincd tmet in bim ; and 
OTon Grootw etUl thongbt him " a moat conBumnuto gi>acrA]." 

No hope remaiDCd to tho United States but in Waahin^ 
IDB. JEIi« rotroat of ninotj milce through tho 3«Twyt>^ pro- 
tracted for ei^toen or mnefteen days, in winter, often in s^t 
and Tithin eianoi^uit of lui eneinlw, hia rvar puBlng dovn 
hridga and thedr run biiildiTiL: tbprn tip, had for it^ piirjicwr. to 
efleci delay UU nudwiuter ami ittijuussihle ruada shuuld uITlt 
Ibdr protc^otL Tho ach>r«, looliitig back iijjoni the crowded 
diiten which tell on them, harliy knew by what spring of 
attfanattoa they had Wn viutainod. 




0g A3IERI0A ly ALUANCi: WITQ FP.ASC£. vsmj ccltil 



cnAPTEK vn. 

DBdociiine 11 &e, 1776. 

Tun BriU^ pctfU ou tUe ««<8teni dde of the Dekwim) dicw 
hmt to PhUfldolphU ; nunor nportod tthip»-of-vir in th« bay ; 
die wivei ftad t^kildfen of the InhabttoBla weie eusplng with 
tlirir piprrt nni^ |iri>j>rTty ; aitd Uii: vuiiU^iin (jf piinic Urolcc 
oat in ooojgrett. On the dcTccitli of December th&y called on 
tbo fttatea U> a^jpomt, each for itwlf, a dajr of f juttinn; nxid liu- 
miliatioii; ontho twelfth, after ndvjcc from Patoam and Mif- 
fiiD, they voted to ftdjoont to iSftltunore. It 16 on record that 
Bunncl Aduns, wbom JeScnon kit doioribod u ** caooedod by 
no man io conf^reea for depth of ptupoM^ sg«1, aad e^f&city^" 
mo^torvd l>j euthtuciuin and exoitiemeat wbicL grov with id- 
TerFity, vehemently oppoAod a removal. Hia rpoocb bu not 
been preeorved, but ita purport may be i^ad in his kitten of 
tlio time: '^ A camac hu ju«t ajid inltTrvnting t^ ptankiad, I 
troat that my dear New Knf^land vrill mamtain at tlie erpetue 
of eTei;ytliin^ dc«r to tliem in lif«. If tlila city tlionld be acr- 
nsider^* I should bv no mcana deqwr Bntmn iriU rtraio 
every nerve to «ubju^te Amenca next year. 0%a a&iis 
abroad ^xor a promidn^ aipoet, trat I eonjure yon not to do- 
pesd too mnob npoo forugn aid. I^t Amcrioa exert bcr oiva 
8ti«D|!tfa, and He irbo eotmot be todiSerent to ber righteoua 
eaiiac wUl even work mifacke, if neeeniry» to eatab lMi her ket 
upon a rock." 

Putouji promUed In no eneut to ham the city vrliich ho 
WM ehnrgnt to defend to ihiti lavt extntnity, aivd vouUl not 
allow any one to remain an idle spectator of the oontcft, ''pc^ 



k. 



1T74L 



TREVTOX. 



8d 



»&oa noder oomsientioiia BeraplcB alono excepted." But the 
Qcul:cn,AtifaoT?ii^ tbe new form of govenuntnf^ttt tlieir meet- 
ing held «t PlIilillJclJ)illL^ for PprnRi,'lvYaia and New Jersey, 
nTfuPttl *Mn pcnoQ or hy other uHhi^laiLi^D iti juiii iii ratrrylng 
OIL lUi^ iru;'' and vritli foml rtgrr^t. iiwy rcc^Ilml to mind 
^ tho iiappy coiutibition " under which " thc^ and otbe» had 
l<mg m^yyfbd peace" Tho flight of coDgrus^ vrluch took 
plooo Ainld th& J«cn of toHca and tlic molodictiooo of pntriotsi 
g&70 a Ftab to pisblio credit, tnd fbetorod a general diBpoeitiozi 
to refiMfi eoodnental mODoy. At tda home near tho ««ii, John 
Adinut iTAi u^t itout of lit^Eirt uk uvvr. Thou}^ France thonld 
hold bv'lc^ thotigh Fhf huEcrlpliia ^outd ^1, " I," Bftid h«» *' do 
not doubt of oldmate soccffia.'* 

C^nftditiit Unt tlie Amenean trcx.iD« ircnld melt awajr at 
the approaclung cxpiradon of their cangagement^ How^ on 
the thiitoeath, prepared to return to his winter qnait^n £a 
Kev York, leaving Dooiop tA aeting biigadior, witli two JIc«- 
aan brigadoe, tho jagere^ and the forty-«econd Ilii^fal&ndora, to 
hold the tind fifom Treiitoii to Burlington. At Princeton ho 
refoaed to ioe Loe, who wu held u ndc«ortor from the British 
arfDy, and wae ta1:en nnd^r a oIosb gQard to Bmnflwlck aad 
■fterwvd to New Yorlt, Ojmwuliia bfL Onmt lu oimimiEid 
m yew Jeney^t and wxa ban^tcning to embark fin- Eiigluid. 
By arden conuuitted to Donop^ the inhal^tante who In bonda 
or aopontelj ihould firo upon aiij- of the armr w^^re to be 
hftDged open tho noutet troo without further prxc^. AU 
prorbkma whieh eiceed^d the wanta of an ordinojry family 
wont to bo fteized aUlEi> fn>nr wliig ct tory. Life and property 
were at tlie xnetcj of forei^ hirelings. The attempts to re- 
train the Heeidans were gfren np, under tho apology that the 
hahii of plutidrfr jirvveTilul dtui?rtiiiiiM, A Briitttb off^oer re- 
pofiB offldally : '^ Thi^ wurr? 1«1 to klicvt-, hcrforo lliey l«ft 
Ueese-Cswel, that they were to come to America to cetabliah 
their priratofoftimeA,andthi;y!tivc acted w£th that prinelple,** 

It waa the opinion of l/otiop that Trenton abcmld bo pro- 
tected on tho fianka by ^rarrleoned redonbta ; btil Ball, who, u 
a tewanl for hia briDiAnt ftcrrieei, throng the interpoaitioii of 
Ormnt obtatned tlio eqnrate comman^l of that peat, with Mty 
yigerv, tweoty dra^^oom, and the whole of hU own brigade^ 



90 AitEElCA IN ALUASCE TTITn FRANCE M.<T.icB.To, 



would not licw] tJxii KUggtwtiom. Eciicwiiig his iu)vi>ce ai part- 
ing, on the xQorning of tho foortoecLtli Donop maxcbed Ottl 
with hid brigade la tied quarters cbied^ at Boidcntowii and 
iilackhor»o, till BnrUu^rtoti, wliioh lu» low,iJi^d bo protected 
irom tho American row-gaUejs bj hcnTy cannon. Go tbe 
ilxtcenth ll iw rumor^ ih^ Washington vr'dh % lu|^ foreo 
)iOTort>don iJio right Anuk uf KiJl ; but, in amtircr to BoBop'a 
ropottA of that dny und tlio ncit, Gmnt vmt^s : '^ I am cemin 
tJitf r^\nth tio fou^r liuvti any utroag coqm on ibU hide of Ui« 
firor ; tittt htory of W.i^liiiiglouV crOMing tho DuJawnn; nt this 
Mason of the yciir is not to bo boliovod" "I^t them come,'' 
ovd Hall ; ** what nood of lAtrancbmetits f Wo will at them 
with tho bfiijooeL" At all ^arms ho eot trooiw in motioii, but 
not from approhomOD of tho mocildeniig irmj of tho rcbclfl. 
Ills daUjfht wRfi in mardal miiBic ^ and for hiui tho luuitboya 
■t thu nudu guiird eouIJ iiuver pUj' t'->o luug- Hij Wfu cviiitaiit 
at pu'adQ; and, tti glviv thct impiM-t. i>f ^tnt iiiipr>f1nnr?e to hid 
i^nunniul, all oCicera and nndei-offiL-ers wtre ohllj^ to appear 
at hif fpiiLrtf'm uu tho relief of tJtv nuntni's aiid nf tliQ pickobL 
Cannon, which should bare bcoo in pcation for dofocic<% stood 
in front i>f hia door, and tvtay da/ were eaootted through tlio 
town. He wasnot scoD in tho noming until nino<, oroT«D 1«n 
or elovtm ; for ovory mght ho indulge in lato cnron«alfl. So 
pflflaed hi* twelve daji of oomniand at Tronton ; and ihey were 
iW proudest and happicit of hiH lift*. 

*' No man wm cvor oronrbolnicd hj greater dit^cnitic*, or 
had \em meana to extricate biiuaolf fruux them,** dj:ui Wajili- 
ington \ Imt the afflictionit wlucli Uind b!?) fortittido urriod 
with them an inspiring virtue; Wo hare hiA own acBurance 
that in all tldit period of deepest gloom hu hope and conddenco 
ncTor faltered. 

On the fonrtccuth of Doecndxr, boUeving tlmt IIowo waa 
on his way to Xow York, ho rceolved, aa soon aa he eoiUd bo 
joined b; ttio troopA under Leo,* ** to attempt a ntroke upon the 
fore«i of the enem/> whiob lay a f;6oi deal ccattered^ and to all 
appoajanoa in a atate of eooaritT.*' Bli^timo, he Oibt^ned ex- 
act aoconnta of New Jenoyand itabe^t i^{K turjr poaEtlona, f rom 

* Wttblof WD I0 Tnimbidl, tli^ It tsd U IXtfttabti l^i* lu P-h^v^ OL, 1 150 



im- 



THENTOS. 



wa£ secured Sm up iho little ativ^nu tliat tlow to ite DeJAW^re ; 
Aiul Uu forcw, inertosed lij ftfleen lunidrvd voLmiUcn timn 
Phibdclphio, gnonicd the croMtrg pljicc-:^ from the faUfl at 
Tr^tcu Ut bolov Bristol He made evory exertion to threaten 
tlM Hcttiam <3n both ^nlu bj miUda tit Morriatown on tka 
iiorch, vtJ on tbc Kotitli nt Uoiiiit llollv. 

The days of wiling he employed in prewntmg congress 
with % pkii fc^ an ^{<!;ti<>ri;i1 numl^er of bbtlaliuTi^ to bt< Tuiiwtl 
anil offiwrwl dirvcUy by tho United St^ivm vnxhooi the inlor- 
veutiOQ of tbo BCToral fllAtea, thus takiu^ tlie first g;i^t fetfi|i 
toward A real Gnity uf p>Tenuiitij]l. CongTCM^ en ftdjouni* 
ibp to Baltimore. roiolvDd '^ tbat General Washington bo pod- 
of fuK power to order uid direct all thio^ rcUtlv^ 
the depMtmeiit and t> the operotiopfl of the w^,*' Wndi- 
took them fit their word, and, by tlie proKjiiiij^ fv^Tioe 
genend oltlcvir^ ordered t1m?e battalions of artillery to 
[nusedi&t«ly recruiiecL ''Tlie piwent &\lgency of our uf- 
^ he pWtcd in cxtujw^ '^ Vh'ill not admit of delay, citbur 
in the council or the tield- Ton days more will put an end 
lO tJke exi&tence of tluti anny. If, therefore, erct^- matter 
tJtat in iu uamro u te1f-c\idviit ia t^ be rvfcrrcfl Xq congress, 
at the dietauce of a Jiim<Lred and thirty or foKy miles, m 
much tine tniut elapae as to defeat the end in view. 

*' Short eiilutincnt* iind a [:ii)(tiL]ccii de|icrid{>ncu upon ml- 
liiTe been the ongiu of all onr Tuisfortune^ nnd of tlie 
tacmmnlalfonof onrdelil. ^niHiam^iy jHABib1yche(>k tJte 
of tho enoniy for a little while, but in a Httic while tlio 
til uf thoM fitaiev whtdi lave been frequently called nptm 
will not tuni out ai all, or do it witli bo much reluctanoo and 
riloUi ae to amount to the same thing. 

^ Tbceo are the moD I am to depend upon ton da>-A hotico ; 

hii if Lbo haflEa en vhicb your eauBo must forever depend tUl 

Kct a Mandin^ army Rifficienl of itself to oppow the ene- 

If any good oHlceta wiH offer to rai^ m^n Tipoa canti- 

pay and cftablbhment in ihia ^lukirt^r, I vhvM encourage 

to de so, and regiment tl^em when they havu dnnc iU 

^1iMp|in>vi* Elf thiH |inreeL-diu^ (Iiey vflU pleaae to 

itf as I Jucan it for the be«t. A character to lo^ef an 






p3 AM£KICA IS ALUAKCX Villi FRA>"CE- sf.ve.; ca,tn, 

eatato to torinkt tbe Iceftim&blo bleattnp of liberty at utAlro, 
aad & life dcroted^ mciRt bo mj oxcii«e.** 

On tJie twentj-'foTUth be reeomed liis wamTng* : " TLe ob- 
fit&cljx uHitJi luv^T imn?ii til tlin nuxiug iif Um uavr umiy fmni 
iha mode of apix}inlitig ofliccre iiulucc nio to liojio thai., if oon- 
grau reeclt'ti on &u additional number of batt^oiu^ thev urill 
devise somo other mie bj whidi tbo ofliocns cfl|>cciall7 tL« 
^M-offlceiv, £hoaLd bo a|>pointod. Many of the boet barel 
been noKloortod, ujad those of bctJo wortb and leas expcricaaoo'l 
put in t1i<fir |)]ac<w or promoted ov^r tbcir buodA.^* 

On tbo Bame day Greon« wrote, in Bupport of tbe now poU' 
07: "I ftm far from blinking the Americin eanio d6«] 
V^t T eonci^ivE^ It U> \ni m n critii-jhl ViitiiiLtifiD. To iiMneclj' cvtb^ 
UiB (^ncral sbotild liaro jxiwer to app*>int of1l<^o^l to oti1i«t at 
tojgv. Tlierti oerer wut a uum Uidt lulgbt 1>g more uifelf 
trostod, nor a time when tbere wtw n louder coLL" Coogrttf 
hid f uLed to raise troope by rcquifiiliond on tUo atfttee ; kara J 
wnA now uilEcd to rccniit luid orgruLu:o t^ra andt^x-nty 
iona for tlio gcnoiui tcrdoc uodor tho direct Authority of tbo 
imioiL 

On tlio tvontiotb, iiatct^ mid SuUi^-iin tim'rod at beftdqoar'^ 
ter«. Gat« vrtig followed by five bundred elTectlve nwn, wbo 
vtri-ni all tliat retiiidaed of fuurKcw Knglaiid iv^nu-ntA; but 
th(«» few wero »ur« to bo wrll tct], for !>tark of Xew Ilami 
aliira wu their oldest officer. SiillivtLn bntii^ht LtvV diviHEoa, 
vitfa vluch lie bad cro«MHl iho Dclnvait at EastoiL 

Ko time vnu loet in preparing fox the fforprisc of Trenton, 
OonntijkgAU tlic troopfi from btNuIquarlcnt to Bmtoli indad< 
ing tbo dotaohmonts which cjimo with Oa^tee aikd SaLUvm and] 
the mlUtaa of PoDIi^lr&mJ^ tl^o army w\ii n*portod at so morfr] 
thsn nx thoiuoikd two bondred men. imd tboro wi?ro in 
not so many by twelve or fot«ii.*ou hundred. *^ Otir nmubof^' 
Aaid W;iiditrrf^n, '' aro IcM than 1 hail any coiipoptioo of; 
ni<cnBity, diro tiecesdty, will, nay must, justify sn BttBcV*' 
On the tvft'iily'tliinl Im; wnitefor chu viAtohworvl: " Vuvtokt ok 
deatbJ* Hilt the men wlw bud bopn with Ltm vera ao 
down and in 'wont of erGrytUng that the plan coiUd not br^ 
npeood before Cbriatmat night 

'WofiJiuagtoa approved tho detention at SlorriHovn of 



1776. 



TKKJilVK, 



08 



huDiiTod N«w Englaiid nxm from tho northern trmj; and 
tent MixireU, of New Jeney, to tako eonuujmd of tbom and 
tLo miHtift co11oct<xl nt tbo sani« pkc9j with ordofs Co distrec^ 
the eDemy, to h&rass thom in tbeir qnarters, to cut off dmit 
eonvojA^ aud, H a detadimeni iJlouIiI move toward Tnonton or 
th« Dcl8W«i!XH to (nil upon thdr rear and annoy diem oti tlictr 
inarch. Grifiiii, wJtii all the forte he ^uiild miJIec^f, at T^fourt 
II<dlj, vrutf U> tDga^ tbe uttcntirm cf tlio llcsfiiana under Do- 
nop. Kwing, wbo lajoppoato Trenton wiili more tlian five 
Imndnd men, was to oroa» near tlio tonu. Putjtam, to vrhom 
"Wtthingtcn took eflio to »cnd ordirHf was to lead over & foroo 
from Fbil^fllpbia. Tho moat impomnt eubsidkry movunKnt 
WW to bo nude with tbout two tlicuiaud troo|w from DrUtol, 
and of tKU |i»Tty Gntcc was n;qao«t<;d to tik« t!io lead. ^* If 
yon could only fltiy Uiere two or lliree dayi, I shmild be gladj" 

Tbe country p«opl« wero enpino or faoetile ; e]Ac« fiorroimdod 
Vbt cuup. But Grant, the Britmb cotmu&niter in New JiM^y, 
tboa^ infonncd of tho pro|>oe(:d niUtck on 1>T:nton, and 
tboQ^ tbo ne^^rocB In tho town used to jcor at the HewLma 
thtl WaaliUijB;ton wad coming, pcreiuided hicoBtilf tlioro wiould 
ha no cio««iug of the river with a large ff>rco» "bocauso tho 
ranning ioo would nuke the return deq>^rate or imprmctica- 
hb.'* ■'B&ddi^N,'* ha wrote on tlietwenty^rint, '' liViuIungtoB'e 
men have neither shorn cor lit^el'm^ nnr bUnttelj;^ xre slmoet 
nakfld, und <!j Iiig of cold nud w^aii ui fuod, Oa Un? Tivniiiii 
tide of the OvJAWsrc tlicy tuivc not altogotlier thn,^ htrntlixd 
men ; and thoM etioU to smaU p&rtiaa under a enbellem, or &t 
D)0«t a captain, to lie in wait for dmgoons." 

Just before midnight en Chmtmaa eve. Grant again aeot 
wwd to Donop: " ^fA^^ilngtoa hoji \TCcn biformed tliat our 
traopa EiAVO nurcJicd into winter qn&rtei^ and that we aro 
wak ac Ticnton and PHnecton. I don't believe he wHl ai- 
tempt to make an attack npon tSoeo two plaeea; but, be 
wmred, my lDfoPin:itFon b nndonbiedlj tmo, so thit I need 
not adnm yon to be opcin yavT gii^nl itg^iniet an inx-xpectAl 
■ttack at Trenton.*^ * 1^1 goofed at die id«a thai AinericanFi 
ibonid damlo Cfnntta^wt him; and Diinop waa aci uneu*- 
• I fooai ftt OM«el tU «ri^MJ tatter of Gfu^ vrfKcn b Ca^blL 



1^^ 



M AMEEIOA IS ALLIANCE Wnn FRAKCE, tp-rr,; €it to. 

pectin^ that, afUrr driving ftw^vr the niiiaU Amencaa forctf' 
from Jllouitt liolly, Tvhere he rwcircd a wonod in tho licot^ 
ho jtnuiiwl at tliut j^oat to adtninieter tho oath of alh^^i 
to iho dejteU^ inhnl>;taiit», and to so&d forwud t ptrt; 
Coopor^A GTcok, oppofiico I^iluklphiA. 

Earopean eoofidence in tho encca^ of the Britinb tu 
iu Iidglit "FfWiVliii'rt triicijm hai'w l**!Gu beaUrn bjr duMOof' 
tlio kJng of TilnglAndf'* wniiai Viiltaim; ''aImiI rraju>n aiift lib- 
ertjr are ill jvceived ia tlm world/' VergooDefi, indeed, ni^ 
tljc«mtll rcnalbtof tlioouiipsii^^; aiul,m reply to ninuin fnTor« 
able to the rcbcli, fitonnont would sny th^t ho kft tbcir rcfo- 
tatiodi to tieaoral Howct whoeo answer would be aa complete 
ODO na over uraa g^Ton. At CiuieU IIowo vran celled enol 
Occfiar, who como and eaw and conquorcd. In England, somo 
beliOTC<l FraiLkliii hixd fed to Frwoc lu a. nm^iray for aLietj-^ 
otli«n to off<jr tcmiB. Tlio n'ln-atvd mcvi^wwn bad ftjcod or con- 
rerled ** tdnety-iiino in one bo&dr^/* Giirke never escpocted 
mintniN miittaiicx^ fnmt ihr^ nrlmiit^ "ll w iHii timp/* miil 
Itockingliam, " to ntr^Tnjit in f«m<^«t ft n^conciliation with 
AmeriOA." Lord Kortti thou^bt that Comvralh'a would vweep 
die AiDeman urmy before bim^ and tluit tiic firat opcntioiia 
of tiic ooming Fprin^ would cod tho qnamL 

At Kew York, whore all was mirUi and jollity, llovre met 
Iho memtnga who, in rotum for tbo tietoi? on Long Idnnd, 
broupibt him «ncoaiium« from tbo minister and honors Arotn the 
king. The young Englbli offlcen were prq^oring to aiiuura 
thoniMhea by Uto p^ormance vt p1ay« at the theatre for tho 
beoeflt of tho widova and diildran i>t niflereht hv iht* irv. 
Tho marlcot* were wdl mippllcd, balk were givvn to Mtkty, 
and tlie dtiliww of ereiun^ paitiea to diaprQed by the faro- 
tablcf where auhaltcnia competed iritb tbelr nperion kdJ 
mined tbemselvce by i^ay, JUowe fired liie dngf;uh natare 
by wino and good obcer; lilft miatrau apcut hia moivey prodl- 
galJy, bnt tbo oo&tinuiuaco of tho war promised him a greet 
fojtun^ The rofugoee grambled becanse Lord Howe would 
not brealc tlio law by m^ering tbcm to ti oat privrntifom ; and 
they envied the flooda of woolllt which ponrod in upon him 
from }iii dIgbUi {xul d priEo-mgney on ciptnnw made by hia 
iH|nmIniti. An tbi; ligbting «aa over, Cornwalllti aent hia lai^ 



1776. 



TKEKTOS. 



9S 



g6ff on board tbc pnotcot for Kn^^ktid. The brothcn fp.ro tUo 
§oGKtaTy of ^t'f im<lef lUuir joint luLnda aii OAmiukc^ of tlie 
coaqtiott of >U New J«n^; und ^rcrj one in Keiv Yoric ynm 
lookirg ont for TiMtTvalH on tlw invB^iture of S!r 'WilUom 
Buu-t* OS knfght of the liatb. Ei* l];Ltttavn wn>to komo thai, 
bdIivb Uiirm Hbiwld W nit^ru tardinrai m iioiicing liIs merit, llie 
king would TC17 won bk up all tbe Loiiftis of die [nnjragt; in 
reTnnliiig Ji^ victoncA. 

The dav ATTivod for the concerted attadc oa die Bnlbli 
pMta ftloog tho DelawBTD; and ooiDpl6t« enccu^ coiiIJ como 
only from tho 6xace oo-opcmtton of ovcry parL Gates wilf oliy 
tomed his back on daDg»', dutjf suid bouor. He disapproved 
of lITarfiiDgtoii^B itation above Tienlon : the Brlti^ would 
BU(-jvtly ckiDfctnict hvtu, puju die Di^kwiiru in 1i£h roar, niid 
take PliilndcJpliia ; WiuJ^mgtori oiigljt lo retiro to the eoutli of 
the SuM]ue1iaauali. Ko^r to iiitn^i3 nitli L!ongn3H« ut Haiti- 
more for tljc ^hlcf oommand in tlic northern dtstnct, Gat^ 
with WUkinsott, rode awny from UristoL Oriffin, tijing before 
Donop, had abaodoncd New Jeisejr ; Hulnjun would not think 
of conduE^ting on oxpcditien Acronf tlu: rircr. 

At nt^htfall G^ral John Cadwalader, who vms li^t in 
eole command at Briatol, inarcbcd to Dnnl^V ivxryi it waa 
the tinw of t}ic full moort^ but the clouds were tliiok and 
dari. For about aD hour tbat remain^ of tlie ebb-tide the 
nriT waM |uwNi.blt7 lit ImkiIm, mid Kii<it, whc» jiiKt then »rrivvd 
from A Tifiit to Philadctpliia, ttia able lo p^t uvht with bU 
home; hut the tide, be^ltmiiLg to Hue, tlirtrw liock ll<; jce In 
attcli hcapfl OD the iency ahorc that* tboii^b men on foot atill 
couhl croea, ncitbcr ho-reee nor artiUerr coukl reach the land. 
Bonding word tliat it waa impo«nblo to carry out tlicir iharo 
In Waahin^n'fi plan, and loavinf; tbe -parx who had croflBod 
tha riTor to retnro ua Diev could, Re«d sought eheltcr within 
tbo on«my'i lincw at Burlington. Uunnwlnlef dunug cno of 
the vnT¥t nights of ]>80Embi?r, tiM men waited with arma in 
tJiEur buiiild fiw lliu llofiitUtg icti In upi-ri ti ]ia.-mLgi-; and, uttly 
af t«r lliB rain Eoffering^of nnnj'hounsrv^uriLcd to tiieir r^mp. 
Okdwaioder and the bffit Di«;n about him were couiidi^itt that 
WuhhkgtoD, ]3cc thenuftlvea, moit liovo givon up the oxpL%ii- 
tion. Bwiog did not oren mako an effort to ctoaa at l>cnton; 



96 AMEBICA IX ALUASCE WUTl FRA^'CE, w . rv, ; ch. to. 



md Mojl&n, who sot off od honofaftck to overtalDe Wubingtoo 
and dure the Uonon of the d&r, bc«uiie persDad«d that no tt 
tompt ooi&kl be made in auch a stono, and stopped oa tbe rood 
for abellcr. 

Superior impubea acted upon 1iV~aflhuL;;ton and hia dovotcd 
coldieis From hit v«it«d tioopi 1m could miutcr but twcntj-- 
foar bindnd men Ftroof; onongh to be hU cotDpaidoiia; bnt 
thay wertt v«tertnii and patriotB, <:hleflv of Ifew Et^knd, 
P«Biutf1vaiii% aud YirgiiiTii. Among liis genonl Mccn veto 
Greevie and Mercer and Stirling and Sunimn ; of field'^ffioen 
and otbcn* Stark o( New Hamp^liiR^ Hand of Pefuu^^lraaia, 
Glover mid Knox of Mawafihinnftttnj Webb of Ooraeotiea^ 
Scott and WiUiom Waafab^itoii and Jaoiea Honroe of ViT» 
i;inia, and AlcKjmdcr HamiKoo of New Vorh At thn?c in 
tlio af tcrnooQ tliey bi^faB tbeir loaioh, each man caayiDg thno 
diyu* proTiiiOna and foffty tocnda; and vllh df^ieea A«hd- 
pm«0 thej r««eliod Uaekoalroj'a f«ny joat a« twiHgbt began. 
The ewift and fnll esnent was hnrtiDg iloog taanea of iee. 
At tlko water"* edge the mariiu^ id ACarblebead Mepped fotv 
u-aid to man tbo boats. Joat llwQ a letter came hiao 
aniMHaimj^ tlui aa lirlj> n^ b^ lie trigxtflfid fmm PuUiam 
the troopa at BriAto] ; uid AVaAhington* at lAx o'doek, 
thieiwte Co Cadwalodcr: '^NotwiUutandii^ tbe dieconrafciiig 
aooonnta I have reoctred from Colonel Reed of whait n^^t 
bo expected from tbe <^erationi betow, I an dctonnined. 
the nif^t ia faronbte, to eroaa tbe river and make tbo 
en Trenton in tbo mottling, tf >'Oii eu do notl^ng md, it 
iMit create aa great a divereion aa poeable." Hardlr had tbeee 
vorda beeo tent whtn WDkiucn Joined tbe traaps ''wboM 
roabe W kad wQM\y IraieiHl hj llic biwid on tbe xtiow fnvn tbo 
fev4 of tbe men who wore brakco dkoee.** Ho delircfed a 
later froD) Gt^tml Onlcit "From fleneni Oatcv!** §mi 
>faabjo*rt<m; ^wbcre ta bel" "On hie way to ooe^reas'* 
fi^lied WUkfnaon. Waabn^iteiL had only given liim a 
tani ooncent to go a« far aa FUladdphi^ 

At that bovranAmerkupatK^Iof twenijrertyrtr 
led b; Captain Andction to feeaoneitre IVeDtan, made a and? 
<len anack npoQ the poet of a Bewhn fobatoecn, and wwmJeJ 
fire or fix nten, Tbe alarm waa emnded, tbe Hfttdan 



177<L 



TXKJnXJK. 



97 



pot nikdor amw^ md a part of RalTfi TCf:uncDt dcnt in piuwilt. 
On tbeir ntnnt, tbey report<Kl xhat Htvy aoyiid dUcotvt Doth* 
iDg ; iho ttcvckf liko tlicic* wLicli btul boon nodo rupo&tedlj bo- 
fore^ WBfi bold to be of no importanoe. The poet wa^ Btren^L* 
ciuhI; addidoi)al])Atn>k wer^Aent out; but wary appn^hciuAiori 
wiw put to rvAi ; ftttd RaU^ till lato into tJi3 ciglil, sat b; hia 
n-ann fire, in bis usual reveU, wIuIb WashingU^ w^ia CT\««iii^ 

"The night,*' writer ThoroAa Itedncf. '*waB as wvere a 
night aa ever 1 saw ; " tbo fro&i waa eliarp. the current difficult 
to Moo, tbo ko iDOTOoffn^, tbo wind liigb, ui<i u cIctcl it 
iMpu td snov. It WW3 tlireo ia the morning of the twanty- 
aixtb befon>i ibo troopia and cuuiuoa were nil ovor; and anoUier 
houTfu^ted byfor« lliey oouUl bo fcrim*d on t!* Jorat-j' «do. 
A violoDt i)ortli-e«L»t itonn of whid anJ sloet And hail Htrt in aa 
ihmy liegan tlwir itiiitf uiilea* rurLali lo Ti^euUm, ag^ii&t an 
cii«m7 in the heti condition to ii^tt Tbc woj^Uu^r ^-m tctri- 
bio for mon clad 80 ^AinOTicaiuw€T^ and t^kCgrooDd clipped 
Biidcr tboir feet For a mili^ ouJ t ball Ujey had to cliiab a 
•tocp hill, ir\ym which Lhc>' dwccndctl U> tbo ftxid that ran for 
about threo miled botvr^ea hilla and throiif^h forMts of hiekory, 
aili, aad blaclc oak. At Birmingliam lbs force wm divldod; 
SailiTaii oondnnod noar tbo rivor, and Wnftbington paned up 
ifito tbe Ptiuuington road. VVliile Sullivan, who bad thd 
Hhor(4oi nitilrfj luld'ft tij givii Unm for the oibttm tu iirriri*, bit 
rqwrtod to ^\'aflljiugtoQ b^ one of hie aida tJial the arma of Lia 
fiartjr were w«t, ''TUeu icU your gcnoml,"' anawcrod Wafih- 
iogtoii, ^ to OM tbo In^MDCt, and ponotralo into tbo towa,'* 
Tbxi return of the udc-dc-oanip wv tratdiod by tbo f^oldior^; 
and liardly bad be ^polcen wben tboso wbo bad bayonets fixod 
llittm vritboat waiting for a cotmoand- 

II wai now broad day, Tbo aliimbar of tbo lIc^^anH luid 
bean nudbturlwd; iht^ patrvla reported llmt nil ww ijuiot; 
and die night-vmtrii nf }-7igi>rK hfu! tunit**] in, It^vEii^ ihi* auk 
trin at tbeir aevon advaQcod {iostn, to keep up the commnni- 
atiaEi botwcen tbdr Hght and left winga. The storm lieat 
▼ioleotl/ in the faoce of the Atnoricam ; tbo nion wore itiff 
witboo^ and acoDtinuous mardi of fifteen miloa ; but now 
thit tboy WQTO near tbo onomy, tboj thought of notluiv; bitt 

tUL T. — 1 





93 AMEEICA IS ALLIANCE WITH FRASCE. »,it,; OTtvll. 

vietorj. WjuJiiii^n'^ f^X bcgui the battle with an &rtacJt 
on tho outcnnoat pick«t on thu I'eiiniD^n rood; tlie men 
nitb Stork, vho led tbo ^iin of SuUivftrfji pc^i g^^"^ tlir» 
oboani BOd vritb Uio bayonet msbed upon tUe ermafB picket 
noar tliQ river. A company came out of tho bamckB to pn^ 
teat tlif> pjitrol ; but, ubjnMied at the iary of the chuge^ they 
all, ?n<.*lui]in^ die jBgens, fled in confmion, oecaping wsrom th^ 
Awinprnk, rullo^tttni bjr t]i« dra^i:ooQa and tlie |>artj whidi »ia 
poited runr the nvcr bonk. WafiUingtoa ent^cd tlift town hj 
King and Qcccn »tTcct4, now oaoicd after Wmtn and Grocmo ; 
Sullivan uioTod hj tbo riTorro&d into Socoad Bttvei, cuttijii; 
off tbc wk}' to Uio A^eanpink brid^ ; and boih <]iviaIoQd poahod 
fonrard witli suci; oqnjil ardor aux iiuvur to Kullc<r tbu HoMuma 
t^ fonn oompletely. The two cannon which stood in front 
of KjUI^s qimrtcrH wt^rtf frum Hits (Irwt )u*|Nmiti3d from th^ ttgU 
ineot to vliiL-h tht^^ lielon^^l. Hio Americans wore comity 
iiUo Itno of Initio when lUll m:ide Ids a|)p«annee, received n 
roport, rodo Tip in front of his rcgunentp ami cried out : '^ For^ 
vird, march ; advance., odrancc,'' roduig in the aaddlo Uko 
one not ^ot rccov^rod from a niglit'a debftuoh. Before htd 
own regimont oould form in tiio atrect a partr posbod on 
rapidly sad dismountod it« two eannoiL, with no Injoiy bat 
slight woundi to Oaptaina 'W^ilUam Wuhtngton and Jamoa 
Monroe. Unfler Woakingtcaf I own dir^tion, FoTOft'a Am«n- 
coD baLt<rv of aIjl giina waa oponed upiui two ragimsnta at a 
(^mtoiinj ijf l«nt dun ihnni liiindn^d ^anliL Hia poAJtian vaa 
near tho fronts a little to tho r^ht« & oon^ptcuoiia toark fur 
iauflkeii7; but he remained uulinrt^ thotigk bia bono wu 
woondod under him. The laomimt for bre^dng tbrof^^ tbo 
Americans waa lost by ICall* who drew Wk tho I/xviberg regi* 
nxjnt and his own, bat witboot artiLlory, into an orchard cast 
<^ tho town, afi if intending to rooob tbe road to Prinoetoa hj 
toning lATnaliingtoa'a M t. To check thv inovoDwnt, Hand'i 
Kghtunt was thrown in h» front, Uy a qniok neolr^ tbe 
paan^ might adii have bc«n forced ; but tbe Hcarfana bad 
been plundering ever oiuce ibej buided tn tlieooimtrj; aad, 
loath to Wve behind the woaltb wbidi tboy had nmnnwd, tbey 
mged Rail to reoovor the town. In tbe attempt to do ao, bla 
force wad driveu b/ the impctnoiu charge of tho Amcriooaa 



iim 



TBKSrOK. 



69 



fanhor bock tfaui bofoto; ho wne himself stnok bjr ft nanakfit- 
tjoll ; md dio two reg^meiits were mixed eoofasedly and aLmoct 
Giirroiuidod. Kiding up ti> Wapliljigtcii, Ba/lor coiild now ro- 
port: "Sifjilie Hc^smn* have eiinvndj?re<].*' The KnyphauiOD 
regiment, wliicli Jiad been onlerud Uj vuv^ tJm ll^k, *xmve to 
roafib tho Anuvtipink bridgu Utrotigli tlio Oolde an tbo eoiitb- 
eftiit of Uie tovQ ; bat, luelng dme In extricating ilm'ir two run- 
QCfn from the nuttvm, they found the bridge yarded on each 
«ido ; Bcd, after a Tain attempt to ford tbc rivulet, the/ eu^ 
Kodeaed to Lord Stirbn;:; oa oondition of retaining their uwcrdi 
and tliGtr private boggo^. Tbfi iiGtion, in wliidi the Aiocri- 
ctns loet not one man, Invlod tJiirty-tivc ininutoe. One linn 
dred and aixty-two of the ll^aiis wbo at sunrise wen,- in 
Tnotoa GMUpLMlj about Mty to Priiictttcii, the rout to Bor- 
dentomi ; one fanndrvd and thirty won; nbwtit on oonimand ; 
seventeen vera killed. All the re^t of [Ull'« couuiioj^d, iiiiea 
bnadred and fortytax in number, iverd taken prtAonciv, of 
whom flcvcn^-ei^hb were wounded* The Amcricaiis gained 
twclro Lundrtfd amall-aroia, six bratt field-precee, of which 
two were twclvo^ponndcra, and all tbo stoadordB of tlio bri- 
gade. 

OongttM bj \t$ committM Uvkhod pr&iftj upon tbo oom- 
mandeHiHilittfi. " Ton piy nw complimonlB," answered Waah- 
bi^(tfici, "aa if tbo merit uf tljat affair ww doe aolely to mc ; 
bot, r awnre joti, the otiier gcm4Tin1 offict^rv, who nsHi^ted me in 
\hm pLui and «xtic!utiaD, have frill aa ^ikk] h ri^bt to }uor tfo* 
OOminov «a mjrvelf/' Tito ia(i»t uacfol of tli«iii all wiu^ Grv«nfl. 

ITniil :iut bonr tlic life of the United Statoe flickered like 
% dying fiama. " But the I/>Td of boats Loan! tbo crioe of tho 
dutroncd, sod sent an angel for their doliTonnce/' wrote tho 
pfliMoe of the PtiomsylTaab Lutherans. '' All our hopc«," (oid 
Lord OeCTge Oennoln, '^wovo bkstod by the unhappy aSiir 
at Trwiton." Tbat vtctoty turue'i di« abidow ot dtmth Luto 
ibemorniog. 



100 AMERICA^ iK AUJAXOE Wiru FRANCE. i7.n-.; ciLmi, 



CHAPTER Vm. 



DscDEBffi 99, :776-JA,YrAitT 1777. 

Arn:« lEiiatching refivtfliuitintd from lli6 mptarvtl etoroB, 
tlio TictorifMifi trooptf won oirt bjr cold, nda, oww, «imI ctono, 
the cbofftQ of DeoHy ft tboofiazid priaonera^ and iho want of 
dcc^ set o3 again in Bleet drlren by % nortb^cflut windj uul, 
|Wiin^ aiioUipr tcrribliT niglit aI tJi«; fivry, nr-nsHxl Hm Dub- 
warvb But BUritDg bji<1 oao L&lf of tho mldwni wen di»(il«d| 
and two luen were frocGn to deatk 

Up to thk time coogiM bkd left on thdr jonnuls the 
enngortJMi that m nfuuon with Urc^t Britain luigttt bo the 
oouoqucoMO of a 4c\aj io France to docUrt in tlioir fftTor; 
Bl Baltimonv b«fore tbfl viotorf m TftntoD ww known, il ww 
voted to^'AMtiro foroi^ oouits iWtheooDxroei and peopio 
of AmeffWm detefmlned tOEttlntilD tbelr bsdnKodcneo at 
all oTontB." TnatMi of cummcfoi vmm to bo oAmd «o Pnu- 
^ to VI«iUka, «nd to TuBcwiy ; thdr iaterrentiati ww In- 
voked to jiwviAt RiMoan or Qerman tnwjA froia ccmag 
igaiu^t tLtT Uuiknl Sutof^, And a ekebdi wm drawn for an of- 
fowve AllixKx- ^ll FrkDCC and Spab agaSnat Qrvat Britain, 

Tho iadepcndcDOO wbjcb tbo lutHo plod^ iti iuth to 
oilier coiuitfiM lo ""'■*»■■'* ooold be aeoood 0^7 tlumfh tiio 
anuf. On tbo twent^^Lxtb o( Deeembtr tbo aiRimi ktt«» of 
Wa«liinf;ioti and Greene wwo twd t& oo q p ug, and tvferrvd 
to Kidord Heuj LM^Wlbaa^and SaamlAduw; wditV 
tlwtMuctday, '^oQBgiwhavli^inahiPdyaaMUBMdtlwpnMBt 
crimis mm) having perfect rolianoe 00 tba wwdott, vi|pnr, and np< 
r^httMwctfGcaenJ VaJtJnytott," rwoltcd thai, ui oddJlicp to 



im- 



A^SASPIKK AKD PRWCETOS- 



t\w <TigIjty-«ght 1ifttlaliOTi« to bo fumislied by rlio eepfirate f latefl, 
he might MmMlf, m Uie g«aeml M Ihts Urata! 8Lif«i, mW, 
ovganixe, and cfBcer nxtec^ linttalioiu of iitfAntrv, three thtva*- 
^and light tionkcmcn, tlirco rcgimcnw of nrtiUcry, anil & corps 
of ongmoen, to bo enlisted mdi^riminntct^ from &U the p«optc 
of All tha itaM. He tnu Am)ior]X<'<L la dUi>1nco ajul Appoint 
all officen under tho male d a brij>iiflicr-;*^emJ, And to till up 
aXl Tsoindoa^ lie tnt^ht uke ne^weaarliGa for Ills anaj at eq 
&|ipR«T^ value. Tliese eitmonfiiiary (rii«U w«r« mtod Sn 
bJin (or nx mo:ilIi(^ TIw dirwt cxomiso of centra] power 
over the coimtrj as on© iiMiivitiiWo republic was to novel tlut 
ho TM will to luvc hci^Ti uppoiutcrl ** dictator of Amend." 
This Ucnnaun meortcd in the hoiiao of oommona, and Stonnont 
at Pari* reputed to Verp;enD{«- But oonp^eee gnintod only 
tho pormliajon U> tl»> ^[enoTiil to enlist and OJ^nisco, if h% 
conW, A nati^nnl inci^Tn^o of hi* army. To tho prc«k3«jiit of 
ooDgrew WaihlngloTi thua ncluiowledged tho grant of unuEucd 
tnilitary power: *'Inj<ti^tuI of thlrtkirij^ myi^Tlf frwJ fnjin nil 
civil obQ^j^ndon^ hj thia mark of confldonciN T t^half con^tantlj 
liwtr in miml Uiat an ihe sword was tJie lost ft**jrt for Lhd [m^- 
scrvAtion of our libort^<«, to it onghc to bo l^d Asida when 
thoed libertico arc firmly cfilabli^cd. ( shall ioistantljr set 
ibont niftlung tho moat Dvi^^fteon- rcfitrma in tbo omty.'' For 
tho itimiFoctod whom ho reooivoid nntbont^ to tineety ho w 
diroetod to ftcix^nnt to tho etataa of vhioh tbey v«n reepoo- 
tSv4f]jr eitixoti*. Aiithortty viu gircn to tho aommMo»«rs In 
l^'norQ to borrow two Tuillioii pounds etorling U gix por cent 
for lisn JVArs; rlgorona niid ^j^eedy ptinfAJiinc^nU were direotp 
•d for mrh iw idmalfl nrfiiai Ifi rt?f»rivr tint ocioLlupiiLji] cur- 
rencjp ; aod "fivo milljonfl of dolbire wero ordericd to bo 
emilted od the foIUi of tlie United Btatea.*^ Till the biUa 
eoold bo prcpAJcd, WaAhington wiut left without c^cd paper 
XBoneT. 

An hoar boforo noon on Iho twcnt^-flOTonth Codwakdor 
At BriAol heard of '^as^un^^ton At Tr<mton, and took tneAenro* 
to ertm into New Jt^rwy. Hitcheock** remnant of a Xew 
EngUni) brii^o oonld not mora for wiuit of a1ioc«, stocktnga, 
Add hreodiet; bat th^e wero promptly ^npptied from Philv 
ddjilda. Dimop, on hcanng of the dLTfr<AL of Run, Imil piw^i- 



U(2 AMERICA IN AtLIAN'CE Wnn FRiSCE, bp, it, ; on. fio. 



tAUtly rutreaUd \>y wuj of Crownick^ and Ailentown to Princo- 
ton* &bftDdomB£ hU Moron and bi« ouk Knd vouudod nt Bor- 
dentown, and le&Ttn^ BnrliQi^toii to be occapiod by tbe de- 
uehroent cmder Codwalader. 

Wjwliington oil tlu: tvrviity-tauviHitli c-ommiinlnxtod to Ond- 
walader h\s bvheme for driyiiig tlie en<?niy to the ejttreinity of 
Kew JerAej. Iiiteadkig to reiiiitlii on the oaat dele uf tlio 
DcUwfiro, be wrote urgent letters to Kjicdon^l luid Mnxwcll 
to collect troopa at Mometown; for, «aid he, "if themilida 
of J^nay will lead a band, I hope and expect to rcacuo tJjctr 
coimtry." To K^utU, irho vniM r^euiviiig lu^ ra&ioreeineDto 
from New ELgUnd, ho e^nt ordon to render aiid by vav of 
Uaek«iuack, Through Lord Stirling he entreated tlie goverv 
nor of Nevr J^mu^y to vutivt'nu tlw Ii^^wUtutv ■>£ tlut AmU^y aiid 
make the a]>pointinents of tJtuir ofl)c<ira accoidin^ to ineriL. 
TTu t4H»k tJioiigbt for tlt^ NiibBiAteDCU tit iha tmope^ vbich, tpbva> 
thi^ should &H be aaicmbled, vtronld form a retpectaUe forces, 
On the twcntj-ninth, while his army, reduced nearly one 
ia elective nuinbore hy fatigue lu the lat<j attack ou TrentoOt 
wu flj^un eroniing tlie Ddaware^ he axknonneod to eongren iue 
pnrpoeo "topureue the e&emy end 117 to beet ap more oCthttr 
quarters, and, hi a w^ird, in evefj iiutuioe, adopt Rieh mei» 
oretJutlie cxS^^^ncjof our aEEairs roQttinv and onr minitJon 
will justify." On tlie thirtii^th lie repaired to Trenton, and 
to thn ofiiotrr cnDimjirirliiig nt T^otriAtoi^rii hn wrotfi : '*X\t\ in 
roaduiase to co-oporate with me^'* * A part of his troopa and 
artiUeTj, impeded hy ice, did not get over tUl the uext day^ 
and OD that day the term of enlistment of the eastern regi* 
meutd came to an end. To thcee retorans the cooditiond which 
PencuylTOnia aUowed to her nncibcdplmed volunteen were o^ 
fered, if they vould eerro ax weeks longer ; and with on* 
voice they gave their word to reruEuo. f The pnjmatiter waa 
out of TRonoy, aiid thp public credit wiui i^hatated. Wi 
ton pled(|;ed hU own forctme^ aa did other offleen, 



* WiiUa^AU to lbs ofittr eonmuidins tt lf<«niMOfis. Tit!&l«a, SOI 

f Oopdfin, 1l, SUJi. wrltvi t ''Xnr nno hnLt «fnt off M*M>t Hit (Htlnl nA-i 
teaoL" Tbif b bol o3m<L Tb« n^tlol daja wen J^aiutT 1, t, I, b vUA] 
ibvj vll lUQilviul llic man coiotiiUl acnln. 



in^inr. 



AfiSAOTINK AND P(U£0£TOy. 



103 



SlaA of Ngw Hampddro. Bobcrt Jiornfi hud MDt up a Uttl6 
taon) tlun fi\'D bimdred dollais in hard motiej, to ud In pro- 
cnrLig inieUi^ODOe ; again WastdDgion appealed tohiiu: "If 

vrhilc it con Irj dou^; ire nn; doing it upon our private erudite 
E7«r^ loTor of bu connti^ moat atram bia ctvdit upou uudi un 
ooea^oa. Ko time as to be kn/t." 

At Qticboo that but dftj of December was kc]>t aa a gen- 
eral thaEiks^Tui^ for tbo deUvenmeo of Canada ; tUc To 
Doum vu c^liuiitcd; in tlio ovoiaing tho proviucial militiii 
gav« a gnivl bnll, and, ae CaiTetCPD entt^rtKii the crawdod 
aoK^blj broko out into loud cboerv, foHourod hy a Mtag id 
Rugliab Ut luA pntl^H*. Tfr! rlninV in llio dniln of triniDpli, 
not dicsnuog tlut Gcrruaui had already iittned orders for bla 
du^TACO. 

On New Vear'ti mc^mmg I^^bGIt Moni* w^Dt from Loii*e 
to hoaeo in i'liil^iidclphLa* Toufimi; people from tbcir bed£ to 
borrow monof of tboui; and early in tbe daj lio Btmi Wiudi> 
EngtOQ fifty tiiottkvud dollora, with tho viocngo: " Wbatcvw 1 
can do thaW bo done for tho f^ood of the aemoe ; if futberoc- 
caEkmaJ ftnppliea of mooey are necMiary, yon may depend tipon 
mv nxKTiiou* eilbrr in a piiblit? ur pri\TJti? lyiptioJty," Wttfib- 
in^ofi brongbo with }i\in »cniv«Iy mr>ru than bix hundred 
tnialr men, and in tbe dioice of m«a»Tireft, all fnll of jwril, 
bo molred to eoDcenlnta hu forc«« at Tix-nton, Obedkct to 
hie ctiU the Tohmtccrs joined hisi in jmrt on tbc lin^ of Janu- 
ftTf ; in part, «f1^ a ni^ht^march, on tho acoond ; yet making 
eoUwtively a body of lota tlmn five thcniiond men, of vrliom 
llll<«0 fifths or moro wore jii^t fnjni tlufir fanuliu* luid uiirm 
hoQKSp ignorant of war. 

On tlw nw'Diwl nf Jaiiimrv 1T77, OuruwiJUa, leaving three 
K^isientfl ftcd a company of ciTairy at Prioecton, '* advanood 
upon ** tlui Aioi*ncan» with tlko floirer of the Biitisli army, jof*i 
aa 'VwJdiigtoii had oxpoctod.* Tlic air wm warm and moUt, 
the roid Mft, w> that thdr marcb vra« tlow. From Uaidcn- 
be»d, whore thoy woti? doluycd by alarmiabora, and whore ocic 
brigade tuidcr LefiLie ranainod, tbey pitMod forward witli 
mott than fivo thonuand Briciah smd Hdsdana. At Fire HbJo 



104 AMEKIOA rS ALLLiyCi: Wrrn FKASOE. tp.tv.;tB.nL. 



Itaa ih&j ftiU upoD Hand m<\ lii£ nilcmoiif vrlio ccntiDttcd to 
dispute every At«p <rf Ida progrcea. At ShobbokODk Cfedc, 
tioops Bocrotcd wiihiii the irood oa tbc lUnki of the rot4 
cmbamflMd them for t^o hoots. On tho hill k«B than » ndlft 
ftbovc TivttK'n they wer« eoDfrontod by about six hundred 
miukotcon aiuI two KkUfiilly nunaged fiiTliUjii^ctti, Mipportcd 
bv ft ddt^iiDeiit Qjicler (ii^EeDe. ThFa p^rlv^ when otUcked' 
}jy lutlllery, whlutnw In jf^^tad order. 

At four in ttic Aft<ni<?oTi Wk^iiDgtoo took Cdtuoand ofl 
the mjkT of tLe amiv, ^d, wtiilc Conmltis sought to ondnk 
him, dct«iiiM tbo Bnti«h untiL thoso of his <nm anx^ vbo 
bad poMcd the AMaapiak gunod tnao to plant tboir nmnon 
b^obd th& riTidie«« The aumj, aa tbaj adnnoed, wen wor- 
riod bj muBkeliT from hoato* and btfni. Tbeir attempt Co 
fom tho bridg* was repidaod. Thm Anwicans had all oafclj' 
p«Kd OTQr; tbe Asaanpiiik ooidd not be forded without &; 
batllr, fLir ln-j^mul it utixnl Um uittJii btid^ of the Ami 
aroijr, aiient in thctr ranka and aliwd; protected bj 
Lato aa it was in the day, Simeoe adv^od at once to paaa 
the AjBonpink to the right of " the rebcia ^ and brin^ on a 
gQEMiral ao^on; and Sir AViUiam Erakine feared that, if it were^ 
put o^ 'Waahtnj^ton mi^t ffA away befcm raoniiD|^. Bit' 
the ran ww clearly dowTi ; the night threatened to be ft 
and dark ; the Britiah 1rrN>jM yrvro worn ont with akinnhdia^l 
and a long marth over Ijcki'}^ ruflds ; the attitude of t1»e AtDCvkJ 
can army w» iiupuiing^ CiimwHlIbi awl ni mm i ^y nt in oil 
for the hrlgado at Maidenhead* and for two of the thiw 
mouta at Frinceton, and put off the fight tOl the next monk^' 
ing. The Britialj army, skoping by their fires, bironacked 
on the hill above TVcDton, while tbctr picbeto wve 
forward aloi^ ^ Aannpink, to watdi the annj of WaiUn^ 
toiL Oontid€nt in thoir TigiUjioQt, the ginonl ofioon toA 
their repose. 

SoX ao Wtahington. From hh plow letnaa Ifarong^ fhA' 
JvnpxHy and Tiia lotig halt in tlw fir«t wvmk. of Tteormbvr at 
Trenton, ha knew the by-wi^ kedii^ onl of the plaoe, and.^ 
the roadft to Brmawidc, when d» bnggagn of tha Britiik- 
troops was depoated. lie first ascertaiikcd by an 
part^that the path to Priaeetoa on the aovtfaadteC the 



im. 



ASSASFINK ASD PBIKOETOK. 



1<» 



aanpmk viu UB^oorded.* Ho w^ia awaic tL&t there irere but 
fovr iTOopti at Phncccon, uid that Jfruzidw^ck had retained but 
a ruuoil gaani for it£ rich nugtanoo* l!o therefore fo[[o^Ti>d 
otit tho plan vrhicb b»t txistad lo genn from the time of hid 
deciding 1o r&^oter New Je»ey, And prepared to turn tho loft 
of ConiwoITU, DvcnrhL^lm tho {nrty at PritiCL'ton, vid ptufh on 
if p[WBil>Ie to Bniuswick, or. if there were dnnger of pur^t, 
k» MNsk tUt! Ijigl) gniiuid md ihh way ti* Thfiirristijwii. W)irni it 
bwBme dork tip ordmxi tho baggage of Iiuanjiyto be removed 
iMUfteleaely to UorliDgtoiLl' 

Soon nHcT midnight, ^enittn^ word to Pbhiim to occupy 
CroiGvicks, WMhingt<^ ** marched hi« army nmnd tho head 
of die creek into the PriooetOQ road/' i Tho wind vourod to 
thd nofth-wuit; Hic weather vtiddeuly 1>ecujnd oold; And tiM 
by^Qftd, hXv\y (UfRcuIt for onill^r^*, wae soon ^tkstfa hitrd. 
Guards were left to replenbh tlie AmOTican camp-tirea wLlcb 
fbunud along tlin Awonpuik f<ir imms Uiart hulf a tiiili*, mm\ 
tlus drowsy BnlisL night-watch fumiiFi-d notliing. 




* CvaU** B«f*p1fil« projiMr HitTrUin. Enid, vfaf^ inu a miin of i^jjlitatM, 
fligtluk'*. an*! jiiE^naat, i« B RrtiC juitboritr, u hv vim prgAtnE- 

\ Tic Xirritjftf or Mtj^r-OtDcE&l tti. C]4lr, fnittcb In ISl^ nniM b« inCcd bj 
ibl liiwi of litelor^til oritiffniL WMhitLC«iMi t^tlr^ hiv pkn {>n the flrvr of 
J«a«C7 KTTi amI did bqt tdlMn 1o it ou tfia vcMrad and iblrd, &, Cldf^i >'iiK 
ntfri «« nlilioi «hct tn^bj yxut^ In lii« <ilKnic dd u^ ii >oli-IiiiidtiU7r}, fau 
«A foadvr kilt l« 4ailMir, and mntn^ni « iiatomPTit vMr^b Ut (ttrulnl/ tixtfltlf 
app<ii>» VpO t^ tnflL StiulCttir'ri Xtmuttu, 242, S43: " Xn oii« j[viwnil ofGrnr 
«W^it mptlf hvtir KQjiIiina of ilit opfioT ooootrf," No«, SuUIrui kncvi Jt bt^ 
IR-; » W iU tbt Officwn of L»*i dlvUlun, und tfijn%, fNxir, riitrr«on. (hp Nrr 
TTn^Mil S«f||*nt md e^mKH, ud aJl ib« olficvr« of th^r rv^mcoU. ^L t*UIr^ 
•totf 1i ODt ■^j^Mlui OD ukf QUO |4bi bf ccuicmporvy vFlwrt, miil ihe ooctcnv 
poitrf Vificv* in fW7 mup^miu nml nrafuL lit rUIr pK/feHni tn mnonLlHir « 
MBrfl ef avr 1^4 <b tko > vicing f i Jujusf^ Mtciul- Tliart oxfiU iic» «f«iiiii cjf 
nj MCfa oai»a] tj ■■* oo* <Uo «f tbo liin<i. Tbr R<fVLnit3 (jf cilHtf* Lxntwii i* 
Im^ boM foiDVOMirt nfomH thutlme wiithrld mrlyin Ihr iriornfiijf 4hf tbA ttdnl 
Of J«auu3rolPrtiM«C*a, «tftbkdi<oanpil Ibovptaion cd ijfh ctf Ihf iprrvnl iijt1<vri 
VM ffvca VQ the |4lnl, whi^iber m [^ fgnt^ to VniTwwkV or 44 varv uLo iIiq 
na4 ifan led lomnl VirrtttDinL AoDihcr vriiv, wnuam B. Jtofll'i Bftnvr Oi^ 
tfoii, U, J$, !■ OEI of ili« v»f in Iba uTtiM lia at(ribii1» tollofwr; "Unocoiino 
kod aoi re« k*ta ibmirhl «<, auJ lliiii w*$ to onlrr op Ihc PUUdek^l^ji mlllaU." 
W9$Ut0m k»S innir br'f<tm (hrilfntl i:p lliit ?hi3iu]i-1]j1ilH ralEhia, ml llii-/ 

Ilk* tUi df Sl CUIt An Trry (ontmria. 



106 AMEHICA IS ALUAXOE WITH FEAKCE. et.it,; cq-tiu. 



Arriving about mnri«o in ^o soDth-co'it ontiiiriB of Phdcc- 
tOD, WaalaugtOD and the wmn body of c£ig aim; wbeoJc<I to 
eho ligbt by a book rood to tHo con&g^oef vrliilo Mcrocr vha 
dclaehed towoni tb» woetj intL ftU>ut HiTtm liondr&d ah ^ 6fty 
mtfo, U> hnmk dovn the bridj-e over Stonj 1>rook, on ths tntlD 
road toTni^tpii. Two Bnti^in^jiiiieiiUvt-ru &lrvxtdyon tbcor 
marob to jolii C'Omvallia ; tlio flercBtMiitb mi]\ tbreo comp^ 
nScHof liiirH-^ undi^r Mitu'!iujd»^«a«mortttbu& » iaO«;iiiadviiii44t 
of tLc tif tj-'fiftii, sad bid aiitndy ])njuc<l Stonjr brooL On 
dUcovtriii^ iu his mr a small bodj of Amcricuu, appareDd/ 
not Urf^r tLon liia on-s, be TOcrodae>d tbo hrutct^ and, fonning 
a junction with a pttrt of tlio 6fty'fiflh and otlicr dclAohmcDta 
on Lbi-Ir maivlk, Lazaril«<d an oopigemeDt witb Heroer, Tbo 
paitiot wvro iicurly eqiud in cumbers ; e^ich bod two paooet of 
artillorf ; bat Xhe Englisb woro fn^ from tindi^turbod repoao, 
vrliUo tbe AmeHoana weir^ eufTerin^ (ntiu a uigLt-man!b of 
oi^tecn mllivL Butli jKirtitu nifirm) ti>wiinl liigli gronikd tliat 
la^ nortb of tbeoi, on t^ ri^bt of tbe Amefkaaw. A hmvj 
diiohftrge from tlie Eo^liab artillery was rehxmed hy Kdl from 
tvroNcvJcncyficld-picccfL Aft4^ a abort but IjriAk cannonade, 
the Am*:<HcAiLK cliinbinc over a fctioo to oonft'ont tbc Brittiht 
wore tbc lir^t to Uf « tbdr jEtma ; Mawbood'a iufantiy fvtam«d 
tbo T0II07, and aoon chiu^xl iritb tbedr bajmwts; tbo Ajn«n- 
cana, for the tn<^ put ridemen vitbont b^jvicits, Rave way, 
abandoning tbtsir tguiauii. Their gallant oDoen, Icotb to ily, 
wvni Wft in tlwir rmr, inMli^Tiiriug Ut cult ba^ iho fugitiff«L 
Intbiaway foO Ilado^tfae ijraro coIodcI of die DoCamrc regi- 
ment; Kdi, wko 0ta7«d hy his bbttcfj; Fleotiog^ tb« gat 
lant leader of aii tliat rcni^netl of tbu ^jU Tlrig^iiia tt^:itneat ; 
iDd otlkar oflkcta of piomieo ; and tbo aUo ti«nonl UtfctBr, 
wbom bona bad bcco diubled nder biiOf was vouded, 
knocked down, and tlMrn rtubbed nuiny tuix« Tith tlw bajri>- 
DOL Just then Waahington, vrho had tanwd at tfae aonnd of 
tbft euxDon, fiaaao npcn dw grouod by a movanent wbidi in- 
tarmplvd tba main body of tW BiitUi fiftj-fifib n^iment. 
The Pttiinajlvaiua itiilitia, mpported by tvo pkoea of artUkry^ 
WOT tbo fint Co form tbdr Una. *^ With adn^nblo eooloMa 
and addrcwp" Mawbood attempted 10 mrrj tbdr battery ; tbo 
way-worn noricce bepu to waror ; 00 tbo instant^ Waahjitg- 



IWT- 



ASSAKPtNE A}n) PRINCETON. 



1« 



noil, bom '^ kb dc«iro to animate hia troops \vy caamp\e^ rode 
'vithin Leaa than thirty yorde of tic Bntisb, ftnd »mcd in liia 
homo witli 1(8 Ito^ t^w&rd tliem. Eoch purty at tbo notuc 
mi>iBont gaT* avoll^, but Waghin^on ramaitted n&toucLed. 
Hiteh^obk, for vhom a bnnuog hectic ma/Io tbli day noftrly 
his bvt, hrought up liu brijpuh: ; iind the Bntifth, MMjiog Himd^e 
TiSemeik bepnnmgto ttim thi.'ir Wft, Hod over AoIJa and f^DoM 
up Stiidj' 1>nhik. TIjc uctimi, fniiii Um lintt t,iitiuct mtJi Vvp- 
cer^ did tir^t le«t mom th^ui twotity iiunnt^fl. Washington on 
tlbO lAUle^omid took llltcbixck by the luiud ;iud fJEunked 
him for hi* ^crrico. M^whood h^ft tvo hroM dcld-piecefl, 
vhich, from want of iioreca, iho AincricanH could not cany 
0^- Hv wiki ohBtfdd thrco or fouj miles^ oui ta^my of Iua mou 
wen} token pn^ttcnu 

The fifty-dfth Britiedi regiment, aft«r redstinf; ji^allautly 
tho Xcw England iicopi of Stark, Poor, Pattcraoa, Rood, ami 
oth«riy iCO^otaJ inili tlie fortttHh to the colk-g^; and^ when 
pioec* of ntUlBry were hronght up, eacajjeci aoro«s the fields 
into a hock read kjwan! nrtuit^wick. Tljd Hnti^li li>r4 on that 
d^y uhoul two hundred killed and wounded, and two huudi^ 
and thiity priaoiiei^ ; the Americau hdb wa« dni&IJ, vxcopt of 
officers. 

At Trenton, on the romm of day, tlia ^noraJa woro aetoa- 
ishi^ Mi not Molng tko Atnuriean anny ; tUu i\v\iMi of cunnon 
at Fncrreton timt reroatod wlath^r it wa» ^nc. In conateraa- 
tiou for the safeCy of the mn^^azinGs at Bmnsidck, C^mwnlUA 
roused hin nmiy and hogiuj a i^wift piir«uii. Him Adranecd 
party front Maidenhoad jvadicd I'nikcetou ju^t aa iTie town 
irm left hy the AiutfFi<:an ruar. It had \iw.ti » jiart of W^* 
iogton^A plan aa ho left Trmton to ocue Bnininrick, vliicli 
wm eigfataen niiJefr distant ; but many of hie bravo eo]dicr^ 
■vcb ii tho coiKorrcdit totiniouy of EngLLdk and Genuan o^- 
oetB m weO ae of WaafaingtoD, wore '* <intto ba:rcfoot> vkd were 
hftUy clad in other roffpocte ; " all wei« exhausted by the aer- 
vioo of two days and a rii^hc, from acrtion U* netion, almoat 
withont r«iraflhicieikt ; and the army of Comwallifi waa cloee 
npon tfactr nmr. 8i\ with tbo ad^ea of hut ofHcvi^m, aftiT 
bmking up the bridge at Kmfpton ortfr tlio Millstono river, 
I TflihtTTj*"" nnde for tin! hi^hhudi^ and halted far tho ui^t 



108 AKEBICA IS ALLIANCE WITH FRASCE. et, iv. ; co, tmj- 



ftl Sonikcreel cDurt^iouse. There, in tlie woods, wom^ot tneo 
canlc dtnim on tliv froiccn groutiil nnd fcl] lutlixp. 

Tb» eKJiiu[>l^ and tb<^ onlcn af Wafihin^^ton n>Tued Ihe i^m>- 
|)k an>und h'lm to oniiA. On tlie liflh, the du^ of lu5 vrivAl 
fit Uoniftoviir Q partjr of WaldcckcR*, ittAckcd 4t t^ringfidd 
hy on equal number of tho New Jersey militia midor Olircr 
tiponcor, woro |nit to flffrht^ lottng foity-«i^t men, of vhorn 
thifty-QiAo voro pri«oiiur0. On the ««qo dny^ fit tbo approftcli 
of O^r^ CUntoQ idth rroopi from F^kcddU, th« Brltbh 
forou Ht Hftckenttclc «ir«d then l^a^igi^ bjr & tlinoljr fli^t. 
Kflwk vu fibftadoned ; EtiKob^ttfiwii vu cnrpriwd bjr 
Maxwell, wbo took mach baggage aod a himdied pri«aiien. 

Tbc d^lttoentli, vhich waa the king-'a butltdaj, ww dioeeo 
lor niTQa^i^ Sir ViUinm Howo iritb the order of tbe Hath. 
But it wae become a moctory to call bin a victoriona general ; 
a&d both he and Genoaia had a forvdgfal of fafhm, for vbioli 
eaeh of them wn« preparing to tUrov the Uam^) oa the otber. 

In Neir Jeney all went well On the twentieth, Gencfal 
Fhnemoo Dickiiiaoeij u'ltli abuitt four h^andrvd rrnvr tnwpa^ 
fofdod the IGUrtooe rivco', near Somcnet oaBTt-bovac^ and 
defeated a longing l^o'ty, talcing a frw priaoni-n^ «hec^ wnd 
cattle, forty vagoiu, and upward of a hnndred honee of the 
EngBah dnogbt breed. WaAhmgton made hi* boKl-qQartcm 
al lloniiton; aod there, and in the atirroiradmg rillagoo, hia 
Iroopa foaod ahdter. The largest eooampnwnt via Id Spriog 
tillej, OQ the aonthen) itope of Madiaoo Hill; the oatpeala 
CKiended to vtthiii three niilcecf Ainbey; aDd»thoii|^ than 
vaa bttt the phanteai of an anoay, the BHtkh in Xev I^aef 
wtn eoadliiad to Bntncrkk, Ainboj, ami Pauliw lIooL 

nodartbehfltpvoclUDaidoaof tbe Ivotben^ two tfaevnad 
aereD handred and tluve Jemcymen, faoddea ei|^ haDdied 
aai! filty-ooe in BlMide Uand, and twelra hondnd aid i^^ty- 
two in the rml diftncbi ami cily <if Xt?v VuHc, nhaoJhed a 
dodaiation cd fidetity to thcBritoh king: od the fwtaBth 
of Jaaenwy,jaftai the period for aufaemptwi vaa ahe«t l» «x- 
pii^ Ovmain, who gnadged pnvy a« o< Baflny, ecnl ericti te 
Ike Hervee HOC to k< ** Ihe ndeHcvi^ eeoape that 
wUdi iadne le tk^<rinee,Mkdvhkb iiw^ba 
to inflict fea- tlie w§k$ of «nn(ia to fatviVT,** 



17T7- 



ASSAiJFLVIL JLSD PKISCEION- 



109 



ftftof dio date of this order, Wafhinp^oiij the barbmg^r aad 
ehampioa oi unioD, wna iu a oondiiiou to dtaiiLtnd, by a pivxy 
lanuUioiC in tbo nuoo of tbD United Stnte;, that tlioau who 
had accepted Biidah protections ^^fhoxtld xritiidmw within Ujo 
ttncm^N linaij or uke the oath cf dl«^giaiicc to tha Ucitod 
6tai« of Amoricu." To this imlor Oorlc, a meiiiljEir of et^zt- 
gn=« froui ^cw Jersej. mtiTpmcd tlits objn*Ai"n ihnt "nu tiath 
of lUcgioncc to tlio Umtc*d Suit^^ voa ;ib«Dri] before cunfi-drr* 
idoD;" foraa^it wjw reserved tococlietato WoiiIIah- Ukw 
of ita inhabituits who lefiiMd cdkgianco to itflclf. TIjo miii^ 
CJimuiato mpocitj of tho Bridofa and IIc««uinfl, thoir luct, their 
mmatruned pacfiion for doemaction, onited tbe people of New 
Jeney In counigo ond the love of liberty. 

Tho roittlt of the (Jonipnign vum iriniwpicioitt for IlHtflin. 
Xew Engbiid, except tlie island of IUkmIo Ifiland, all (wntm!, 
ncrttlit-jTij uii] wrytem Xew Turk I'Jirejjt F<irt Nt*»^r», nil the 
coontry from tJic Delaware to Iloridiv, ttctd free. The iu- 
TmderBhad acquired oidy the blanda tbat touched New York 
harbor, and n ivyr adjacent oatpodt!, of whicit Bmii&wick uid 
the hiUe round Ktng'i Brid^ wcro tlio mo»t remote, When- 
emr tboj pacBOd beyond their eCruit^ued quaitera they met ro- 
rifCmoe. Tboy vci« 'vrft«t«d by iiwou&nt dnmw ; tbiir fomgo 
ad pnHfiionB warr» pxirf^hiwrd ut tho pri<?o of blood 

Thfl float«iupurary British historlam of thi3 welt hnv« not 
wltldioM piniiw fnmi lYijOnEi^rlonN iHiTidiict, itnd enterprlAe, 
Hifl own army bbuned nothing bat the Iktle uira he tuolt uf 
himvclf u'liile tn netion. Cooper of Itoritou W.^m witnew tbnt 
" the confidence of the pooplo ororywhero in him was beyond 
exunplc-^' In eongms, which wnf already distracted by »eb 
fidk acbomcr^ th<TroweTe ngn< of impaticnco at hi# cupcrior- 
i^, ood an obctijioto rtfloctanco to own that the d(.-proucd 
fondltlon of tho oormtry vras due to their haFin^ refiued to 
hMd hU adviooL To a, proj>jttitiun of the nin^tt.'enth of Fehni* 
uy for glWng him the uomtnAiion uf g^-nrml nfliwrn, John 
Adam* ohjWtj--d ytTlvt'iimnUy, baviii^ ha n-'purti^d by I^irJj: ^I 
UD nrry to find the Idve of the fin*t plnr^ pi\TV»il h> vci^- lillle 
in tiiU hoi»e^ I have been distreeeed to eoo &omo of our ineni- 
hen di«poaed lo UMm an iimgo which theb own banda ba^-o 
molten. 1 fipeok of tbo eupor^titiouf rcncrataon which ie paid 



no AMEBIOA DT ALIJASCB WITH FBASCE. »y, it. ; at Tjtu 



tD Qenond WafhingtoiL I honur IjIid fur Iiiii good qiialttks; 
but, ill Uiia Loiido> 1 feel myMlf Li» Bnpenor. In private Mte 
I iboll almjM QCknowlDdgo htm to bo mine." Go the n^cntir- 
fontliofFQliniaryfV-hGailhey voted to WttdJn^i^on mere ^*ided 
jQkkforoenie&u/' and thoOi ftftor n d^biiLto, in wludi ^omo of the 
N«w Englanil dvlrgAtw and one from Xow Jvwtfj Mhowod a 
urUUn^aaa to iiwult him, fiiay expr«aaed theb' ^'eemett desbe** 
tlijit Iiv wcmld ^'niil oulj i^urb luul lunifiuu die rm^rujr witlim 
thair proMOt quarter^ biit> tgr tho dirmo bleotn^ tobJl^Aub' 
due thom before they could be tdnforced." Vdl loiglit 
Wovhini^ii reply: " Wwt tiopo am tlicre be oi my cQocting 
00 dci^tublo ft work at this timo f Tho wbolo of ov mmbom 
in Ndt^ Jersey dt far doty U luidnT tUrdo tiiouMnd." The 
absiini pftfi^tuph "vtu carriod t>y a bivro majority, RLc^^Ard 
Ueoiy Lee bnsgbg Viiginh to the iide of the foor ea«tem 
«tat«e^ agaiiut the two OaroUii^ !New JerBoj, and Pentiffyl' 
miiiM. 

There weie not wanting inemlMn more jwt ^'Wuhing* 
Ion b the greateat man on earth," mote Bobert Morria from 
Philadelphia, on tlio &nt of February. From BaJtixaor^ 
WiUiam Hooper, the able roparoec n tativo from ^ortb OaroBn^ 
replied: ^-Wil] poat^^nty believe the tal':^! 'When it diaU be 
conuiitent with policy to giro llto hiitoiy of that man fn)m hid 
flist introdaotaon Into onr eemee, bow often America baa been 
ransoed from raEn by the Eoere atrenjuth of hia genloa^ condne^ 
and rovn^ enconnltTring erery obsfcarin thja wiuit of moaey, 
nied, anii^ arutiLimitlan^ could tlirow In hie way, to fanpartinl 
world will xiy wiUi you tl»i be ia tho grenteat man oa eertb. 
UiafortiDiQe are the eletnent in wUdi he ahinea; they are the 
groundwork on which Ui pktara appeata to Um greetoet ad- 
TantitfCe. Uo rieoa aapcrior to them aU ; tboy aerre aa faOi to 
hia fortiCndc and » atimiUanta to brag into new tboeo great 
qQaEtiea which hk modec^ keepa eooeealed. 1 eonU All the 
dia In his praise; but anything I ean aajr ean not eqval 



^ 




m«-i78*. TQE cosflTiTtrnosd ok the states. 



Hi 



CHAPTER IX. 



TUB 0UAtfil1L'IUJ58 OP TBS SBTZft&L ITA1S8 <ff AVPiwn* 



177^ ns3. 

Hab tko deciBion of (he war haa^ on armiei alcne, Am^ 
tea lutght not kuvo gidned ihia rlclorj ; Lut tho s^nnt of tlto 
■gc ucutod die jroatig DfttioD to own jt]:^co m older and 
bi^r tbaa the atote, and to found tho lights of tho cituscn on 
c2ie n^Uta of nun. And: yet, m regonentiji^ ICa iiutitatioQ% 
it was uol gind>od hy uiy cpocuUtiro thoury. ' lu form of 
jforenunent grevr Dfltnrally oat of ii£ traditioiu by the ^mpk^ 
roj««tloii of il) ponoQtd berediury autliorityr which Id Amer* 
&CA Ind luivur litrl eiioru thmi n rvprcttoLiUtivo OJdstvDco,- tta 
EnilostiiouB and ffHj^ petiple were Acciiatouied to the cry of 
libtrty uu) ]iropi-rty ; Uk^j- liiirbiin?] no dnmm of ft comKnunity 
of gooda; and their Iott; of oquality never deij^eceraled into 
ODvy of tlio nch. Ko etK^eAoord of tbe fiftli-nion^rcliy mea 
propodod to ftiUtituti: All unirntt'Cci higher )aW| intorprrtod by 
iadividiuJ ooitfclccioe> for the law oi tho Und acd tho decreed 
of buQAD tribuDftb. The people proeoeded n^ith modoratioiL 
TMr large inboriuneo of Etiglt^i libertiM eivcd th<^t) from 
tho ooccAlty and from the vlih to uproot their old political 
Iwtil&tioiM; and ajs liAppily, the Heaffold won not wet wIiIl the 
Uood of tlwir lUtesBien, there arpte no deepenito haired of- 
Ea^and, rudi aH the \eUi«r1aiidH knpl up fir ucftlurh^ n^Jiiist 
Bp^u. Tho wronga Laflictcd or attempted by the Britifih king 
werv felt to ha?e been aTcnged by mdcpecdoDce ; reapoet and 
aflcction rnruitfL^^l (or tho parent bud, from wliich the Tnitcd 
Statca had derived tnal by jury, (be wti't fcr pcncnai liberty, 
the pnoClce of repn»cntutivd goreroment, and the separatioa 



119 AK£BIC^ Uf ALUAIfCE Wrni FBA.NC£, o, rr. l CO, IX. 

of tlie titroc groat (KKirdinate pow«re in tbo Etato, From an 
oesOQtToIly iLri^tocntic modtil America took ju&t what mitod 
ber oonditiou, and rejocteJ tli9 roit. TIi^ tran^Uim of the 
Goloaied bito aeU-exi*tiiig coniTEonwwklUis was free from i-ia* 
diuUv9 btttvmutu, xi\<} &l.teiiJetl by iio violent or wiOo do- 
l^art.uro fi>JTii lLb paat. 

Ill all tlui nUUv it wsA licld that aOTerdgolj raideA in Hie 
people ; ihai tlio mnjcst/ of flii[)re[ae coanmvid belongs of 
ri^bt to dioir ooUectiFo intcUigoncc; that govcnuoeat i* to 
bo oHgin&tod bj tliou- impubo, orp;aiusod hy tLdr ootucDt, 
mid oondcctod by thoir imhodlcd wiU ; tliat tluij fllono pod- 
eaes tbo liTing eoetgy out of wliicfa all power flows forth ; Out 
ihay uo tiio told legftliiiate tOBStar to iiam^ dirocUy or indi- 
rectl V, the oflicerB in tho slatt!, lutd btiid tbein u tii^ mrvx^xU 
ta toil Mt]y ffjT the oommon good. 

The AiiK^ic^i |>tDpIe went to tlifl gnat vrork vritlK>nt ndfl- 
giviDg. TIjitj ntrre omifId<nit tliat the jiidgmcDt of tWum 
of Hi/o indiridodd mcjuliera of tlic 4>:iiiimuiut^ wa» tfae eafeat 
cnterion of truth in jiuldlc aflaiis. Tbej barboivd tsb fmr 
iliflt the Toico even of a vayvArJ majority would bo mor« 
cnpricioin or more fallible Him the ^ood pleoBUte of aa hcredi- 
tvy moDaTcb ; and, iiiinp]>alUKJ bv tlL« ikeptieafia of E;m»p«iia 
kiu^ tlioy proceeded to OJrtond Mlf-gorommoat oror rcfrioiu 
wMeb, in pn^viona agea, bad been Maemed too vMt for re- 
pubUcun rtile. Of all tbc Cfttioiw of tbo osrtlij tli«/ were coo* 
eciotis of having had tlie moat varwd experie<i<« En repre- 
aenlalire goveniuK^nt. 4ii<l irv i\vt applioitlon of tlifi itriociplai 
of pc^iW power. Tlw giant forma of abvo^Dto monarcbki 
on tbcb' yKty to ruiu cast over tbo world tlieir fearful fikadows ; 
It w tiino 1o conatnict etatoi on Ibe ba*i> of inlwroat, to* 
alionablo n^^ht. It ia b^^canae Kiglnnd nnrtnrod her colooue 
in freedom tbati even in tbo mldet of dvil irar, the; dieriabad 
l^r nsiino vith affoctioii. 

Of the Adcrican ttatesiien "wlio aoiitod to fnine die ciev 
goTemment, tiot one bad been origlnallj a repubtleui. But^ If 
tht jvuoiMutj' of adopttog pufoly popular iiartttntiDiin coinv npon 
tbom QDexpectfidtj, the agca bad prepared for ibem tlieir plans^ 

The reocimmrnrlntioni to fonn gm-eniincnta pmiwednt from I 
tbe general Gongnw ; the work waa done by the acirenl atatc^j 



ITTB-ITM. THE COSSTirunOOT OF THE STATKa 



lis 



in tho ftiT) oajo}*tnent at «dlf*dir«odoiL Huch of tbcrin ol^mod 
u> be of right u fni*, Kovurelgn^ ami tn4|iT]i<7iul<*tit sUt^ ; each 
}K>timl iU odioTTnt Uy [war to h tme fillf^ancd, and lo noM ntaJn 
its &ecdoDi and indopendeDLv. M^JmcLIlMt1l^ ivlifrb wiw t!tn 
flmt 9Ut« to fraino a gDwrniuunt independent of thu kin^, 
domtcd 09 Utllo a» poeaiblo frooi tlw letter cf ltd cborter; 
ud, 3finnnuig tlut Uie pWe of governor wu vacant from 
tht tdncMw&UiOf July 177^, it nccgnisod tho conacii as tlio 
ictg&l eiioc«««or to oxooutivo powoi. On tlic tim dar of Maj 
I77C, 10 all oommiflibaa ind lugtd piooc^VMM, it mb»titutcd 
tho fuune of iu ''gQ^xnitncut and people"* for ibat of tho 
Idng. In June 177T. ite le^yamre aaanmed power to prepim 
« ijuibtiitutirjTi ; LtiL cfti ft n'f<-rfmni Ici IIjit jii-fipU*, tli« lu-t wiiA 
dimrowud^ hi S*^ptoiiiU.T 177i>, a ojiiTcntioii, wbirfi tbe pco- 
plo theinAclTee had ffpcdalljr Autlionxed, fiumed a cooBtatutioo. 
Itwu ID a p>cxl mc4,4urc tlic conipil.itioii of Jvhix Adnm^^ who 
wae gnitled br the Knglifh conetitutioii. by tbo biU of rigbts 
of YirginJa, and bj the cxporicnco of Hofeachodotta herscli; 
and thifl coutitatioDt having boon approved by tlio people, 
went lotD Gff««t ia ITSO. 

On tbo fifth of Jnnuiiry ITIC, Nov Hamp^htro Abapod lu 
gowUDflat vith tlio fowcKt po^iblo cbaiTjri^K from lU colonial 
foniM^ Uko Httnachai^etts merging the execiitive power En tbe 
cciancsL Xoc till Juiu? 1733 dul iIa ooiivcrition agrtH; ii{xitt a 
mora perfect uutmiuent, wLich was* approved by the pooplo^ 
and oatablialwd on the tiiirtytirtit of the following October. 

Tho proviaoDid cocetitntion of South Carolina datc« from 
tho tvrenty-eixtb of Ihfarob 1776, In Uarob 1778, a porma- 
nent coiutitutioD waa introdnc«d by an aet of tho li^faktiu'o. 

Bhodo bland cnjoyod nndrr iti chftitor a form of gatem- 
monc io tLorouj|;ldv repabtioin that tbo i\>jectioa of mon- 
arofay, in Hay 1 776, rcqnin;il lui diangct boyoud a remunelation 
of die iEiUf^a uamo in tho etylo of ita pubbV. w:U, A dijifran* 
ebiatiinent iif CathiiUcs Imd ntiJi^] luui iti l<ro)t of lavs; but, 
ao aoon m it ma noticod, the olotiflc toa oipnngod. 

In like nunner, Coaoeeticut had OEily to sabitiinte the peo- 
pk of the colony for (bo itAmc of i\tc kinji: ; thui ma done 
pronftjonally on the fonrtccnUi of •lone 1776, and mode per 
piC&aJ on tbo t4jDtb of the foUoving October; 



114 AKEBIOA W ALLIANCE WITH FIUXCE. tr.rr.\ co^is. 

Before tlie end of June of tho Mme j4*4kr Vi^nia, tixtb in 
the acricss fintt fit the complet«De« of ber work, ty a log^a- 
tlTo ccQvcntion Titliotit 4Dy further cocevltatiOQ of the pdc^le, 
fromfid and adopted a bill oi n^hUy % d«cImtioti of bdvpoo- 
dcncc^ and a coiutitntioo. 

On lL« »«o«iid of July 1T76, New Jtntey perfected iU new, 
«ulf<«reAtod c!|jarter, 

Drkwmr^ lu^xt produliaad lU liiU of ri^Iite, and, on tbo 
twentieth of Beptomber 1776, Hbe repraoiUtirtf in cooventioii 
liftTuig been clioeen by the Crcomon of tho vtatc for that n^ 
purport^, tiuiiLh^ tU comtltutioiu 

The i'cnnjt^rlvnnih convcnticD adopted iti comtitntioD en 
tiko twcnty-oighth of Septetnbor 1T7G; bet tho opp«cition 
of tlio Qaokon whom U indireotljr dlsfmndileed, and of a Ui^ 
body of pntiiots, d«lajed iu tboroiigb uiganliatfoD for more 
tliau fivii uQODttifl. 

Tbo (Trb^tcH of ^far^Iuiid, iiLwrUuf^ on tbe fourtoentli of 
Atigost 177G, framr^ ]t« €OD5tjttilioD with great deUberatioa ; 
It woe cetabti&heKl on the niuth of the following November, 

On the oigltteontb of Doc«m1jer 1776^ tbo conetitiitioia of 
North Carolina wjlt mtiliud in the coogrcai wlueh fniDod it. 

On the fifili of Fehniary 1777> Gdor^ perfeoted its or- 
ganic law by tlie unaikimona agreoment of it« oonveDtion- 

fiut of iJict tliirtonu oine Now York. vbo«o empoworod 
convention, on the CwontietU of ApHl 1777, etiUihlFahed i cd&> 
ntitnttnii thnt, in liniimiiR lilxmUily, ncclhvl thum all. 

Tho pri village of tbe mifrage bad been {at more wtdeljjF CK- 
tmidod in tliv colonic* than m England^ l^goncral conaentf 
tbe i»tei:^on of tkc olecdro f ranchitfe vaa pcnt|>oned. The age 
of tif«Dt3M>ii« waa a i^aalificAd9n nniTeraaJly re<iuirc<d ^o, 
too, wu romdoncc, except that iji Virgrnia and Soutli CiuroUoA 
it waa cDOQ(;b to own in Iho ^ttrict or town a certaiD free- 
hold OP ** lot."* Soutb Carolina raqoired the el«et4>n to *' to- 
lDiowkdg9 tho Ikoing of a God, and t> boli^vo in a futni^ atata 
of iQvar^ and pnnUhment^" Whilo men aJone could elalm 
tbe franelum in Vir^niUf in South C>nilini, nnd in Gi.>or]^a; 
but in South Otfollna a benign iDteqtreUf Jun of the Uw cbnod 
tho free octaroDu on * whttc^ eren thoii^b d««n-ndrd tbrmgb an 
nnbrokcn line of mothcTA from ie imported A&tcin fibre ; tba 



im-iTa>. THE cossTrrmoss of toe STATEa. 



115 



other U'n vtaUtt miwil nr» qncntinii of color. In Pcniwylvania, 
in isevr UaiDpehire, and p&rtiallj in North Carolina, the H^ht 
to Toit« bekiuged to evcrj* rvaident tw-jiaifcr; OiOT^a ex- 
tended it to mny vhitt^ iidmbitftnt ^* of anj mvchanio trodo ;" 
with thi0oacccptioD,GoorgiaimdalL tho other colomee required i 
tfao poeaearioa <d a toehold, or of |iropertj varlouslj- valued, in 
Moiit^huKtU It ftboul tvo huiidrtsl dollum, in Gcorj^a at ton 
pounds, SiniiUr i.H»nditionfi Imd ntwayq BiiHt^, with the COIt* 
ewtmivoo or bj the &et of the coTonials themselv^A, 

M^vhuid ]irr*crjl>od jl» it5 rule that vnl<» Klinuld bo ^ven 
by vocd o£ mouth ; Vii^dnia and New Jciscj Eiade ito diange 
in tbur tiMgc^ in Hh<Mjo l»laiid each fm-auji wnji In theory 
mamoiicxi to bo prc^unl id tbo gcucnxl court ; he thcTtfore 
gpffte loB proxy to hie reproeentalivo bj vntirtj- hi& ovru oiuiio 
on cIm bock of hia veto ; all othcn adopted the \talhif \«w 
York at tho «nd of tUo war, tlio otlivr ei^ht without doky, 

TI16 first ^r^t ^jrant ooinnion to all was a hotu^ of reprd- 
■entatlvci, H) lustr tlio jHH^pIc an to 1^ tlur iijui^t* of tJicjr 
thoDgUtA and wii^lie^ ao nniiien>iia as to Appear to every voter 
ItU £nN!t nifiiitt-qiiLrt, Ht fniprnilj' n^ninvcd nsi Ut irmum MWift 
rovpofiahility. Sacb a body cvciy one of them hod cnjo^od 
wliik oonnocted with UritAin. Tliey now gained oertauUj 
aa to the timc« of mooting of tho aMClIlblio^ procu^n ii> the 
periods of olootion, and in some atatee a jiifit«r di^tributiooi 
of reprceoitatioa. In thoetyi tho bouBCfi of le^idutioa biliould 
Oforyvbtit} bavo boon in proportion to popnktioa; and for 
tbie «ul a oenena waa to bo takon it fixod tim«t* in Pennsyl- 
ranU and Xow York ; but in nuwt of tfie -luted old {nd<iTiaU- 
tlua wntw co»tjnwe»K ani) even new nmee intrrxhiniih In Krw 
Eqglaad, t}vo w<vi-nd 1<iwnn li;ul fruiti Hm fErat eiijojed tho 
priTilcf^v of rrpnwaitatioii, and this ctrMotn w&a retained; in 
Viffpnia* the countiaa and boroughs in the low conntry ftccnrcd 
aa njkdno Kharo of tho mombcra of the aiaembly ; iJie planters 
of lUiyUnd lot a most imc]aal limit to tho irpn^cntation of 
thm Gsty of Baltiinora^ In Soutli Carolina, Charkaton wafi 
aUovrod for pototi joan to eond thirty mcraborv to tho ae»cin- 
biy, and ih& paikfcefi negir tha sea took abnoal a monopoly of 
pulhical powar; after tkit period reptvaentallv« woro to be 
praportioaod according to tho numbmif nhTl4 inliabitaut«and 



L 



JIO AMEHlCi. I>' ALUASCE WITH FKASCE. Kr-n-.; CK.nc. 



to tbo texofalo {ttopertj in tbo eerera] di^trictiL To tbo 
btjr VM romrvd tbo pover of originating tnxcsL Id Georgia, 
tiie ddegatas to the eontiBeaitml coDgraw liad a rigLi to ojt, 
di^lMia, luul rcjtv tu lU bouee of anemU/, uf whic^ ihvy were 
deemed lo bo ft port. la Booth ConilinA tina AMcnibly wmb 
duQoen fi>r two ye^n, erofyvbeie else for but one. 

Fnnklbi appiovcid tbe dcdnon of tlic fnnun of the con* 
etitntion of FctmsylTonia to npoco «U Jcjgulativo povtr m ono 
clumber. Thb &vil jjreoedeoii was folh)««d in G«orpiL From 
ftU tho ezpcriexteo of formor ropubUci, Jobn Ad^ urgae^ 
for % k^lAtvra witb two bnnchn. Tl»e Amcricaae oi Uut 
dipj were Kcnilom^d Almost from the begUmlng to m double 
k^ftlativp bodj, nnil i^li-nni of 1Ih.< tbiHji-ti rtjitr* adhftnd to 
the aneSent uage. Tlie co-ordiiute bnncb of tbe legifibiiui^ 
ivlwtber odlod a aeiuU^ or IqgiabtiTO eoiinctl, or bu^ of ntr 
dsCaiitB, wai 1cm numcmit than the botiec of rcprtte n tatiTcc- 
In tb<] i)eRDttncnt conetitndotia of JdaaaafbiiMttd and New 
Uamptldret tbe proportt<in of poblic tAXM pnJd bj a diftnct vaa 
re^ajdod in tbo aAigDmcnt of ila senatorial number; m New 
York and Nottb CuoJina,tbeienalewaielDctod l^a nanovor 
eonatitiieDe^ thao the aanob^, T& nx of tho ct«T«« atslet the 
aenateint dtOMnmnnnally ; bat tbe period of K^rrloe In Sovth 
CtnliDi embrtoud two J^^n^ in D^ware tlireo, in N'ew T^ork 
and Viifpua Conr^ in lifai^Und fira To inereiM tbe dignit/ 
and fixednnw of the bodjr, Vbginia and "Sew YtA g^rt ft 
pcnnaneoDo bjr renewing coe fourth, Dekwan^ one third, of 
ita BMinbeTB annnall^, Maryland prcecrib«d a double electiea 
lor tts acnoto. Onoc in fixe jean tbe Aevend conntfio^ tbe dtjr 
of AnnapoIii>, and Baitunora town, cboec, Wr«i txk^ their le- 
epcctiTe ddegatet to an eleetoraJ bod/, eoedi SMsibcr of whi^ 
va« ''to have In the itato teal or perwnal prepare tbcre the 
value of five btmdred poondfl current money-" These electors 
irere to oloct hj ballot " dx oat of tho ganibmm toldonta of 
the caatem abore^* and "nine ont of tbe pntboen mldnita 
of Uw wtttlens Hbum/* of the ClinEajivnkv baj ; ihc fifti-rn 
^gcnllcowQ" tbns cboaen ooowtltnted the qaitxpDeatnial aovto 
of ilaiylaidr and tbanaetrea flDcd np anj neancjr that ml|^ 
oecnr in their number during tbclr torn of fire Ttan. 

Tho goTcmor or president in the f<nir Kcw £n|^Bfid ilitce 



ITT«-1T83. THE COSSTtTCTIOXS OP TtlE STATER 



IIT 



trit oboion liiraotly hj all the piitnoiy eleotora ; In X^jw York, 
bj tlio fraehcldeiw who jwjMnwipd a fiWIioltt worth not h^H 
thui two tiiinclrt-d amd fifty dollaj?; In G«oi^, b^ the r^vre- 
M<titji()\>«»r tUfi pippin; ill PcuiiHylvaina, l»y til*? juiTit, vift*- (tf 
tbe coundl im4 »»ciiiWj', wUo were c<nili»t'J in thou" wrlt^ctlon 
to the members of the coundl ; in the other six ffUtce, by tko 
jcoDt ballot of tJifi two l^nnchtM of Ute Lc^nlatiia^ 

Kxccpt in PcwirtylvuRUi, a enuJl property qarLlili cation wu 
ttsnaJly recpiinjd of a ivprocontative, mora of % aonator, atiU more 
of A goTenK>r. Xl-\t York r«qubvd only th[it iLt j^vomor 
dioaldbQafnxbo[(b>r; Ma^tichiutotts, that bidftwbold ehouJd 
be of t)ieT«h]« of about thirty-three himdivd doUan; New 
FlampUim nvpnivfl l>tit Imlf rw niiuih; ftcmth CantliiiH, tlisit 
bifl plaiilaf iou or freoboM^ coi.mtiiig tlis slavea "■ r-dlM ^^ upon 
it* ahonld be of the ralue of forty-two thoiiaand eight hundred 
dollan in camciu^. In Kcw York and Delaware, Hit goroi^ 
nor watf dioecu for ihxm years ; in South Carolina, for two; 
in all the rmt, for only ODe. South of Xcw Jersey, the o^ 
pacity of ro-okctinn wiw jcaloimly r<«tnet€d ; in thOM statofl 
whldi irero inc«t republican there ws£ no ench reOiielioiL ; ia 
"MTtawrbnartrr^ CcmnectJent, and Rhode LJand, a governor wna 
often couti&ao^uJy itMilucted. 

Tlie jea]ou4r f i:«tere<l by long oonfUcr:^ with the erawii led to 
th» genunj rufiW of a iiegativt; jio-nrr to the governor, Tho 
thoughtful men who dcviKKt fhc oi^ustitution of Ktrw Yorle 
eilabl^bed the priociple of a coiiditioiuJ Tcto ; a law might be 
iwgativcd, aad the veto vraa SnoJ, unlcM it ihoohJ be passed 
again by a majon^ of two thirds of oacdi of the two br&nchce ; 
bat tiK'y uuwiaely oooflded thia nogntiTe power to a counciL, 
of which die goromor fonnod bnt one, MaaaaoliiiMtts in 1779 
bnprored upoa the prwedcnt, and placed Che condilkma] veCo 
En tbt hanrlii of the goremur aloiM*. In ber pnivinoiial form, 
Soiit]] Carolina elotlw«d her executiiv diiof with b veto powecr ; 
but m tlwe(f»^itiil!(ifi irf 1 m A St i^-aa abrv^ted. tnaUotber 
ooloiuea, the goremor either had no «faire in maldng hwBj at 
ttily a cMtlag rote, or at moat a doat^ vote in the leaat nnmer- 
■oa at the tin> bnuidM** 

Nowbcn Itad the f^rcroor power to disiolre the kgfaU- 
tajc^ or dtbi^r bnacb of It^ and ao appeal direotly to the peo- 



lis A3I£B1CA IS ALLIANCE Wmi FRANCE, sr.ir.; tm-ix. 



pIc ; and, cox tbe otli^r band, tbo ffyvtmor^ o&ce elected, could 
not lo rcmorod during hi« term of office cxoopt bj impMoh- 
moot and nmnvtion, 

lu mo>t (ft due «UU« all tmportuit tdrQ imd mOIUr; offi- 
cers were rliKTti-d lij tlie legitdjUiirv, Tbo poirvr lutnvtvd to 
a gorenioTf wherevor it whu mora ihui ft shidovr, Wtt still fur- 
tlier natrwnud bj kD executive <M>uikcU, formed ]mtlv after 
Uio model of the Britub privy oocinciJ» vhI partly after coLo- 
nUl precedoata. In the few cMoe ui vbicb tbe gorenuir hod 
tbe nofnixiAtioQ of offioen, particoUrij in MMaaehiBetta and 
Now ilAmpsbire^ Ihej ooeld bn oommiaikmed only vith the 
cottool of coBiiotL In Ifev Tor^ tbe ftppobtii^ pover, 
wbeo tlid ceovtltiitloQ did Dot direct otberwiso, waa eonflded 
10 tbe governor and u council of four eoDaton, elected by the 
aiwmbly from the four gnat ilErdricts of the vtale; and In tlik 
body tbe govic<nior W) ^» cR^iiiig voum, but do otberTOto;" 
Thia worst arrau^ment of all, lo nue to promote futioo and 
iatrigue, w» tbe ^iiit of tbe dctiberkte ju^;tuent of wtae «Dd 
dioDterated patnota, in their lcA for ■dminH*Te<iTO pnri^. 
What4;Tcr Apntng naNlily from the condition end inlelligeooe 
of the people bad endnriiic life; white arttSctal wncopnHoti^ 
like th^ of tbe eoanedl ol appofintmeot b ITew York, and tflee 
die aenato of Alarylund, thoagfa d«7i«ed by eaiDCFt dstoflmon 
of carefol ednoatku and great cakdowroatti, pined from tbeir 
birth and aoon died au-ay. 

Tbe thini grmi btmeh of gowmment w»9 in ihoory kept 
diatloct (roeu die olLt^r tvru, Iti Coniity-lk-iit aoil TEhode Iat> 
and aome jodidal poirors verre eAcrriwid by ibo gorantor 
and Maatanta; tbe other eeoirta were con^tuled by tbe two 
braocbee of the loguktorc. In Mataachnaotti and Xcw 
Uampehire the gOTcmor, with the eooecat of oonndl, selected 
tbe jiKigo*; in Xow York, tbe eonndl of ap]>ointment ; bnt 
for the nO(t part tboy nro ehoeen by Uie k^uUtnrai In 
Sooth CaioUna, MaaBae b i mtt a, and New Hampahire^ a Jv^f^e 
might be temoredf aa in England, upon the addreaa of bo^ 
bouiiai of the lepdatmv, aofll ihu pmn^l a -wvm practical 
rule; in Xew York he mit>i n-tln^ at the ag« of wbOf; m 
New ■Tc!nBoy uid PimniylTarua tbe anprvma eouft vu choNoa 
for BCTco yean^ in Connccticnt and Itbode Iiland for bnt 



I 



m*-lT8S. Tire COSSTTTmOKS OF THE fiXATES. 



110 



orui; iu Dt'InwiTej Mar^laitd, Virginia, and North Carolina, 
tho lonunj of tlio jndi<*ittl offioo wm good U^lmvioir ; in Jliiry- 
kndf e^ea a oonvicdon in a eourt of law waa required bofore 
rontorxr Pdnfn* nf itlmu-^.rj IhtUin^^d ti) lli« IcgiKlnfure in 
Connectieut and Itiitxle l^lniid ; in Sontli CarntiuaH. lo Uil^ Uuii- 
tcnittt-govt^mor imd tho pri/jr couEcQ i ia Xuw JcT«oy, die 
gonemor and ca^odciL were the court of ftppcalfl in tlie U^t r^ 
Aort. The ooaTta of all tho statoe vrcrc opcD» withont regard to 
e»«dormoe. 

Tbo GODititatioa of KiuiiacliniM^tu roqnirod a e^etam of nni- 
Tonal pubUo edvoatioik m a vitd elameut of ch« puhlio life, 
A* jvt, tho a^'stem was eataUiahed nowLcre elm excopt in 
ConiiecAieut Pi^imylvaiiifl ntrnml .it no moiv tlian " to JDfitmct 
jDutb at \ow priotfi." 

How to focun; dUcn^et utiiiiiii^itionii iif cnndidatus for liigli 
offles waa car«d for only in Connccticnt. Tliero twenty meri 
were finft aclwted hy the vote of ihc people, and out of thdo 
twenty the people at a iccond clectioa avt apart tvrclrc to be 
thd governor and af^iatantd. This method woa vnrmly recom' 
me&dcd bj Jay to Uio conetitueikt coDTeniiou of Xew Vork. 

Tbo Knfjjliali frdcm wu an urifftoeraey^ pvtJj heroditafy, ^ 
pajtlr elocdvB, with a pE<nnaiii?Tit ?:cecul!vc Lead ; the Amctii* '' 
can ajKtKTi %ttt In iilea mt ^1iM.-t,ive guvenmieiiL of fliO bort. 
Some of ilia eonstitutlotiA requirorl tho ehoico of penwna '^beftt 
qnaliflt^V* rr *' pcrhutiM uf wlad^aih ti|>erient'e, and virtue-** 
TImm clanacs were adviwry; the ffiiUnige vsw frceu Timid 
■tatftimeo were anxious to introduee aome palpable eloncut 
of perraafleneo bj tho manner of ootutruetiBg a count^il or a 
•ctiate; bet tbcro vaa do pertnoneiice exoept of tho people. 
The peopio, with all its frrootnoes mid alt ita tmpurfoctioots hud 
p er pet u al neooirion ; ita vavea of tlion^ht, following ecemal 
kvif were oever atiU, flowing now with gentle vibratieiu, now 
In a iwoepii^ flood. 

Fit nvio; ihiui twixM'ntiini* ihi- humbler Protaatant 9<««la 
h»d Ksit ap the ery to heaven for freedom to i^'onhip Qod. 
To the panting for tUfl freedom half the Ameriean states owed 
thiar eJiistonee, and all but one or two their inerawo in free 
pepnktiOQ. Tbo inunenae majority of tbc inhahitante of tho 
thJjtocn colooiof were pri^teataot difisentei?; aiid, from end to 



1^ AMERICA IN ALLIA5CE S^nil ^KXyiJE. tr.rr. 



ead of their CDDtmont, from tho riven oi Mudo &nd tha hUlft 
ai'Sev BaiupfcMre to tbe inoimUin vallejH of TeciMttM and 
tfaft bordont of Oooign, one voico colled to tbe oltier^ lliat 
thfifO ahoald b« no n>»nrrtu)ti of thii r-lniit-li n-itb tlM< nUitt?, nu 
4a*Ul)l)Nluiieikl of any one fonii of r^l^ion hj tbe dril power ; 
tbot ''ftD mcii lar» a iiatiiraJ oiid uuUcaiAble rigbc to woish^ 
QodaoconEni^totbodieUtcsof thcar own cmuctcBeea uxl nn- 
detvtiaditigs." With tlua frr^t Idoa the coloiuM lud tnnUed 
for ft ccDtnry vid & half ; luid tiow, not ae rcTolntionJir^, not 
u deetmotivo, but eimply as f^ving attoTBiaoo to the thoi^ht 
of tlM tudcKtk, tbo eltfe* etood ap in racoeooon, in tho p w wn oo 
of on* tnuilier tnd before God and die worid, lo besr ili«ir 
witoem in favor <if rmtorir^ uid4>pcfid<akC!<- to anmaetiEa snd 
tlie iniiid. 

In ilu« fintt promnlgfttkiD b^ aUtea of tbe *^ creotioo^igjii^ 
of mental fnxdom, Mine RimvAlsof the old ^itcm chiBf> roand 
tbe DOW ; bat tbo victory waa pdBeti for tbe ooUootivie Anufi- 
oan peopleu The dcdimtion of indcpendcnoo rerted en "^tbe 
laws of nature and of nAttirv » God ; ^' tn tbe eepanio AiDCti- 
can confititaQcna, Xew Tori:, tbe bappy diu^bEer of tbe awdMU 
NecberiaiK^ true lo her ImeegCf did, ^ b dio name of "^ faer 
*<grwd iwoplit, nnJvin, dfftemdiie> and dedare tbo £r«e csev^ 
dae of r^i^ons profeas^n and wonhip, wtibottt dlaeriiniitt- 
tiOD or preforcQce, to ell nankmil ; '' fur tbo n>vo of tbii nevr 
oommonvcalth Idi tbanMhres " re^itiredt 1>j tbe beiheveleiki 
prindpleeof national bbctty, not aoly to expd gItO tjnnn/t 
but to goiH apinet that qnritaal oppraskdi end ntolor- 
•noe wbmwitfa tbo bdgotry and ambltkin of mak and wiehed 
princca hare mxair^ifd mankind.^ Indepesidcnt "Sew York 
vrith eroi JQit»e eocorad to ibe Oatbolie e<|nel iibefftj of wor- 
eUp and equal civil favieUiGi^ and almort aleoe bad nonl^ 
low tert for O0O& Heneofivth no nun on her mhI vaa to 
mSrr political dkfraniifaiapnxnt for hia crB«t 

llie BbenBty of Nev York via wide aa the world and ae 
tbe human ficc Hijtoij inn«t ercr dedare that ai tbe oio- 
ment of her aawition of libei^ ebe pbeed do immtfilnlhaial 
^aqmU&atkmoQ tbe free bUck Evan ^ OBaatdpaled daa* 
fCiined with ftv-^doaa e^oaHrf betov the e uMlHatie o and ^ 
law. New Yorie plaeed nKrietloBa on the adfrage aant eo ett- 



l7r9-17Sai THE CONSTITOTiOKfl OF THS STATEa 



ISt 



gibUUy to olTlco; btit thoee refltnetionB applied dike to ill. 
The alien before nntiimliutkra wwt rc^iuia^ to rmooiKX aJlo- 
giwce to forci^ powcrCi aiiko coclc^&^ticxil or civil. 

Tho oftUblklimetit of liberty of wnwueDco, vrliidi bniugbt 
vitfa it libeitf of vpeedi nji J of tbo prutf^ vnu, in tho eov^nl 
etatOA, the fniit not of |>hi]iMo]>1ijr, bnt of the love of I'rotostaiit* 
hsn for ^ the open book/* Jlad ilie jVmoricaiu wanted foltl^ 
tlrv-j rjiEiM lutvu fuunilul notliiiig. Tj-'I not Uir jihilcHCiplier 
hear widi mwm that at l»ut Mrvtrn of tbeir coiifllllulioim ^bi1> 
luhod aoiuo sort of religioiu te^t aa & 4Lia]iticatiou for office 
llujlond and Manaoknj^etta rofpuroil " belief in tho Chjiedan 
reli{^oQ ;^ Soath CtkroJiuit oiid Ucorgin, in **thc iV>iedt&ut 
rdi^ioD ; '* Wortli Carolina* ** in Ood, tha Froteataut idigiOEi, 
mid Uio divine aoUioriry of chd Old aiid <if tho Norr Tcetsr 
ment ; " Pemwylvania, " a belief in Goi, ilio cmitor ftnd gov» 
emoT of the uuivt^rw, the rewairder of tin; good luid piiiiiKhcr 
of x\t& wickpd " witfi u fHrtherBckTiowlf^ng *' the flei"iptur» 
cf tlie Old mid Xew TefttitiiK-iit to hv jfiven li_v divine iiiMpinu 
tion;' Dt.*UwArc, a pioftK^ion of ''faith in ftod the FatheTj 
JoAUa Chnt* bin cmljr S^jn, atid Ihu Iloljr {tlio^t^ one flud, 
blcwod for evermore.*' 

Tbeee reelnctianft "nere but incidental nMuiiiiAceiicu of 
ancient VMigcn nnd dcxuly cbcri^hed crccdjs, not vitnl olcmr^nts 
uf the conetilutiotif ; and tLov were oppoood to tho bent of the 
Aiiuirl«ui minit JotcpH llawlu^ of &fii«iachti«cttm having 
Ijmd chofon a ee&a^^ralt the tiret fleotion tinder ite oonetiti]- 
tinife, refused to Itka bU aeat^ bocaiutf bo vould not £tiiTer the 
tfAto or any ono oIm ontudo of tlio villngQ churrJi of wbi<*b be 
v» ft member to lnrjnlre into hia belief. DiHrmvimm rnvtiftil, 
chlcd/ on thu full i^infntiicbimtiiu^nt uf ihi? ruUioIit; hikI uf tho 
Jirv ; and tJie di«franebisumont4 vcrv ellminntt-sl abntwt aA ^I'lon 
aa tJieir inoonveoteuoe &n«etod atioation. At firit tho Jew 
n» eligiblo to office oidv In Bhode Inland, Kow York, New 
Ji'Tiacy, and Virgmia; the CAtholic^ in tlucae etatc«, and in 
Uamdnieetta, Pcnnfijlvanio, D«)awaTe, Slaryland, and perhaps 
in Omeffticut. But from tha Ix^ining tlta cIhucIj no lon^r 
fiimivd a part of die ctate; and religion^ ctmiag to be a ar- 
rant of tho govemmont or an Insirnment of dotninion, beeamo 
A Uh> IB thvt aoiil. Public wcindiip ww vidiintanly wntaine^ 




123 AUEBIOA IX ALLIAi;C£ Wmt FnASOG. tr. tr. ; ca. a. 



Xowliere im persecadon for nligiotbK upiiurm so nearly ai aci 
and M Iq Atneric*, ftnd DoirK«re vu diero m> religious a 
peojile. 

TlicTc were Dot wmting ihcm irbo <a«t a Imgcriikg Jook on 
tlio cvc of ihc £Ut« for public wonlu^ The conecrr&live 
omvencioii of Uarrbud deeJand dat ^ tbo legulatim maj in 
tlftdf divoretloD U7 a gencnl and oqu] Ux for tlno M|7poit of 
ttvi Chrif^n religion, loaving to «&di iBdiTidnal tlw sppouit- 
tag difi inoikejr collected frocn him 10 iLe support <jf auv par- 
ticular p!bi<v of jiubHe wunLip or minuir.r;" hui thv. jioin'r 
granted vsm never cjtnciied. For a tjniB KinacfatmttA re- 
qalnd of towoa at reUgboa aodetue " ibo aopport of poWo 
Proteilaiit toachora 4>f pictj, rdigion, mad momlitj" of tboir 
ovm olocttoD ; but m cacb man cboso b» own refigjoM eodet^r^ 
thfi nquiditioD bad do offecC in lai^ t4>w&A. In Conncdieal^ 
tlwPvritB&wonhipwatfdllclofely btor«^»TVn «^thtli«rtat^ 
and hM moulded tbe mami^i^ h^U, Bud faith of ibe people ; 
bat the cotaplece dlaenianglenieiit waa gndoallj brought about 
by in^ritabld prooosMS of Tfgiidatinn. 

Tnier« puljcuUr chiirch«A had reoeivt^ g^fl^ ot inlH.'ri- 
tmnciv, Uirir ngljl to tlicnn vaa mpcctetL In Uwyluid juid 
South C^rolma, tbo churches, hoA, «ad prope rty ^t luui 
beloqg«d to the chorch of EngUod wen socored to that ehurdi 
m ita new fbna ; in Vt^hua, where tbo ehnreh of England 
hftd beoo estiblisbed m a pobhe inetitatioaif tho dupootioa ftf 
in glebcB vu aaramed b^ the le^^ilatnn ; mod, aa ^ deoooUnfr 
tUmbad ooQtiihiitod tothmracqnistioiiftbejr canao to b« ooat 
aldered as tba pvopertf of tho ctat«. Tithee were nowhere 
oondnneil; and tlie nilr preTaiW thai '^nomaneonldhecon^ 
pelted tij mainlain any ifiiiiistry oontnry to bia own free will 
ajii] cjciiurjil** SoutJi Cfinjllua, in W Ic^alaliMi 00 rdlgioa, 
attempted to ecparato hcriclf &ocq the ajflem of the other 
aUlee ; «h<: alooe appotnced a test for the rota*, and made thia 
decUntion: "The ChrutiaD Proteatant religion ia hocelij 
cooatitutcd and declarod to be tbo eatabKabcd ivU^oa of tkia 
etate*" But the oonditioci of 9om^ wm etronger than &m 
eolwtitntioli, and thU deebiatloa proved b«t the afaadow of a 
wpltem that waa Tmni»lking- In ITT^ the tnl f«th and tho por^ 
tiJdng of theoonraimioii aoeenlbg to tbo fonw of the E^ik- 




ITT^ITSO. IU£ C0XSTITCTIOX& OF THE 6T&T£& 



123 



copd cliUTcIi eoAMd to bfi required oa coadltioia for Iiolding 

The eoparataon of the chutdi aiid the state br tJio cetdV 
tt«ltinciit of rt>Itj;iotu oquolitj wua followed by tho wonderful 
romilt ihol it ww approved of cv^^rrwlioro, nlwapi, utd bj' alt, 
Tho old Aoglicin ohTircb, vhir)i becAnie knows aa die ProMt^ 
tint Epl3«»iiftl- wished to preaerre it* endowmocte and might 
mmplnin iif thrlr lEiipiiInimnt ^ hut it pnfi.rni*l uvur *ft«r ta 
take care of jtAelf, and wfi?? "lUd to shuro in tJiitt e(|aft)ity which 
dl-ipt^llnl ihu ilmd uf epifiooi)at tjmnnjr^ aud left it free to per- 
fect its oi^;aiiiEatioD aocorrling to it» cwn d»irc#» TJio HoinAn 
('atboUc CQgerly aeooptod id America bie pJaeo im an equal vith 
Pf«tai1]inta, and fonod cooteutnietit and hope in hia new rela- 
tionfl. Tbo ngid FrccbytoniuiA bi Amcrtca MUfipoHed roligioiu 
freedom ; true to the fipirit of the grvat £ri^1i«h di^enwr who 
hfttedmUlawa 

Tn tttmtvh thflf mn^rirnrr, luid tfj luitil 

Tbe native freedom of the miiid. 
Li Tirgiiui, vbcn: nloiiv. tlicrc wlla an aixhioua fitnig;^1e in the 
legialatnre* the ptcsbjicr; of Hanover doniandcti the diflufetab- 
Ualuacnt of Uie An^-lican church and tha civil oqualitj of evcrj 
dokomiiiation ; it wtt« BQ|^rted by tlte roiece of Baptint* aii<l 
Qoalccn and all tlto eoets that }inx\ vpning from the people ; and, 
after a eooteat of eEglit weeks, ihe measure waa carried, by the 
actLvitj c>i JuTcnon, in an tbuembly of whidi tlia iimjonty were 
Preceslant Epfepopalinupi, Nor WBS thtg demand by Preiby- 
terhiu for erjuallty conftiied to 'V'lr^riJji, wliere ihey were in a 
mln'Tnt^T ; it w« fmm Withcmpcwm of Xew Jcrw^y Unit Ihfjidi- 
awi imbibed the leeaoa of perfect freedom in mattcie of coa- 
■cienoe. When tlie coRstitntion of that riatc waa fnunc<) by a 
eoQTOQtioii compoecd chictiy of X'rc^jtcrian^ they established 
perfect liberty of conaoienee, witbout die blemieb of a tceL 
FrcG'tliinken miglit have been content wiiU toleration, bnt 
relifrioos eoDvicdcm ivonld accept nothiQi^ ke9 thnn oqnality, 
The luuro profound wait faith, the more iz icoroed to admit 
a eotmocticn with tbe state; for, Eodi a connection being 
inbemiUy vieiona, tlie *fc»te might more readily form un alii* 
unvB with tTniT than witli tntrli, wilh d<<jip<»t]Mri iivr-r mind 
than with frttdom. Tbc dcteniuiutioft ti leave trutti to her 




124 AIDIBJCA IS ALLUSOE VfTH FEANCE- i>mt.;c«.w. 

OVD atrcD^b^ ADil reli^iom ^vomiiip to tic conMicnco and 
TolontBLij ftct of the WQrvliippcr, wiw thu nahinU ontHow oi 

The eoQitituUou of Gooo^ deelared ibac *' estatai ahAll not 
bo piLtiuloJ^ luii), wlivn u penwQ iIilv IntcBtute, liw ur h#r 
BlmU lie <]iv[do^] oqiially among the chQdreiu" The fiune prli>- 
d|ilc prcvjiiled emriitiallj^ hi oilier ertAlos in coafonnitj to tliear 
Uw^ and their inanticr& Bnt in Vir^nia a ejrstcm of eol 
enforced with k ri|;or unkcovm m the oM comilvy, hsd 
to mftke the poaacoBBOD of gteot eMatea, ttpeeiftllj to the eott 
tho Bluo Kidg<e, the priirilogo of tho fij^-born. In Eng^boid tbaj 
Gonna of law pemiitt^^ eDtaiU to be d<M^Eed bj fine Ukd 
OOTQiy; in 1703, Virgiuia pro)nljit«d all aodi umovvtioili^ 
the tenure oould bo cbaiif^ by Qoihlof; lees tbao t 
■tacate. Id 1T27 it ww furiJit^r L-tiucivd Uiat idavea night 
sttnchcd to iho ml^ luid Ivf ^'ritiiilMiI wjlli It. Tliem 
nv^tal « beieditarj arbtoGrac/. foimdoc] not on Icanutig or 
talent or tnonl wottb or public aerrice, but on the poaaeaiSoo 
land aed dbvca. It iviia to porfeet the rvpuhlican inatitatMna 
TirginU bjr bRaking donn tkia uiftocracj that Je&iMn vaa 
enBOitiODed (rom the uationaJ coogrtM to the aneanU/ of hilj 
nethre rtoto- On the tvdfth of October 1770, be ol 
loave to bnng in 4 Mil fctr the abolUhmont of entaiU ; and, 
igiiiut the oppoeMoB of EAnnnd Pendleton who vaa no 
Mead to EnnovitSoaucT aU donaoa in tailf I7 the aet of thk flnt 
repiiblirsn Xfffthuir^ of Vu^giai*y were seated with the &b- 
Bolute douunioii of Iht? prr>|R*Tty entailed. 

To camplcto tho n^rorm, it vie neo o wary to change 
rules ol deaoGDt, «o that the lands of an Intestate might be di- 
vMt^ cqnnlljr among Kia representatives; and this 
cd throD^h a committee M wbicJi Joffcrvon, PsuUcton, 
Wythe were the aetire DMsnbera, and which was char|[ed with 
the rtvi«aon of thoeommon law, the Britiah statntM idll 
in the etate, and the criniadd atatntes of IHrji^uik. The no^ 
hw of dicaoeni wis tho work of JoBencti ; and the candid hl^ 
Inrian i^f Tiiylnta appsorea the pvceful wyratautrj at the 
wbicb abotiahed priraogMibare, and £roe4fd ]«operty into 
rhamu'h which the head and heart of eveay saite man 
he proDB to choose** 



minTsiL TOE cossrmrnoKB of thk states. 



135 



In tlie tov oountrp of Tif^iiiLiEi, atid of tlio t^Um noxt Gontb 
of H, tho nujoiitjr of tho iahabitants w«re iKindmen of another 
raee, ©rcept vhere modified by mixtrni^ The cotirse of !egi»- 
IaUiiii <m lliH«r fi^iOiLion will hu iijuralwl i-lrtt-wlH^n'.. 

ProTijioii iv'aj* iiiadu fijr nrfijfniing the cont^litutioiu vhlch 
were now eattbUsbed* Tho gi^eatovt obetades wore tlirowiL in 
the vhy of obinge in Peiiiuylvjinia, where tho Attempt could 
be nuido ooly odco id seven ycoj* by tbc cioction of a council 
of oeudors; tho fowoet m South Cftrolmft, vhero the inajoritjr 
ui m U^iflloturo escprauly uMiumfd to fbwlf uid its i;uccc«on 
oriffiQAl, tnd^wndgnt, and fixul coneUtn^nt pow«r. 

The Brityi pftrliam^nt^ in its bill of Hghta, had onl^ rammed 
np ihfl lilit-rliKK lliAt Kr^gllrdurtun m i}w. U[»e uf Mmtiiriiw hiul 
ac^nlrod ; the AnifrrirJtTis o^XTm^^i their cikrct-r of indejieudenco 
bj a decUretioa of tho »e]f-evidout Hj^hte of man ; and thl^ 
bogxm bj Virgtnin, \ra£ repeated, irith ranotioiu, iu t^rcrr 
coBftitotion formed ftftcr indcpcadccoor oicocpt that of bcuih 
Carolina, 

Amorioa neither ioparated abmpllj from tbo poit, nor 
dxaofi to it> (ivca^ring fonm^ The principtofi thftt |i^o life to 
Use new in&tlnitioiis did not (!ompc] a sadden change of social 
orpolilicnl rrliti^jtw; Imt thev wi?ry hh u lighl ithhiing in<.iro 
and uicire into the dirkiiL-t#^, In a country vrlilch cctjoj^^ f rL«- 
ilom of conscionctis of infjulrr, of t]}eecb,of the y^n^oA^ tmd of 
gov«nuiieo4, the nnivcml intnitioQ of truth promised the 
DDTGr«ndhig pff^grees of reform. 



^ 



sV 



12Q AMERICA IS ALLIANCE WJTH FSA^'CEL EP.m,cn.x. 



CaAPTER X- 



PRCTJOUTIOKB FOR Til* CAltPJUOM OF IHT. fTtAXCK, ttOt* 
LAKQ^ afACr, AND ETIOLlXD. 

I>BCEMBER 177^aUy 1T77- 

WniLB Wa«hm^on was Xoilinf: v^tLout rcwtpd, it ri^^il 
is £uropo upirvd to «apc»odo hiiu. TLo CooDt de Broglie, 
d&icJaiQUiig the ambitioo of booomiag th« wcfmrQiga of tbo 
TToitud St^t^ inslnnntcd liifl wU)lagDe«a Co be for & period of 
ycRLr« ite Williuiii cif Onu)j{«, ptorld*^ li6 oould be lu^ur^ of 
a large ^T-^iit of mon^j before enibarkatiuD^ an aiDple reveiiQB, 
iha MgltiKt miliurv raolc, llio ilipm^Uun t>{ tnrvign n^UUfiuH 
dnnng bu cojiunand, and a princcLjr Annuity for life after \aM 
ratoTn. Xho offer was to have been made tUrougb Kalb^ tlie 
foimor emiaauy of Choieeul in the Bntijili ool(mi<4 : tLo o^ 
kcowlodgcd porortj of the utyvr rcpablic Bcattercd tbo great 
milled ahoTl-lived dreajD ; but Kails tbcugb m ItU Sfty«jEUi 
yOEU-^ aMiiont, attd Imppy Su hid wife and cliildrvn, ronaainod 
tno to nn entgagemont whicb, !□ coinpony wiih Ljifayettej be 
liad taken wltli Daaae to aerire a» u imijfir-^Krml in the Imiir* 
giflit army. Wbrn tbr Ainrrif^ui conirntmionpr tctid lAfayuClo 
plalnlv that tbe credit of lao ^vt-muit^rit waH tou lov to fur- 
lunb tiid rL)luiit«t:ia a tmujfort, *^ Tlien,'* uul tlie joun^ u>aji, 
" I wit] ptircha«o one tnpclf ; ^' and be bought and frtiglit^d 
tbo Victory, whicb waa to carry him, tbe veteran Kalb^ aoid 
tirelT6 otb^r Frcadi ofticen lo Amcriea- Dnnu^ the vcwka 
of prapiuution bo made a ^nsit to England. At ibm Bgo of 
ninetecm it aeemed to U!m pardonable to be pveeentod to thd 
Ung agaiiittt whom be mtf goiug to fight ; bot lie dedlned 
the Idng^A ofEer of leavo to Inspect dim BHti^li nary yard*. 



lUft. rRKPARATTONS FOR TTIK OAWAlGX OF 17TL IfiT 



y. On tiK? Acrentli of X>ocember, Franklm reached Ifanto^ 
A iioriiij^ pibuogQ of OUrty dttja bi llie Eeprfaal, during 
whicli (lie pslitp Ikiul tH<4*ri i^ltiuvvJ liy British cnnr^rH, mid Iml 
laVeu two Uritifih bri|^tiaf«. As no notice of Lis uuiaiiJii 
ImuI jirucetled luiit, thi^ «lory atu spreurl In EugliLiit] Ui&t 
be wafl A fugitirc for F>aJc^. ^I ncrvcr will bclicvcv" BAld 
Edmund Biirkc, ^^that he is golag to conclude & long lif«^ 
vtueli hm \mghtc\xvd evcr^ hour it luiB c<kTiticuod, with co 
fool and t^ionomlilo a 6igW* All Europo iuforrod tljat & 
xoMn c4 Ills y^^ATs ftnd great nainc would Eot Iiave croBiod the 
Atlantic but in llieoiiund liuj>tf of luppy rvaulfji. Thv oy- 
tngB thai irU from liim at Nant^ rnn tbrmigli Fans and 
Fnmw; and oti lit6 woj-d iLu aaium i^a^^rlv cittllt^J w?ut it 
vridwd to tind true, tluit not tweutj' sini^useful cainpdgnfl 
coold rodacc tho AiDcncan«; that they would be forerer an 
independent state, tokd tlie naturjJ ally nf Fmnce. 

The Bntuh ombuftudor demanded tho rcetoratioQ of the 
prises bronghc In to yontea with FranhUii, argiuing that no 
pnxo can be a bu-ful one unlutt made andor the ftnthori^ of 
eoue power, whose cxieteuce ha^ been odmovrledgod by other 
powen, And cvidenoKl by troatic« tod aUiAncot. ** You can- 
not cipt-ct ns,'' rttpli"^ Vcrgi£iin«ij "to take opoa our about 
dera tho burden of your war; every wise nailun phices ifs 
diief ncurity in l^ own vigilance.^* filojinont coniplainod 
th^t French offiocra wtro cmbarluiig for Amcrrica '* The 
French oation,^ replied Vergennea, '^hiu a turn for advca- 
t^Tt*" The AiDbas»dor reported how little hii remonstroiieas 
were headed. To strike the aattE>E'a rival, covertly or opoiily, 
wv tlw ecnttmeat of rk»riy every Frunclimun cxocpt tho hlug. 
Artoifi, the kinj-'a eccond brotbor, avowod \m gccd-will for the 
Anuriouia, and longed for a war with England. ** Wo aliall 
be sura to Iuto it^" ntd hl£ youngor brotliE^r. 

Fratklln fcaehed Paris on the twonty-fimt of December. 
TTti fmnL- oh a pUiIflHf^iher, \iU tir]r:u!jn^ ^irud-hnrEior, the dig* 
nity and ca^o of his mannc^TF, Ujg plainnras c( hui drcn, bis 
habit of wearing his straight, thin, gray hair withoTit powder, 
contrmry to tfao fodiion of that day it; Fnuiee, acted ha a spclh 
The Ttnerahle impcnoiiation of tZio rcpiiblica of antiquity 
leemed lo imto eomo to accept the homage of tho gay cupitat 




1S$ AUERICA IS ALL]1SC£ WITJI FRANCE. ep.it.;««.x. 



Tito DattaDol try was ibat iha euiuo of tlic ** oiAur^oiita," for 
«o thoy vans called, and noiror rebels vv. tho cnnM of all 
ittADkiiKl; tliat tlioj were t!;*1itin;> for the liberty of I-nnc^ 
In defending their own, Somt of the Amerfcan conitUutioTki^ 
»epimUug tlie HUiU) fruni tlic diunrli tuul (vtuljlinJiiug fnwdom 
of ivTJjr«1u|v wrn^ traiislalod, and read ntib r&j>ture, Tho 
friends of Cliiifi^Lil diutioicHl Ihat Fniiot; nJicmld luu ihdujiiiy 
aoiDOnt to tflke a b«titig ncvcngt; on hor bnnghtj^ enc^ny* 

Franklin ecattcrcd every dificoimLf^omoQt hy the liopoful- 
Qoaa with wUioU he epokc of tho UuiUxl Stfttc«. Chorios I'ox, 
being in Pu-lfiy nought hU intiiDftcr. A* tho nged ukd tho 
youthful etatostngn conversed togeUidr on tho aubjoot of dw 
VATj FtankUn cdled to mind die vdn eflortt of CfariMebdom, 
in the! diLjt of Lbt; cnuult!*, lo gain p^NGMMdoii of tho Holj 
Xand; and forHoTd tliat, ^^in like manner, whito GrefttBHt&in 
might caiTj mill azkI dntTTicdinu into AiiK-nt^ iUlrcvt \AiKjd 
tad its trcwmrc voald be squandered and tlirown awi^ to &o 
mjuinor <rf purpoac/' 

In th« morning of tho twunty^ighth the three AmcricBfi 
oomminioncn vnitod by flppointmont on VcrgvuMai Bo u/h 
mrO'i tbciu proceotion, reoeiTod the plan of oongrcea for e 
troftty with Fninee, tnd fipolu freely to them of the attikeb- 
ment of the French nation to their caum. Pnne tah<'a under 
tho Azutiricuii Aug might he broiiglit into ^>^TnL'^h porU, w\ih 
each procjuitirin* ti§, would inrolidatr cf>iii}iUiiilA frotn Orret 
BHtain. Of Fnmklio he reqaeated » luper on the condition of 
America, Their futnm intereoureo he deeind inight he meet 
etrietly ivcret, vttbout the tnterTentioD of any third penoit ; 
bat, flA Fnutoe and SpJiin wen k eeeord* tl»e eoamnMoDon 
might comniBnicote frcdy with tlio Spouiah tmbuudor. 

The Count de Arwde, then ftfty-oight yem o3d, w of the 
gnndoot of Aragon ; by nature prood, impeteooe, reatieei, end 
obstinate; of tutdleciplinf^I toni|wrjiiid nngcnUI matuian. A 
soldier iu eurly life, tie had bcvn nttru-lol to FnuHu t^^ the 
tmnvB of Frtwh^fict; Imi adiniivd VotUiire^ Alenibert, and Bow- 
een , and in France be vm bonored for h£a aiipcnority to m* 
pentition. His faai^ty s^^depeiidaico and force of will 
fitted Mm for tJ>c scrvioe of Ohariee UL tn driving tho Joauite 
ttom £?pain. As an idministTotiTO reformer, bo bcgui too 



im. rftBPABATIOKfl FOB TOE OAICPAIGS OF ITTT. 120 



T«faemDntlf ; tbwarforl hy iha htifT formfllitiat of ofRcishlM And 
tbft joftloiudet of tho cIcricAt pnrtj, he ^vitlidre^ from court 
to fill tbe «mbaafiy at Poru. Thcro he etxic bccaiuc ea^r t^ 
TCCniDO active ccnploymcTit. XJcvotii^d to tliu French alltojico, 
be l<»ig«d to aoo FnmoQ and ^pain inflict fi mortal bbw on 
tho power of Engkad ; hat he w^ a dariitg acbemer and had 
oaloolator; sjul, on tanch of tho hustnesG of Spiiii witlj Fnuice 
lehting to Ainc>]ics, ho vw not <^on8ii)totl. On ttw tw^eniy- 
Bintlt uf Dvoumbtfr J7T41, atid u^'^auu abc dnja Uitvr, Im )ii^ 
Mcret iDtcrvtows with the AaterlcaiL couuntg«ioucre. lit; could 
onljr pronuAe Amcncan privateera aBd their piixc6 the eeoail^ 
ID Spwuh \tOTiA which die^ found ill tbodc of Fmnco. 

On tho fifth of JnntiAry the commiseioncra prc«ottt«d to 
VcTgeatue a wntton ivqnoet for ci^bt Bbip« of the line, anmm- 
DJdOQ, hn» ficld-pdfiG^, and twenty or thirty tboiuaud euu4- 
kotB. Tboir reft»onin|; wui; addrcegod dike to Franco and 
Spuia: "Tho iiii«i«Bt of the thj-ee natfons is tho aame; the 
cppxrtnnity ntiw piuwiitu itwK uf Nuunring n coiuniirnv whiuU 
Id tinie vill be inimeiuo; duLtj ma^ be attended witli fata! 
cotu«qu«acee." At Yenf^llee tho |>ctition wan limiiglit Ih> 
fon? tbc Hn^ in the prcecncc of Hanrcpae; and, on tho 
thirteenth, Coiimd Alexander Ueraid, ono of tlte nhlctct aeore- 
Uriw of Vergennetf, mccttng the commifldoncn hj night, at a 
prirato bonso id Parid, mid to thorn tho earef ul aua-n tr wbioh 
had rMeiTod tho rovaJ euaolion. The kin^ could oa yet tar- 
Bith tho AtnerieaaA noitlior Khipt aor convoyg. **Tiino and 
9TvRta mtu^t bo waitod for, and proviaion made to profit hy 
them, Tlie tTmlal Provlm^ei*^'' m> thr new rq>»iblic wim si j-lti!, 
^may l>^ rnvmnH] tkit nt^ilhiT Franco nor Spufii wl1[ mnlco 
them aaj OTeiture tliat caii in iJk? }kuitd mUrrd-Tu with t]t«ir 
winttal !nt«nMtL The C4>mtnorcial facilkiu^ afFordcd in tho 
pDrIa of Fnoco and Spain, and Che tad: diTt-'raion of the two 
pewcra whoee expooeivu iLniuunenta oblige Enghuid to divido 
htr cttorti, ranukst tJic iutt^rc^t of tho two crowns la tho tno- 
MSiotf the AmevicQiiB. Tie "kht^ will cot iLcomTRode thou 
in derivii^ leaoucaa from tho cointncrcc uf bf« kin^om, coa- 
fldunt that tha^win oonform to the rates preecrihod by tho 
precbo and Hgorotu meaning ol exittinj; traatice, of whk^ the 
two monarcha anj exMTt obMrrera. Unable to enter Into the 




IdO AMERiOJL ly AiUASCE WTTU FBAXCE. a^,n-.;c& 



deteilfl of tbcir fljpplM^ bo vrill nuirk to them hii txukcvoliiEice 
uid goocl-will bj dettniii^ for tbcm necrot mcoois vluch will 

Tbcte promlfe* ira« &!t]ifiill; Icept Half ^ mUUoo cf 
KvTM m* to ba puil to tin Umkvr of thu^ coinmuaoiion 
gnirterij, the fint itvUboent on the EUcleonth. After man/ 
hUq kindranottt tlie Seui^ tlie AsiphitHte, uhl tli« Ho^ 
!0Di7f laden with warlike Et<svs hj Dcodo and Beaamarcbafa, 
[YetQ allowed to go to eea. Of tboaa, tlM first waa o^itond 
1)j tiw Biitiah ; tbo ocher two readied Auunoa aeaaonaUj for 
tbo nuDDwr cnmpaigiu Tbo oomiaiaoc«i«rt wo ^utLef tn- 
ooofai^ to eonttvet with the forawt^^rcaiienl to ftmiih Sttj- 
■Ix tlMoaaiid hogdieada of tobaeco; and on thb eoBOvt tbaj 
rocdvcd im adranrv of a miUSon Uvtm, 

To Fnmce tfae Britisb ministry sent ooorteooi nokoc^ 
atraiicn"; toward HcJlaad tluij wnmoTprlicafii^ ThoBridA 
.adniinl at ilie leeward i«laiMla wu omorcd to aUlko proper 
.eniiaara off tbo harbor of fie l^uitatiu, with direotioBa to 
^'tlieir ooonaaikdns to search all I>Qteh dupa going into or 
out of it) and Co aand sDch of them aa ahoold haro ann^ 
anuuBoitioD, dothn^i or nutoriola for "^"^^^^g on bcvc^ wto 
BotQB 4^ kie aa jearr'a pov^ to bo detaioed mitO farther oftea* 
The Iditg " pcnuitd, with oqual a m p roo aotl indipiAtiotiT^ tho 
papom wb>ch prorod that the prinotpal fort oo tho Jalaod 
bad reCoRied tlie «alnte of an Amcfftean brifcaodnev and that 
tbu gin'mnior huX Iml "the iasolonc* and folljr" to «if : *■! 
am tar from bcira/ing unj partiality Iviween Great Britain 
MoA her Korth American ooIoam** Tbo Rritah wmliaMadnr 
at the Hagne, following hi* inamclioiiis dnnanflcd of their 
hi^ mi^itiiicaMa tho diaaTOwal ct tbo salate and the reoaU 
of the ^venior: *'tUl thia aa li rfactko is givoo, tbcj most 
not expect that Ma majetty vOlattffor faimaelf to be amnaed 
bj fimpb awunmcoi, or that be will lieiitato for an Instant 
to take the moAsarea that be shall thbk due to the intnv- 
nts and djgsitj of faia crnvn.** This hngnapi of a w nt a m p t 
and ineuacD inconaed all Holhst^ capeeUl/ the Aj- of Aak- 
stoidam ; and a jist raseatra^ inflnsoeod the ifariaWin of 
the etaicB and ai the prince of Onn^ Van de Gtaaf, the 
goTcmor, who ww the fint fonign official lo aalato the Ameri- 




IVVV. PKEPARATrOWft FOR TTIE CAMPAIGN OF \m. 131 
can flag with iu tlitrt>?eii elnpeq^ wa^ recall^; but xh& atatcs 

TOtimi^ ibo jWp&P <rf York**, UTid tlu; Diltdl UiJiliiUrr t» Xon- 

don complmiivd 4lin<i-Uy r.n tlw king of "t1]«t tni^TiAcing tone 
of Uw mfiiuon&l, wliicii a|>pt--drcd to tUctr lil^li Uik]^]itlii««tftui 
toOKmoAe fivm U^ wblcb m ueu^, and wliidi uti^ht to Iks 
Qflt^ between soTCcttigiLA Olid iiidcpctidcDt pr>wcr«.'' As tho 
nsul^ Uui itotOB donaaadod & number of anued &lupa to bo b 
rowiipott ; uid ono 8t^ wu taktiD toward mvolviu^ tho Uuited 
l^vincu*! in tbfi mr. 

The DMaouros nnctioiiod by the king of Fnuice wore a war 
in c)iri^pl«e Mgninst En^lAnJ ; but he profleft^ 1u hv tmcTTjulru- 
cdly fi>r iKwn*. Hu iitai*r vdUintarily <Ti|>rEf»Hv3 rnpinpathy 
with Aiuciic-i; and Lc hcaid tlie pr^uat.^ of IV^mklhi wiLit 
pctaUikCL^ It vi-iiif liit |iubli(: iJpiu!<»n of KnjuKv wliicli awh^gJ 
the c&binct to usut the young republic. lieanmarchaja, the 
uithor of ** >'iguo,'* witii profuflo oiicra to JUaiuepaa of deroted 
acrvioo, «ttd a with to mako hu odmlitiatintioD honarcd by 
all tbo peoples of the worlds on ih^i thirtieth of ^hfurch be- 
aought him lo orereome hia own hceitflricm and the fcruplee of 
tbo fcingj m Uieae worda: 

'*Li0tvn to B)et I pray jrou. T frjir, i,U>vc al\ tliat yon 
uridrmittf (}ie enipire which yonr age and your visdotu ^vb 
yon tjwT a youi^ prince wboae politics are rtill in tin? cTadltf. 
Too fov^ thai tsbu aoul, fresh and firm a^ it may be, boa 
many titma been bmugbi back from lie first declared pnrpcae. 
Ton forgot that aa danphln Louie XYL hiid an invniciblo ^m- 
fike to the old magutracy, and that their rooall honored tho 
irA tix mondia of hie Kifsti. Yon forf^et that he had awom 
sever to bo inocnhLtcd, aud llmt vight <]uys aftor tho outb he 
bad the virm in his ami. I i^hiW novnTi* hnve a day of tnie hnp- 
utDOPi if yiottradliiiittF(Lrutiri:i cjoeea witliout acoouipIiHlitfi^ the 
thrae graiul««t o4>ji^ta which cnn mako it illoittrioiin : th^ abft«o- 
oMQt of the Kngliah by the onion of Amcnca and France ; tJie 
r»«stablulimcat of the finnncca ; u^i tho roncee^cm of <^ivi] 
edile&ee to tbe I*iotcc<ants of tho kingtiom by a law which 
■IttU bknd thiGin irith all other nibjecte of the Iodj;. Thoee 
three objeete are Uyhy in yonr luuida. "Wbat rocoosHi ean 
tAATv beuitifulty ^rown your noble eareer I After them there 
eoald \iQ no doiUli.** 



132 AMEBICA IS ALLUSCE TnTH FBAyCE- «p.iT-;<«.t 



Thtt dufnmchitoQi^nt of Protcct&Ato ilrcfttlj bcgui to bo 
modiAcd: tbo office of oomptroUer^ciiond, of vhi^ xhB in- 
cambcnt vu »(iiiircd to tako ftn oAtL to Bnpport the CatboUfl 
nbgwsL, vas Bboti^bed ; and, on the eecond of Jcilj', tbv CUnji- 
bt X«Aer, a rich Pari4aii banker, by birth a repobticm of 
CrODora, tb« defender of the pioCaetiT« ^EMn agafait Tnrgot, 
aftar a noritiata as an aaustant, was created AmctaF-gaomt of 
t]w fiiuuteu^ btit witbo^it a s&4t id the cabmeC The Hd£ coa- 
iODlod b«caiue he iraf toM tlut the irel&ro of Fnnce re<iuijcd 
the appoantnuat ; Uanivpu w-ia pleased, for ho fcarod ao 
rira]T7 from a Protedant altetL 

The king "would bioUc oat into a pairiop wfaeoonff lie 
be^Lid of help fttnue1>od to d»o Araericfua,*' but he ooeld not 
mppreea the «tithiuiaeni of the Franch nadoD. After t atajr 
of three weokn <» the oorth aide of tlw cbaniLel, Lafajette^ 
with Kalb m hh oompanjon, tnvr-JIcd from Pam bjr wap at 
Bordeaux to tbe Spaniflh port of Loe Pangie. There he r^ 
ceiTtd theoorderof the king lo gjre up Ua etpedftioa ; bat, 
after same Tacilhtion and a nm to Bordcaex and bed, he 
brai-od tbo order, and, on tbo Cwcii^-«uth of ApnL etnberfced 
for America. The Engli^ lay in wait for farm. To bia wife 
be vTo*^ while at tea: **F^*Ofn lore to me become a good 
AmerictD ; the welfaro of Ainerica is doeelr bonnd np witb 
the mlfora of all m an ki nd; H b about to become tbe eafa 
e^hm of vtrtoe^ tolerance^ eqpieBtr, and peneefol Ubertj.*" 
Tbe qoeeo of Krvine appl^udn! UU bt^>a0ii ; pablk opinion 
frxtollod " bla ftrong CDthnsano in a ^>d canw ; ^ tbe indif- 
ferent epofee of bis oondnct as '^m brilEvit fully." "The aanie 
foUy^*' said VcrgGcncAt " has tnjucd tbe bcada of oor yovng 
people.*' 

He wu foUowtd by Oaannir Pulaaki, a Pdiib noblemaa, 
{Umtriom for hii rinno* and miffortniMtfL In tbe war for the 
Indepeiuleoce of hia native land be lost bis fiMber and Ua 
brothcn. After bU Attempt to cany off tbe king el Bolai^ 
bu iviiperty wan conltwitnl, uul bn wn^ nmtmced to octlawTJ 
and death. Tie waa tMng in exBe at UatMOIce^ in ibentnMMt 
dortttotion, under aa adopted nams^ wbe&t Ann^ RnSnAre, 
the biatorian of Poland. V er ge n noi paid bb debto and reeom- 
nondcd him to Fnaklin, who gare bm e oonTeyaDoa to tbo 



I 



J 



■im. PBEPABATI05B FOB THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777. 103 



United Scattt, and cxplntncd to coixgrcn boT tni:ch he liod 
doDD for tlio frocdom of I'oIoikI. Stormont C4Lllod him*' on 
aaaoBBUit" as be had called the AmorinLu deputioa maltifuctoro 
tlint d«(Tred tli9 gfJI^iwi, 

In April xntl MiL}% JoHupli IL of Anstria paas^ aix woekt 
ftt P&ris, in tJie hopo of winning the conaant of Fnuiee U> Iiii 
iulierlu]t|{ Bavaria. In eiii)vt-rrijiLti>ii ht^ wit* rithhr ril^iot on 
Amcncan oilnti^, or took tiic udo nliicli was very mipapukr 
in the Fic&ch capital eKcudni^ Idmeolf to tlie duchiJM of 
Bottrbon bjeayinp: ''I iini ii king bjtmdy;" nor would ho 
permit A ridt from Franlclin and l^co&c, or even consent to 
meet iJicoi in bis wjilka; though from the AbW NiccoU, tho 
Tn^can mlnliteir, who wijt a n»iIoufl abetter of tha uutuf^oata, 
bo rwdn-d « paper justifying their conduct and expbdning 
tbear monrces, 

ShljM wiin.' (!f)iil[[]iiiv1ly b'rtviiig tim jwirln of Fnuici" for the 
ITnitcd Statu, laden vith oil that they uio»t needvd, und 
American lrcu1ing-vtn#rlA yvvm m^ccjved nnd protootetL Whoa 
StoniKiot remotkfitinted, a aliip bound tcrr America wonid be 
stopped, and, if warlike stores vrtr^ fotmd on hoard, vrontd ho 
compelled to unload thcni ; bat prcacntlj- tbc ehip would take 
ID ita eargo and wt ml, and tho evcr-rene^ii-cd eompbunt^ of 
tlio EogUib ointMnador weald bo put asido by tUo qtuot ear- 
Beataess of Tetfpnmea and the ))oUtfhed lovity of >fanr&psB. 

Tbe Ropri(nJ« after ivplGmshinf; it« etoros at ICant<^ £tiU 
cniised ofl tbe Fr^Doh cootf, and It* fire new priMs, one of 
wlilcli vaa tbe trypX packet between T.iAbon ukI Fulmoutlu 
we» nnmooTBd in the harbor of I/Orient. Slonnont htiniod 
to Vei^gCDUoi U> ilinoAiiiI thiL llw eaplive »bxpa« with tlteir 
'OcwB^d eargoea, sbonli be dcllTcnMl up, '^Yon come too 
la*€ " Aaid V«;tgecinc« ; '^ order* have already been &cnt tbat tbo 
AjDericoD tbJp and bor prirci miut inatontly put toac&" Tb^ 
B^risd eondQned ite depredatioBS till mtdjmmjner, when it 
wtB oanjB^t bj the Britbh ; but, before ita eaptnn, tvo other 
prfTtiAon wmm tniForod to tiao Fnjnc^ harbora aa tbeir baae. 
Stomoat ranoDfftnted ^koeesaDtlT^ am) aonurtimei witli jioa- 
tfun; bnt the EiipntJi mfnisten were engaged in a dwperate 
effort to nilttrn lbi?ir fnrrner eoloni^K in nrat <<Jun[Migii^ and 
faroidod an tramedUte ruptnreL France alwajra exprascd tho 




134 AMERICA W ALLIANCE WITH FRASCEL w.iT.;«tr 



purpoae to coafonn to treatiofl^ an<l England wocU never con* 
niente tlie ireftdefl vUA 8lie wished to be coiuldet^ tm uSSi 
in ffiriM-.. Vrr^muss tl'j>HgIi hi lia- prewGice of Lifni Btor- 
tDcat he idcuJenully called ^Vmmca t, rtpnUic, did not as yH 
reooDfniw th« Auiencani a» a boUi^^ctvnt power; biit» viewing 
the Qc^oidca m a put of the Brita^ dominion^ tbnsw upon 
Engluid tho twrdoo of mauitauuiig bar <nm miuudpa] Uw«^ 
EDfjland claimed tli^t FmBi» ebonld ahnt h«r litfbors igdoit 
AmeHeui pHvax^en ; tnd YeigvniWA profetaed to BdEoit tbom 
onlj wlum in dbttrvAij and to driro than forth without ddaj. 
Enghnd Indflted that no arms or munltjoiia of war ahooM lie 
expiini-d Li> Auit-nnt, or t/i jmrU to nHnb Aitirricnim coaU 
oonrcnicatlv repair for a nippl/ ; Yc(|;oni]a n^jroscDlcd die 
Amerieau and tbur fricDda aa ce»pui^ hu t^^Uaflceu £np 
lanj vat finnwy ^ tho pmcDco of Atncricon cotmnivuMicn 
m Pa/u : Vcrgonnoa compond tho boofo of a imnimr to a 
cimreh n-hioli any one iDJ|-ht enter, but with no oertadn^ that 
hit prajen would be he«ni Engknd dalmed ibe rig^it of 
tnrch; Yergemioi donr&rnvl to itt wtnid«> m nud-ooewL 
England suxed and confiscated AineHtan propoitj wlwrerer 
fotuul ; Frmnra beAd that on the high tca« Aiwriaui pn^)«rtjr 
bdec in Frendi ahipe waa inTiokble; England d«Ufod ka 
dcdunttoa of war from motirea of ooDTCn^eoce ; Fmiee Itnow 
that WIT wvt imminent and preperod for it with diligcnctx 

IVaiKM) preforrod to act in coocert with Spain, which, bj tea 
edrtDocd pofition on the Atlanta aecnaed dcrtinod to be the 
gnait ceean power of >-an ip<\ tmA whicH, mnv^ t!iao an7 other 
UufCdotn, dreaded ooloin^ independcnoe. One of ita own 
povtK, iwng the langnage of inipi?Tul Ko9Dl^^ Iwi fo«vbiU the 
dlM^rreiy of the wettem world ; im idiipi Hn4 mtnvd the haf^ 
bom of Uw Ki!w Tndtfw, HnX broke luio the Pad&v Ar>l wvnt 
round tho rmrth ; SpanhJi cuTalwre oxo^tod all othon aa ei- 
plotoa of unknown re4J»», and. at their own ooel^ eooqncred 
forthairtoTenitgiiaahiiopt ahcmbphcfv. After a hxi|f pcfiod 
of docKiie tUa proed and oonrtft people, fonnnl cot of the 
tDOct cnltiTated raeaa aAd naiiena Ama and Semltir^ Iberi- 
ana, Ooltt, Phoonitianm Rotnann^ Tandal* uowad with Skvo- 
niaiii blood, Gennana, nnd Smcvw> oovuttiDg among itt graat 
men Senei^m and Tnj«n, Aren^Kiea and Ifae Ctd, Oernatea 



I 
I 




im- PEEPARATTONS FOR TCE CAHTArOW OF ITH. 135 

BTicI VeU*q«cx, diTvntil even to bigrrtry in it8 laoi of cliurcke^ 
tho mMt ifmginrtJYe and pootic amou^ tin? fiiiticntv--waH mh^ 
to be entering on & career of iiitproremvnt, ItmJ«if»a Gonr 
tompbtod its pronuM with cxtrftmgimt hope ; Alcmbert pre- 
dieted its recovery <d a high positioQ awon;; tho powi:m of Uio 
world ; Fr9<lefio of Prn^A finyi^ !u iovirrcign, for tho do- 
]if-ht« of JU cUnuto, lud tho opportunity offered ti> tU rolar to 
rem?w Its ^i^atneaa- 

Thtt gruuliuMi of LouU XIV. of France^ Ch*rlc* III., wlio 
in 1777 held t]i<[T nccptn? in S|mud^ W££ the be^ of ths Bpan- 
j«Ii Bmirltotia, The degecemcjr of hi* iuiDietlmto Buwiawjre led 
Bpoaub hUloriimc to dwell on hw mumory with uffcction. IIo 
.wa« of & merciful di^oeition, and mcfint well for tho land Le 
ntlcd ; bo adMrtcd tho pnndplo of the abaokce mid iuirtoluhlo 
rl^lil of a lan^ ogaiiut tho popo; aiid in ibi dofoiu^c he hiut ex- 
iled the JoflQtts and demanded of tbo pope the abolition of 
their Older. Yet, under tJie liiliucncc of hlA oonfenor, a monk 
of the iFOTtt t\pci, ht^ nvtrin^tl viulity to the inqiiisitioTi, Mif- 
f^frM it to publish tlifi pap&l bull wliit^li gnuit«d it unlimited 
JQri«dklit)iii, and dtMrbuvd thut '^hvwimTd ha\*i dt'livrirtrl up 
to its tribnoJ hi« own MmJ* lie fitood in Docd of a ponorfol 
ally ; beCveen the peoples of IVanoo aud Bpda them wna no 
aQcction; *o, in Atigiut ITtil, n family coiDpnct wu CAtalv 
lUted twtwooa their king«. In fonning this alliance?, (he 
■f^ts of the SpAnUh branch wera Wall, an Irish adventurer, 
and Grinifthli from Itidy. 

It fivwiod the dawn of better days for Spnin when, in 
February 1777, the nnlwraal popwlar hatwd, i|iiiokeinMi by 
the thanuifiil fLiltins of ihi; njicdiLioii A^inict Ai^ern, drove 
Ofituldi from this miuii^try and froai*LUe ouonlry. On the 
dgbbeeoth ho wm KUf^^tMnlcd hy Don Jose Uonino, Oonnt do 
Florida Ulancat For tho dret time for more than twenty 
yeira Spain obtained a minifltry oompoeed wboDy of Span- 
faudi ; and* for the fiirt tnuo dnoe the <iaj» of Fc^inaod and 
Ijebella^ a Sponieb poUey befcan to be formed 

Tha nav minbter, ton of a provinetal notary, had been 
carefully edncatwl; following hi* father'* pn^feeftion, he bo* 
ODDe one of the ableai ad^'ocatos of his day and attahiod ad- 
mtniatmijve dtf^ncdmi. Xu Mujiih 1TT3, he went m au^ 




laC AMERICA IS JUXIASCE WITH FEASCE, wp.wt. 



bMBidor to Rome, where bj bi« ioflneiioo Cudiiui Giffettitlfi 
wM elected pope^ and tbo or«ler of Uie Jeraits wag tbolUliod 
Hc^ too, QootroUed tht> diojce of GanguwDI'i miaoomor, Kow 
fortjr-f^iL jti^nt old, UMto^rted fur Ktnjng good nTnfW mm] 4txteii- 
are uiforniatioiif for pru<leDn\ poraona] probity, and lioncet 
intenttOTi^y he wu beul npoo eaU^^iBjf tbo oommoroe of Bpain 
and making the kin^om rcfipocted. A dorotod Ofttbo]ic> he 
v-woqiuUj *^ a good defender of rv|;ality;" he mtniDodtho 
exofbolaat cfadinB of tbo diureht fi&d was do Meod to tbe in- 
qnWtioiL Girca to teflocCioiit, and ntttmlljr alow of d^Woo, 
be waa cold and exoom^^ raMrred ; a laan of few vonU, 
Imt ihode words were to tbo pmpMe. FeefckDMi of bnlth 
nnfittml hiin for iiMli<fal^LI<» lalicir^ and wan pniuipN ono nrf 
tiie eaoBes why he voiM not bear cofitrrultction, nor otcd lififtr 
a daconfton witl^oat fretting hiinseLf Into a pMidoo. To bia 
tDteroourso with forcagu powcn ho brought dnplici^ lad con- 
DlDg; bo profeased tbo greatoat rcf^ard for the interMls and 
weUtio of FmuTo ; but his boart waa tbo heart of o Sptniard. 
In hia mannora ho wsiS awkward and ill at eaao. Ho apoko 
Framsb with dtffleultj. With tho vauitr of a nan of oooald- 
onblo powen, wlio injm a htuoblia ttation liad raached tbo 
Uf^wat tmder tbo long, he dTtng to office with teDadr^; aod, 
from hla diorvter and uiifuilijij^ nuhft^nkviee, hIa aop oi a u y 
ootttitiiirril to Ibo oad of tbo ragn of Cbarin III. 

ilifl &hjeet ooHeague was Galvex, the mmbtcr for the Indiea 
^-tliat Vt for the coloauoa, like Florida filaactf be had becai 
taken from tbo clan of advocate* A nuaei^^ to 3lcaioo had 
made him Camlliar with tbo hnaincaa of hit dcpartn^n^ do 
wUoh ho broogbt boneaty and kborioiu habata, a Kogarioff 
prejudieo m favor of oommiercial monofoly, tod tbo purpoaa 
to make the Spankh ooloniea Klf-ooppovtiag both fur prodno- 
tion and defeim 

Flurida BlaDGa waa net b^ the qoMioD of the a^ieci of 
dirt Anvricioi nnrohrtum on the inh.mto of Spun ; and, ta 
Arlbur I«e rood hia way toKadrid, aaooTO}' of the United 
BtatcBf it eeenwd to demand ab immediate aobtkn. The kn^ 
vottld not Huiotion a rcbtiJlkm of eabjeda afcabot ibcir aarv^ 
oigD, nor, with his raet dominiona in Anarica, eonld bo eon- 
oede tbo ligbt of ooloniea to diim 



I 



I 
I 




im. rRBPAllATK>S*S FOB TIIE CAMPAIGN; OP ITH. 13T 



I 



Add to tills, that an Americ&Q allTonco involved g war wftL 
Erig:1nnd, ftad tliat f^pain wng uuprepan^d iitr nur. KqiiAl to 
Great DHtain in tlic number of her inhabit^Lbt*. greatJv aur- 
pttBing thflt Ulflfid in tlio extent of her homo territory aiul of 
her colonif^, aho did not Jotg lo eoiifeas even to Ler^lf licr in* 
itncaity ID wculUi and poiFW. ECur ooloni<« broii^hl hor no 
opulecee ; the atinu&l €\port£ to Spudsh Aincrica tad tbm for 
fftltea abc^ of four millioBd of dollars in valuo, and Lbo imports 
vem IftM than the t^xportiL OnuipoioiuiM wu urging tfaion^ 
the pTvm the ftl>olidon of rcj^tnctioriB on trade: hut fur Uio 
titne djB ildtisioD it£ mercaiitt!« muuojHilj' hi^M ihv mtninu^n 
lut bound. A« ft ncocflsary consci^ucQcc, the king, for uaiit 
«f fioanen, cotdd haro no effident n^vj. The var depiLTtmcnt 
ma in llie bmdit of an indolent chief, so ttiat ita bu^cM do- 
rolved on O^lteilly, whoeo oharacler is known to na from hia 
««r«cr in Loiufiiona, and ^ho&o nrropiaiaoe and IiAnhnoac wore 
revolting to tlio Spwii^h natio:i. Tlio rcvoDiio of tho kingdom 
fell ahoit of twentj-ono milUona of dollars^ and thei« v,-aa & 
QDtoitoii mmt of jirohity lu tlie mAnageineut of t}ui ^nanecfl. 
Th« 6xi«ting rtrifc m*th Forfitgul wiw vpty ttrriottR, for it had 
for itn purpcidt! llie pOMieaaon of Iwtb haiik* of the river Ta 
FlnU, until tbu rig^Iil to cIom; thai migltty itta^in agmii^t all 
the world hot Spcun# Id Eucb a £tAte of it^ navy, armr, trea^ 

■j ond foreign relfttionB, Itoir could it mukc vnr od Kngl&iid f 
Loo vna nude to \rciit nfc Bnrgoe for Urimoldi, wJio 
oo hid way to Italy. Thoy met on tho fourth of March, 
B2id conreived ihroiigb an intcqtretor, fi>r Leo eould upeak 
nothing but Engli«b- Gnmnhli, wlii> diiicriWii htm tut nn ob- 
•tinftto HMD, unused him with dc^ultcrf r«ni;irks and pmfe»> 
rioos: tlie niUtton Ivdn-i^^i Fr^iii*i? imd S|]ciiii van iulLuuite; 
tfa« AmaKcsnA wooJd littd at New Orlenaft timA thounad 
barrsk of powder and wnne itore uf clothing, which Ihej 
nti^t take on oi«dit ; Bpain would pcrbnpfl iwnd tliem a well- 

Ightcd ahipfrom l^lUo; b«t tbo eab^laneecf tlic interview 
vaa, that Leo ranat rolnm Mnijcht to Pane* ^ All attempte of 
iJw liko kind tirora i^ota of tho rebelUoaa eolonka will b« 
aquaDj fruittoia;'^ ao epoko Florula BlaiK<a ngntn ntid again to 
tW Bnttth fninlncr at Madrid ! ^ Uia Catliotfc majeetj- h to- 
jolfod not to interfere in anjr itianiier bi ihrdu^pitU^ couocmtDg 




IS8 AMI^KIOA IX ALLU^CE WJTH l^AJJCC V.m:c«.3L 



tlie coloalea ( " ^ It is, e&d has bccni my coottant Ofnoion tW 
tlitt indopoDdence ci Anwrlea voold be tho worst exaaple to 
otlior eoli>iii«c, ftiid irould tnike the AracrleuH In erarjrnMpoet 
Uie vront DiOAghborB tlitt the Spaiii«h oolonj«s cotiM baT«," 
Tli<t rafuitt ol tbo Freodk aiDLfiaaHior at Annjuex b BXpUi^t : 
*'lt M U» dommsnt wuJi of tlt» dlliolic king to aToM wv; 
he IiMigs tbore all tfaiDga to cod Iua da.v« in peace.** 

Yet SpAm inA inreaitftiUy dnvn towaitl the dUasoe vith 
PnDce^ tiioagh the conflict <'f motirc* gvvc to it* poti^ ah 
air of QuocTtaiuty aod dla^muUtioD. The boundteae colonial 
daiuu of SpfLiD hiul lod to dilute* with Ei^jUad for oii« 
bmilred and Mrenty yom; that ia, from tlic timo wIkhi Eag- 
Uahmen planted a cKtIony In the Chesapeake bay, which Spain 
had diavorvrvil, and naiDod, and marlced aa lla own bay of Sl 
Maze's. ]( wa« porpeCnally a^UI*^! by a joalomy of 0>& good 
faitli of Brii^ mmjstHefi ; aud it lived ia oonadut dnsad of 
aadden a^roMlon from a powco- wkh which it knew ICaelf 
unable to oopc alooc Thia itutinctiTo fcor and thia mortified 
prido pve a valoe to the protectiiig fricodahip of I'^tttoe, and 
cxcaaed tho wi«^ to aeo the pillara of E&f^Und'ji gnatatti 
thrown dowi^> Bctiidit^ ttie oooopatioD of Gibraltar by £n|^ 
la&d made ev«ry Spanbrd her enemy. To tKi^ were added 
die nUigatiOQf of tht* family oumpact betwoan iha tvo crtjnnmf 
ot which Chailoa 111., «Ten whik eager for a contiuiuiKe of 
peao^ mqiecled iIm cuudillonft and cheriidftid tlm kpmt, 

HcDoe the Spanuh conn hftd given voaoy to the iimir 
gents, bat o&iy on tho oondition that Vnace •honld he ita 
alDoonerand c^rovd ita ^ta In impenetrable ac«i«ey. It t^ 
proved the hot seal witli whieh Anoda oovikioUod war; U 
mfletvd Americaa ihjpa, and even privaleen with tbetr pfiaei^ 
CO enter Spanish haibon, bnt aMnred Enfc^d tlm everything 
which oeuld joatty be oomplaliicd of w dine in oontnTei^ 
tloii of orders Fertile io BDbtarf ogea. Fli:trl<b RLumb ended 
an agrTEiiinnt vrilfa Fmxw for an evvvilual wmt wltK,Qnat 
Brit^ Uia first eecape from tho unpoftnnky <d Tetgmnaa 
wia by a counter propeehlon for the tro powele to tfilp kige 
nufiareancnta to thisir cofan i ea -a propoahioD wh&A Vt*^ 
gODBoa rojeeted, boenon evading aa wmj to the mudcreoa 
dimato isi Sl Dovningo would inrolfe all iLe momHtr Mid 



I 

I 
■ 

I 



PR£P\RATIOXS FOl 



JAMPAIGK OF lT:t 13ft 



oofit of a ivar^ wttli none of it« benefits. Honda Klimca next 
wiviaaxl Co let Briratci and America (xiutluntr (leir atruggk- till 
botti |KkrtTtv hIioiiM Ih^ t^xliaimtiiil, imil nt sliuuUi invir,^ the in- 
terpcuidon of Francid und Spain a« me^liatora, wlio wouUl tlicji 
tfo aXAo in the final adjufittuenl to take good aura oi tlir ir nv 
flpcctiro intcrcM*. To this Verg;canc« rcpliod tbjit he knew 
slot tow tlio acccptuico oF ench n mcxiiation oould be brou^t 
about; oud in July ho nnroacirvc^lly tixtd upon Juiuiuy or 
fcbroary, 1778, a* tho epoch whcm tho two cto-rhs must ftD- 
gngo is the vrar, or forever aft«r monra for the oppomiuiLy 
loat lij thctr neglect. 

To PiiliKt c'iiplivo Aniiinc-iin loillorH in tlio RnHi^li naxy^ 
threofa were used. ^Uang ini^ if yon witl^ to the ^ard-arjii 
of your alup, hut do nut a^ iiiu to hecoine a trwtor to my 
eoivktrft*^ waa the aiktwcr of Nathan Coffin; find it cxpnueed 
tho flpiHt of ihom alU In Febnmrv. Franklin and LJcano pro- 
posed to Stonnutfit, at ParU, to exchango a hundrod Britmlt 
rrtfiiTm, takon l^ an Amt riciw privat<?or, for an aqiial nunjbor 
of Amencan pnaouere in Kn^^land. To tiiis appheation Stoiv 
moikt WM ailcnit ; to a more 6anio«t romowtranco, in April, 
be anfivored: "The king's amhoflaador receives no apptlca- 
tlona from mb^ nnl^a tliey ooine to Implord hia triHJtft/^A 

For Uod forces, tho princ«lii]g of ^Valdock collected for 
the Brituh Krricc tventj men from hin own tcrntoTj and ita 
noigiihorhoodi twcntrtliroo from t$Tiabi», near tifhr dsowhoro, 
in lUl i'igbty-nin« ; arid, to preveiit their dcdortion. lot^d them 
up tn tiio HnnoTorian fcrtroM of HamoliL Tho horoditai^- 
prinoo of Oaeeol had a tronblwomo oompotitor m hU own 
fodwr, whoao ageuia were busy in the environs of Uaoiu; 
noTertlio]c«B, lio famUln^rt ntnctif-oiio rocmlta, and four linn> 
dnsd and dxty-ctgbt additional yagers, vliich wae fifty-six niom 
ihan ht had Imq^nt-H] f»ir. 

In tbo couTM of tlie year, by imprcmmcnt at liome and 
theft of foreigueia, the taudjsr^ve of Ucso-Caffid fimuAhed 
fourteen hundred and foHy-nino more- ThU numlwr harcJy 
made ir>od the loflf«fi in tbc oauipaign and at Tr&iiton ; a piitn<i 
vpidemie, wUeh at tho end of f he winter broke out amon^ tho 
Q«mn groflMdkirA at Bruncwick, in eig^t woofce Bvrept away 



140 AMERICA IS ALUASCE WIIU FfiAXCE. EF-m;cB. 



inorL* than direo liniulred of the abluet men, sjiil thdr plaod 
WE»ru Dot siipplic?d. 

Of the men whom ihc duke of Bmiuwick offered^ Faufritt 
yniie^ : '' 1 liordl y rtmembor to liavo eTcr ficcn sucli a poicd 
cf miscnblc^ lU^loolcing fcIlvwB C4>JIoct^ to^'tlier/^ Onlj two 
hundnxi and twculj-two of Ihcm wore noccpted. 

To elwir himedf from debts bequeathed him by hi* ao- 
ccj^^^re^ t}kO mirgnLTO of Bmndeuhur^Aiupich, on modetato 
temiSj fimiished two rvgimFjntw vi twdvi? Iiniidred meo, W 
aide a company of elghty-Svo yagere, aII of tite bc^t ^rIHj^ 
ODil Jtcpt hlr^ Miga^iiieiit with excvq^tloiuil K^rapulousiMH* 

In tbo former yair a powo^ had t^vcry^hci^ boea Allowed 
to the fiuh^dizod Croopa. The coligbtcncd mind of (Jerrnuiy^ 
ito philoHOphcra, ita pcete, bQ^an to revolt at tlic hiring of ita 
0ons for JLHoiee witf^^ Avar a^umt tho ngbta cf inim; llu) 
nuiveKol foehng of iu contmon peoplo vras a pcrpatiiiLl pcr- 
fluuioa Rgniiut tinlUtmonu, uid au incentive to deecrtLoiL 
ThroiipboTit femiiiriy "t}io TifWM of tb*i capture of Oaniuut 
troo^M by Wrtslilii^^loii in ITTtI eiciltO a unlverwd jubUwjL"* 
Tbo mi1wulj2ci] prioccif forced into the ««mo8 not tnerelj 
ragahondfl and IOO0O fellows of all l^ind^, but ariy mipn>- 
t«eted tntrelleror lilnd on whom llicy cotild lay their handfc 
The British a^nts become flcnatjvQ to tho i*toric« that vrtrt 
told of thorn. Xho ruWn^ of the la^^ itatoe f^t tho di^tf 
of tlio empire Snaulted. yi^orioi:^ Pmaala ahowod hi«<lba- 
goFt a« oponty tut poiwble. Tho coort of Yientia conoerted 
with the ©lector of Mentx and tho doctor of Tiwob *' to throv 
afih:r'*on thu writuni. At MenlK, tlie ya^-r* of ITuiftii vho 
came finit down the Rhine vctfo Btoppud^tiH] d^lit of them 
ntfcnnri by Uh' t-lHrlori* unliT aw !iU hi;bjtPtt or ftctldfunc Prom 
tlie UoofB of tbo hrndgravc of Ccsw dghtccn were removed 
by the dommisBiieA of tho c«cledutical prince of TrereA. At 
Cohlents, Mcttcmteli, the nctivo youn^ reprcoentAliPe of tb» 
court of Vienna^ in the name of UaHa Thorca iDd Jotfcph IL^ 
rcokhnod thch- subjoctA and d««crtore, 

Tbo rcf^imoLta of Aitipooh eonld not bo tm»ted to cany 

Lunidon or arma, bnl w«re driv«n by « coanpany of yaf^on 
prov]di*d \iHth botli, and reacly to nip a mutiny in (he 

" SUbijlif '» GcBcUchM iM ZaialMn dec Rcrgladoa, L, n ud f ft* 



I 




bm- ?iiEPAaAnoN8 pob the campaign of 1777. ui 



I 



I 



In J- Ytl eigliteeo or twcntv Bucceeded in deaertiii^. Vihm 
tho rest ivucliud their place ^ iMubarkatiun nt OcLscnfurt on 
iLd U&iiif the regiment of Uajrcitth bognii to lude thconedves 
in aonkc viuc^v&rda> The ^ogoraf who vera picIcM nuu-kfluicn, 
woJC ordered to firo ouon^ tli^m, by wIJg!i ttoino gf thom wcro 
Idtlod. Tber avenge! tlunnMolvtM by putting a y^g^r to d«3th. 
Tbo margrave of Anspaclif stimnkobed by cjpi^eas, rode to the 
MVD19 in tluT grtuttflt huHUt^ leitviiig liw wntoli un hi* lulilr, uiid 
without ft etkirt to dmi;giv Tlio prc«euco cf tb*nr ^limdV 
iatlier" overavred tibcin; they acknowled^^ llielr f^uU, and 
mbnuttod to bia repHroAndtv. yi;iir of tttcm he tJircv into 
irocu, ftod onicrcd oil to tho boatfi. Aeenming in pcnon the 
office of driror, h« maivliod thorn throii^'li M^'ntz in ddUnoo 
oi thtt «locCor, aUniituKtiircd tho o<itIi of tickJity to tbo Idng 
of Enf^and at Xymw^j^, and never left Lw po«t till, at tbe 
end of Mardli, In the pros^icd of Sir Jciaepb Yorke» lie In per- 
fio^i dulivr-riYl III S^emvL-ndc!] hU cblldmti, whiipir Atm'irr he had 
0o1d. Tbere '* (Iib Ei&rgTnve brought tlie rjieo on bcjard him- 
self, nrnt thn>iigh the hhlpe with tbrni, nmrkoit their bods, 
gave oat orcry oi-dcr which waa reoommended to bim, and 
«air it e-'iecutcd^ vrith but littlo aanvtoooc, indeed, from hia 
own officers.'" The nniDbcr of recniitA and reiniorocmcnt^ 
obtained in thoeo mya amounted to no more than thirty-tivG 
bmkdrod and ninety-^ 

Tliroe thoomnil mon h.itl bocrn «xpM!tod from tbe duke of 
^llrtQnibef;^, wbo bad been in England fn search of a oon- 
tiBCL "Biit thb tnibility of tins diiho tonrpptyany troo|M was 
■Mm faoovond, and ibo idi.-a, thongb not u'ibhout gn?at <1ift- 
agvpoiobnecit, lakl wide.** Iliu '^OaUiullc ^irliiEiea of tlie em* 
pen dincRii^cd the acrrice." The young profligate, who wu 
ptint^ot An]l4l^Zel^t^, alone oaught at the orertnr«, which 
iootMl him onga^cd with three other prinrcA of hxA fiunily on 
« bnntiny cxpoditiotu They had billeted ^x hundred do|^ 
vpoa did eid2ena of Di^mu ; cnir^ced by thd occasion, be 
WtdBb In atruigo Frvnch : "At tho fi»t cro^ of tha hnnt*- 
vm'awUpornoteof hiafauntin^-bora, th^dogs came toffetiier 
Ukv lriLiO|« >t the* t^oat of llic dnini, and tlicy bt^i^i to mn 
dovn tl>e beaatfi of tlje for^ ; It would not be had if we could 
nm down tho Anuviemu lihn ibaL" He did not kngw that 




143 AilEElCA IS ALUAKCE 'WrrH FItASCE- Rr.]T.;««.x. 



t]i« w3d Luntaaun of reT^tttion was »ood to vrind Lift iKiglct 
and nin dovn tLc«c princcljr dealer* in men. 

In oairatiz^ tfaoao crcoittt 1 luro foUowod czcluiTe]; tbe 
lcttG» and papure of (lie pnnoea and tninisttn vbo took put 
IB tii« tiHbeactiooa. Tbcj provo tho bw, which *U induction 
confirms, thnt the truuuaiMion of nnoonlioUod pOTCTf vis- 
ItinjE tho GiiLS of th« faUi^n npon the ehitdran, intritabljr 4fr 
TulojM oorrapcness and depravity. The despodsm of nun orcr 
man tinngH m rtirv< «:i urluiever family reneivni iL 

T!>o nw Gcmiin lcviu«^ L*xccpt the Bnumnck and Uanan 
reenula and four cotnpanktf of Hanau j^agera whkh went to 
Qaoboc* went oicd to rdnfocro the ormr under Ilowft. FlDDi 
Ureal BnCain and IroUnd, tho number of men v^bo eailed for 
2i«w Tcrk before the end of the jear iraa three thotuand two 
hundred and fifty-two ; for Canada, waa MTvn hnndnd and 

In Amcrka veeniting s utkoi:! for the Britbh amj wen 
ealabUdied. In a few mQUths D«hn<vy of New York en- 
Hited aboot aix hundred, and Cortland 6lciim«T of Xew Jencj 
more than fit-e keodred mco. Id the course of the wtnier 
eommiMuun were tKtwd fiir unbcHljring tax thotMand fiw hun- 
dred men in thiitcen hattalions; and before the end of May 
mere than half that nomber waa obtained ; but only a amaU 
proportioD of them wore natives of Anwrica, The iemee of 
two tbonaattd Frcoieh Oanadiaoe waa called for and expected. 

Tho dcddcoey wia to bo anppliod hy the employmoot of 
tholojgost pca«Ue nnmbcr of saragofi^ f or whieh Gcormain ^ 
ned hia tnatroetioDt with ahnoat ladicrooa nunntenaai of de- 
taO ; and ■* the king, after oons^deriDf^ every iBformatkkD that 
emiid ho fumUhed^ pnre pani«illar dtreetioru for every p&n 
of the diapiautitxi of tlx? fijn!i« in Ouudi." It ww thutr hnpe 
to cnploy boxkda of wild warnon akc^ all the frontier. The 
kti4f» perconptorj ordera woe aent to the nvrth-west to "ex- 
tend opcntiona;" mod among tboee whoie '^mdinalaon for 
hoatUitice ^ vaa no oKite lo bo roatmned were *"""*'TI%^ 
''llko OltawM, tbe CSiippewayv, the Wyaadofa, tho 6bawiioa% 
Ilia Seoeeaa, the Delawmm^ aikd ^ Pottawatomm.'* Jo&ept 
Bmnt, the Uohawk, roused hk eonntrvnMB to ciaitoor for war 
ander leaders of fhdr own, who woakl iadnlgt thorn tn ihcir 



I 
I 



mr. rJ2£rARAnox3 fo& toe camtaiu^ of ittt. 143 



Btitiah and Germaa cHiceiv in Can&<la foresaw tlut th«tr cnit^U^ 
yrandi he uiirfiatmaed, and from audi uilkz^ uupiKd do good 
10 the w-rvieo,* Jiut tho |>olicy of Gcnimin wa* tmex|>ect- 
edl/'promctcil by tlie n^Ioa-sd of La Como Saiut-Luct, tho tnott 
rothloei of putiAaniy now in lois oUty-eExtli year, but full of 
vj^r wd iDor« r9l«nUflw from igc. Ho li^ vowed eternal 
rei^^vLCQ on " the beggars " who had kept him capdre ; and 
C^ernuut vxtoudud fATor to tUt* Ic«u3er w!io aljorv all oihen 
mtA noiorkrUfl fcr hrutal inlitunanitj. f 

Helping on Indian n3erocnarif« to break up t!ie <H)Tnmn- 
jucodoQ bctwocQ Albuijr vift lako Qoorgo bj' tho terror of 
thotr raidi, ttie ecctttaiy drew ont tlic plan of the nortiicrn 
t^myoAffi in GOni»rt with But^voiOf who woa seeking hi« 
''potronogonnd friondebip" t>ya^Ltranc<«( of ^'A^olid rcq>ect 
and einoero peraond attaeliment" I^eithor of thorn irouJd ad- 
mit a douhc of ihe THuniphant march of tlio surmy from Cuu- 
di to Allwny. To ojctoiid tha miccw* tliPougli all Now York, 
Saint' Lc^r wma selected hy the khig to candiiet an ex|jediLiurt 
hy wa/ of lAkft Ontario for tliu cJi^^iun^ of F<irt StiinwU xml 
th^ Mohawk v&llcj ; and orders were given to mWy at ^m]<uxa 
the thonaand cavagos who were to t>o of the p:at}\ Thi:w 
preporatioDi, Germun oaanred the houiio of a^tiunonA, would 
be anfficiant to finuh the war in tho ajiproaciiing campaign. 

PaHioiDCELt in Fehrnory authorized tbe grant of lettcn (O 
private ahtpa to make pmon of Amctican tcmoIs ; and, b^ an 
MTt whioh deecTJbod Amciricnii ])rivaUvraora m pjmt«i^ aiia- 
peoded tlw writ of tmbe^g corpus with regard to prinoiiefa 
takm tm tho higtt amn, Tim congnm of tlir^ TTuit^:*! ^titivt, 
after tallcing ot a tottery and a loan in Kurope, fell back upon 
imn of pop^ mone^. Lord Xortii fonnd ample raaourcta 
in. new tascet oichcqucr bitl^ and oxdao datioa, a profitable 
kOetyt a floaiing debt of five milliooe ctoriingt and a loon 
of Stc mOhojOfi maiu Id a «emon before tbe Society lor 
Pn^iUf^ating tho Goapelf Markham, tho urchbishop of York, 
ttot doubting the conquert of the wIoTlioB^ n7fl«K?ted on their 
*ideaa of snTi^ libcrtj/^ luid r^eotnineiidi^ a reoooilnietioD 



" |Etod«Ml% )4am), «rtTlm for th* dnk«i nf 1tni»vlc!k. 



MSL 



1« ASiEBICA IS ALUANCE WHE rBASCE. tr^n,i<m.%. 



of Hww goT«nuneDtii on the pniKiplo of oaoiploto a1xmtiD»- 
tion to Great Britain. ^Tbew^" med CL&tlum, ^ u« t^ doe- 
tri&M of AtUirUu7 tnd SMhererdL^ Hi^ ireiv Uic do^ 
triDM of Junof IL, ft&d jot Uiof wcro adopted bjr Thariow, 
» tb« fit rale for gorcmiikg Britiah coloDtce to Amcrioa. ^ 

SomfrTDifleai&EE^^adpletdodfor Uio AtBerieut. Tbt 
nr vritb fllMm, lo TroU Edniuid Btirko to tba iboriflli at 
Bristol^ is "frtutiM, liopelvMt) HJid vnutatnAl;" die mA of 
AbingiiuQ ftdded, "oo tbe |iait of Gn»t BnUiix, crad and 
anjiML*' ''Oar fbroe," replied Fox to Lord Xortlt ^ia not 
oqiul 10 cooqaeit; and America caimot be braogbt over bj 
fiiir mofttii while we iaaiit on taxing her.*^ Barkt; harbored 
R wiih to croe» the ehMUkd and aock on intcrricn' with I'lsak- 
lin; but the friouds of Ro^nyWn rcfoaod ibeir apptofvL 
Kter tbe ood of Aprfl, Haitkj went to FiriA to ipcak with 
FWiUiii of pcactt and ivbiuoq, ud raedved for answer tfaet 
EogUod codd never coocilmte the Americaiia bnt Lj eeaea^ 
iog their uukpendiaMX. ^ We are the ^granni^" nid Chat- 
haisoD the thirtieth of Ifa/, in tbe boon of Wnda; *-Iiisie«d 
of exacting enoocditioaal eubmiaBMQ from the cDlonka, wm 
OQ^it to griftt them lUKoodiUanil ndmek Xow ia tbe <ni$^ 
before ^ivdco is a perty. Wheeerer Frwce or Spain entv 
into a treelj of wj Mit wiih An>eriee, Great Uritaiii amut on* 
qiediatelj' deelare wnr againit ibaoi, enaa if m hare bat fire 
ildpeof the Une in oiu parte; and nieh e treetj taaet and will 
•hitftl/ take pUce,' If peelficaxion be deUjed.** 

Tlw advifv of Chatham vrv rejected bj the vole of veeefy 
fuur gfthfi uf the boose ; bot^ with all her f M U^^^Je l l^ Engkad 
hhceed ander inaoperible diaadrantagKA, She had iOTolvvd 
bereelf ia e vioUtioii of Ibeeaental pcncipkaC Eo^UiBtK 
eir^; her duet Buniater wronged bia own oouTietiou la eoD* 
tittning tbe wv ; and it began to be ^^lenmt that Fruoc wovdd 
Join with AmencA. 



I 



T. Tae OFJunvG or toe oakfaight of itT7- int 



Ouaptkr sj, 

THE OrZNIXO OF THK CIUTAIOX OP 1171. 

Makcu-Jult 17TT. 

Gbckbu. CirAi£:.E» Lk^ for wVrni congrcw and ^(uhisg. 
ton oSered six KfoeJan tiel<I-cit!lo«re in exdiange, and tJireat* 
iitpcl ntlnliUioit if Im wur* to l>e Iresitwi a» *i ilrai^rliT, njwnred 
liifl cipton that ibc coloaiee dockred indcpondcticc againft bis 
advice, and TOlmttwred to uegotiata their return to thdr old 
nllugiuscc- Witli th6 unfltion of tlie Ucw(,<tt, on tlic tciitb of 
Tobnurj he wnXo to congrctse requesting tbat two or throe 
feentlemen naffit be sent to bim imiD^at^ly to rooeiro hu 
aummukieatkiii ; and in pHviito letters Ud eoojurcd PokIi, Rob- 
ert Horrifl, and Ridiard Hcriry Imj '* to virgc th« complunco 
witb lufl raqueil aa of tho la^t imjiortaiica to liiiiiBelf and to tha 
paliltc.** C"iign» imirujrt.lj' ri-solveil tfial '*il wiw altngj^tlmr 
improper to tend uiy of their body to commonicate witlt 

On t]>e cloTcntb of Marcli, dimn^ & fniitleM bitcrricw of 
idoc hovuraoB tbij eabjcct '>f tlio citdiiingcof pri»oDcni,'W^aloott, 
nf tho Brttuh army, gpe&king undor iiutmctiom from Ilow^ 
took ooot«iou to uy Id llorrU^n, l)io Amoricau: "^Wliat atoold 
piOTMit Genend Waighinprtcn, who ^vms to have th« povor in 
Ida li«Dd«, froia miking peace botw«va the two countrifflV" 
nsrriftnn ivplivd: **T|i(t 4v>mmii*iiiinrrH luwit nu utlitT jxjwMm 
than wb&t tUfiy derive tmder the hti of parliament by which 
tb^ APC «ppoiiit«d-" ''Oh," rujoined Walcolt, "the rainiHler 
bai aaid, in the hoaac of commoiu, bo la willing to plAco tho 
Ajaerioani aa tbey wtre in 176B; enppofO '^'aahin^on should 
propoao thia, rvnouncing iudcpcndijnco which would ho your 




llfi AMERICA. IS ALLTAKCE Trmi FRiNCR ct, nr, 



niaf* ^Whjrdoyonrefiue to tj«4t iritl)«oiigrc«t* aitod 
BurbiaL " Becsmw^" uwrurtvl Witlwtt, *^U bankDumi ws 
lin] anemUjr to both cnnntni^ Bnt It would be wavdi 
l^flhlogtoii** wlule to by to restore peace,'* WUligfit bett^ 
tloQ, HuTuoa pet Mdo tin oTetrtar&^ 

£i^ dA^rx tftcr tfaiU rebuff, Lee oqm tboi« coQJaied eOB- 
gnsB to ecod two or three gentlemen to eoikTsno widi Urn on 
cnbjocU " of grctt iioportUMei not onlj to bJmectf, bat to die 
oemmoiut^ bo so aiaeereljloYed.^ On tbo twentr-iuiitli, eoa- 
gien **cdn jodj^ it improf^ to seod asj of thw m^nben 
to confrr vritH Gtn^ril Lee." The toIv f«n apon lb? lUj uq 
vrliirli Tjx< pTrvented to dw Britkli eunnneiKlen m |ilu Cor 
redxiciDK ibe Aixieneui^ iBTmf ; ^ I ibink mjF^If bound hi 
oo oK J en e e tu fumii^ all ibe Ii^t« I can lo Lord ud Oea- 
enl ilo^rc.^ t To Waahiiigka bo wrote ia tcfw of iffectmi* 
uMlukud oommiBcritiott for one wiioin coogwe> bfcd WTOQ g ed. 
Jnetet tbk lime Sir Jooepb Yovkc^ wbo nadencood Lee vel^ 
j w wr ed tbe Britvb swiiBtiy Uat Ui cqrtvrt wu to be !•- 
gretted; ^that it wie inpoeriUe but he ttut potde «wj^ 
Uitnj; be neddlod in; tbftt be w» the wont pweot tbe 
Aiaerioeiifl oottM receh^** * Ab % eoneefseoee, In^ vie 
l^vm lay the king for hb egchMige> end he reoetred thrai«^ 
llrittfb offircn e l e'wn buDdred gnoea^ 

While ihe Howeewece eimipg el leeeDcfltttioii by aa aai- 
octftr, Ocnn^j] g%re tbcni thai oew iaetrwetfan : ''At tbeej^ 
pintka of tbo period hmited in tout prefllM«tinn> it viH bo 
jaeanbepl npon jroo to qm Ifae pow«n widk wludi jroit ete 
irtrm ne d famdi a aancier tbet tboee pcteoBa wbo Aell bare 
fihown ihtanteWes imJtfwi >1i^ ctf the royal auicy maj not 
eeei^se tDa£ nonjeo^nfl^tt irnBOs ib ^ine to meiF^BiocBL i^bu ef^kieB 
it w?H be corpedient to inffiet for the mUni itf g mnp le to fh- 
tnrity.** G<o«tal Howe m not magtumMrj, tbo«|^ &vkm lik 
indoleooB and ne^eci, in cf dta n cndlke vti« isAklKl by bit 
enUvdinales; Loid Howv had aeeepced ofioe fra« ml good- 
win to Auenea ad Cn^aod; and, oa the twra^-fif^ ef 
Ibrch, tbebrtPth£naiHW««d: " rtii ■■ Hiiieiiiil Ui nilTdiiibl 



1 



* Wdeofl^ *var« •* ***•- 


K 


ITi Tiiiiii irn 


»tati^^« 


:T«rfc<tolteBan 


mejttm 


M^T 



ttn. 



ITTT. THE OPEKCFQ OP THE CAMPAIGN OF 1777- U7 




j« majc«tv'B jc^-D«>nLl piirdoo, cfi>u thoQ^b tho vitbboldtDf; of 
ucli gent-ml ji^tiOoii tJiuiiTil j^n-vpiit :i «pvcdv t^roiinfttioii of 

lluwe bad reqveeted a rwrnfon^t'intTiit it{ fitit^tn thnnmad 
ca, En order to ^finish the war in ono jrcar." For iLc con* 
qnttt of 4 oontincnt tho dciuand was ccrtalul/ modeniic ; but 
Qtrai^n, oocifonning bis judgmotit to tlie hUtrn of ^ice and 
tftto-bcoiviii or, oM be eoBcd tbom, ''of pcr^ns vrcIJ infomicd 
on Uio spot,** profoa^ to think '^ Uiat such a roqukitloa ought 
not to bo complkd vltbu PrommiLg Imt fuiir tJionsuad Gop- 
muu^ftbLTgarnnmborUianwn^ oliaiiied, li3 ingtstedthatHowo 
" would have an army of very nearly tlitrty-flve thooaond rank 
1 fi]i% %\i thill it w<mlil rttill In* riju*t fj* hi* wikIh"*," T\w 
ifin^ni^oas fititcmimt forc^hai lowed a dis|tofiition tocH8tii|KiD 
iJl hUmt for an^ nntowanl (-rcubi iu die n&xl <m»[ia^pi. 
It vas u cnormoua fnult of the BniUh government to r^ 
tbo maiD body of tho rcinfmrcaDcntB destined for tho 
ijr of General Hoire to travorao tuoro tlifin two hundred 
oa of a rogion r<-plot<7 with dTl[Iicii1ti(T£, and almost dc«!crt 
eebeme orij^atcd with CarlotoOf the p^^mor of Qnctbeo, 
bo, aa bo OQtmiilu^d Howe, nursed the amUtlon of leading 
tboofiand mim vivjtonoiinly into tho I'nitcd StnU^ and mi 
arrival a^naung tlie »iii])reute dirtvtion of the war. The 
projoet apiicarvd magnificent to tlie ojibiELet at iMnion, and 
VIA pdTDStcd io tbrosgb the fafcinatuig protnifice of Burgoyno. 
OcneraJ Uowe, jvatly iDdignuit^ took ootuibcI wrtth hia brother, 
and, on tho lecoDd of AprU, doftpatehcd to tho eocrc-tary tho 
final roviuoD of bu plan for tbo campoi^fn: '^Tho oIFunnvo 
■nny wUl be too weak for rapid aucc€«B, TJio eampai;:n will 
nut connncnoa to foon sm yoiir lordabip mny oxpect Re^trietad 
by tbe want of forces my hopes of tenninating tho war tld* 
yisr an vauUbed.** K^lhti{uuliiiig a [iri^icipid part of wliat 
be hail fomvcHy pm^xieedt be Binionnnud hiji dot^rnnmatioD to 
eracoate the ilersi.*yA aicd tnvadt? FmnKylvaaia from thesaiL 
II« forduf made kaown, alike to Carlcton and to tbti Bee^etary, 
that the army wHcb wu to adrance from Canada woald moot 
''wilb littk &Mxitet»oo from him." \W\y in tho yc^ar a BritiBb 
bri|wlo and aovoral companic6 of i^cadiore and tight infantry 
trvB^rrcd from Rhodo laland to Ainboy. 




14S AUEPJCA ITU ALUAKCE TITH FBA5C& >r. rr. ; on. lo. 



In the middle of JH&rch, WtttungtocLV " whole iniiiib«r in 
iTcney lit for <iutT vrm iut4or thriM thomeand ; and tineca, nine 
liundrod and eight jono i:occ«ptod, ^-cro mibtia, who flood €D< 
giged oml/ till the 1^ of th^ month.^ In Nov JoraoT, the 
tiMtra of war, he sdvued that eyeiv mnn nhk to beu- tfiitf 
clionid turn out, &iid tliAt no on« tbotilil bo allawcd to bny off 
httservici*: for, mid W, "orirTjr lajiirionit dvlitiction b«tw«ui 
tile- ridi &u(l ttie poor ought ta he hxd nMe now.'' Tho wnt 
of irniw wiLH rc!i6Tod bj the Brrivnl of ahip* &viglLt«d bj 
Beuinurchua from the oivccalA of ynmco. 

Cangnm^ in appomting four more m&jor-f;^enls> on tlw 
pretext tliAt CoDiiocticut ah^i&dy bod twxi of that mnk, paawd 
over Amoldf tho Moigt brigndkr. To Wajdiingtcaif Arnold 
oovnplalaod of the wound to bk ^nioe feetings:^' to Gates 
bo VTOt«: 

** By hMflvmtc ! T am > rillnln if T hcvIe not 
A hr&T« reveQ^ far iojured Liciiior.*^ 

On the ftrrt of Mui^i, AlexuiJcr Hniulton jobwd &o riiff 
of the comnunulcpm-diicf u hu cocrctuj, and thia oblaiiwd 
the prccioGE opportunity ftt tXndywg tho eovne of '***H*t' Af* 
fun ^roia tbo kr^:ett poiitt of vicv and under the wiacat goU- 
AJioo, On tfao mno day nx imt briguUvn vevo tppoinled. 
Stark stood at tbe betd of the roll of ^ew Hampdiim for pny 
tnotion, wtti tfa» Imt oAear bom that ctus, md bad rca Mi owd 
vny gnnt nrrioo st Bimksr HIU, Tratoo, and PrinevCaa; 
butf oo the idea tbat ht «si adf-wtllal, lie vm peMtd owr. 
Cba&kg «t tbe injiuiice, fao nutiifd to Ui fnd»ld and hia 
ploogb, wL«Jc bifl pBtriotiam, like the fire of tbe atuthy i^wa 
fl|)riakled vith valer, gloired mon Hon^h- tban ever. 

In Marchr Grocoe vaa aoot to Phiiaddphiat to oxpUn to 
eangrtti tbe ^pnemngjnsa$v( tbo aviDy. Pj liJi iiif^ialiiMi. 
tbe «s->wwA-tJi>jifcbrf ai wen as tbe ebkf oScer in wnaj 

dtpaitmant, w permittod, bet do bo^ir rtqidnd, to eootult 
tba g«Ben] offleen tmd«r btm; and \i wm neopiked v bia 
ds^ " fettlly to dinact cfer y naeerate eeeonlmg ta hk on 
jadgQuoL" To rain mx mmr, WvbiBgtam mr no «i^ ao 
good aa tbat of dnfiing adopted by Vaaiif liiiai lla, on ^ 
ef«al appottiooMKnt of hi {Dote to each of tu town*; and 
coegrctt, in cam Tolntaij itiliarinwi^ dwold prare iunfi- 



I 



u ea 



I 



J 



IT77. TUE OPESIKG OP TEE CAMPAIGN OF 1T77. U9 



mtP 



cientf "aclviitod tndiscrimLiiatG drafto from tlie mUitia of «6cli 

To the couuiuind of tho forU :n tUo Hi^likndfl on iho ]IqJ- 
BQci G^^rgu Clintun wiw ftppoint^l with t)io concurrpnoo of 
Now York, of coogn^, imd of WaehicploiL In ilio Ecrtlt^m 
deparuuent oonfoflloii ^jrew oul, of ttie rivalry lietweeu Sclmjr. 
IciT iLmlG&l«ft. Coiigrom^tni tlio wiramtnrrntli nf Juno 1770, hnd 
the commaadasio-clEicf to eend Major-ticmi^ral (Ute^ 
to teke the oommoud of the Amencin forcw iii Caiuda; but bo 
fore ho arrived there the American army hod rotircd beyond it4 
botmdAiy. Aqooetion imlimtly aroee whether Gatoa r^muiiitd 
ludopendeot of Schuvkr; oonj^rctt diftolaim^ tha '■'dodgn 
to rat him with a m|H;ri4>r comnuind to Schuylor while tho 
troop« aliould be on tLifi ddo Canada ; '' and tliey rwommended 
hvnioiiy to IxiUj geiicmlic, Hjiniicnty lietwec^ tbi*rn h'iik ini- 
poedble ; mnd othoi* M^nic^} vas tliougbt of for Gfttiv. Bni fo 
February 177r, a It^tU'x fruiri lilm eet fortli to tlieiu IiIh own 
moritA, nyJDg; ^' I bad Inrt year the IioDor to coaunand in tho 
seeond pcet in Amerioa, aud to prevent tb-e caumj fram mak- 
ing tbcirjunctbn with Geocv^ ilowv/^ Tlio boost wniik foUo 
e i bat moiuitinio ^^chnylcr ecot to coogrc^ ft f^ncrtiloiie letter, 
liieb they voted to bo " highly dorogotor}' to tlie boucr of con- 
gnw." T«ci diyv Utor a nujoritj, duoAy of tlio K^m Kn^Ijuid 
Domberat witboat oocusnltin^ the co11l[n^1ld&^in'cbkf, directed 
G«te» '*to r«pilr Immedkiely to Tlcoodoroga. and talci3 oom- 
Dund of t}»i *ntiy ibi'fi^" Claiming (o be Bp]KiirTt*"J to ih« 
DIOBL importiat foet in fill America Q^tec^ 03 if master ovof 
aQ, left witli IxmM tit ^lAiHtckcuetta * plan hovr t4> riUtion 
OTGfy p&rt of iho Aiii4>nca& anny apoQ tbo openloj; of the cam- 
ptigD, vmI continuod to enjoin itd einct exdoutlon as tlte beet 
tbat ootUd be framed " for Ihc defence of Amoricoii liberty.'' * 
FtDBt Albony, ooar tbo onid of April, lie writer to oongroasi ^*I 
foroMo tbo wont of conMqfumcM from too gte^i a proportJooi 
of tbe Du£& atviy beiof- dnwa into tbo Jormyv. RoqtiMt coo- 
in my nune to order two troopa of bovse to Albany." 
ooDgrun d1fvotj:ik1 W^^^^Tiington t^ ^* forward two tjoopA of 
CO General Gireii," WH^tin^oi thoDgtit that tb^ n> 
iif GitvH ^utuld 1h3 uijulci diretilly Ut Uuii-titlf, ur that 



l^ AUERICA IK ALLIASCE Vim FRAXCE. v.ir. 



«a ''tbo eonaioa 



st ImM be i^bould rcctivc t doplkatc of Ui 
lifted on dceJioj; directly with coupv^t 
f«rciit of all Uw Americoa mahc^'^ 

Uo Mtod tbo ai^toiatnMDt of his friend, ITilEan Gonlov* 
mftonnnl hietorian of ilie tvvoiiiliciii, as da{4in»^poaal ol tte 
Doortfaen uidt.* In tlio Antamn of 1776l ffoMlpiilto, a Polidi 
ofBoer of cocu^v, iDodn^^ and mrnuA jndgmodt ^^^''^ F**^ 
with Anierioi. GalCH, who drtficriboA huii m "«n able eng in eer 
mdonc of t[icb««tBndBCtt«ldnftBacDlMeTerBMr,*«ia^ 
Bdecud liiiQ for the Bortbcm wrrio^ aod ofdend bnn, *^afiar 
be Alioald liftTO tboratt^r made htiM^lf aMittinled with Ihs 
vQvfcit to poiot oat where tad m -wbaZ wmanet the boit jo- 
pforenums and additjons ooald be mado tbenlo," 

On the nlnih ot Jfaj, retaining bb a^<«oneelt, h« wrilsa 
to tht pPKidcQt of congmv : " In mj OflSM aawri "nnflrP M 
tliat there la good groond to hope Ticoitteoga may b« a» ■& 
thvjrrvwiL wvathelwt." To Lovell heMvAn^j ^biiiii—iI 
that Schqjrler BhoaU go and ocvnand at Padnftjl^ noar Uia 
New Vorit oonTeDtioo and in the cortQ of tho ooloojr.f On 
hit petulant roquiaition for tcnt«, Waehin^ton evpkincd wh^ 
then vaa a acaratjr of them. At thk Gatca oomplaiBad to 
Lontl *" bow little be bad to expert from Geoq^ IThUi^iob. 
Q«D«nk^ like paf*ona, are all for **'«****^)t their own child 
fljvt; kcan impartial niodsrelizig pow^ decide heCwaeo «.** t 
W^Ung inany we«kB for ordoaDOe end etorai, he ■■"*— »^ to 
ITHkir^ton : ** I taa nwlral not to kave Alhenjr hAwi I no 
the balk of them before mfL** * 

In the eeeond week of Aprili S^TbrreaiBned UaaetttEn 
coaigreflBf fixod in the parpoec of recording hk ffwTwarwL Bj 
hia anthoritj, Uoorgo Ctinton, in a luacr to the K«v Yoric 
dc3i^:stioa, aet forth that Sebnjler himnl^ wldla in On eUof 
ooounaad vitb ivatec a* hk f^atdat, daiaed to have nude 
Tteondeiioga neaH J impragnaUa, and «M wilfiflg to HHBW an 
leqMuOEIij for Ha fntvre safety, and thereAm dbodd he re- 
rioni] lo hia eonnnand, jcft wilb inUfn ?vn b^ ■» In the pv» 



I 



I 



'oa^»niiaif^afc—T,ntgtm. ns^ 

'Tiili 1 TTi ilMlii. ■tliiiu T1 bi tm. 



im- TOE OFESING 01' THE CAitPAltiN OF ITTT. 



151 



ceding year* S<-JiUTl«Minnounccd toWuliin^on tus Inten- 
tion '^ to n»ign lti« oommiepion ; " and Washuigton int^rpoeod 
no itinmniimif Yet on the cwcntv^eccynd of Ma^, m tho nn^ 
bnppiait honr for Schuvlcr, in tho uxomt^iit of ^r^:it(ii;t good luck 
for Gatott, aangn^ iift«r n dvbnto of foTir dAj-s, bjf tm aocidental 
nttjoHty of one state^ acnorclcd to Sclmyler the comtiiand of 
Anmnjr? Ti^oiideroga^ Fort BUnwjx, and tJi«ir dRp<*ii<3<mcaRiw 

The ctily notcirortby miLituy cvc&te of tlic ou'J/ ^ear irate 
Rltacks npOD tbc m^^rnzinCB of tbc t?ro porticfl. The etortvi for 
Uio American anuy depoBitod at Fcck^kiU were destroyed. 

On til* lwont>"-iIiirU of April n dctaobcd eorp* of oightooa 
hiDidf^ n^on, And a smjiJl mmibor of dm^one, imdur tbo 
eommand cf Tr^on, now a major-general of proviDciAJ«, *ailod 
from Kl'w YL7rk, iindi^r <!4>nvoy, to destroy ui Amodean magar 
une at Danbary, ConnectfciiL Atioitt tlireo hour^ aftor naan 
on Skturdaj'T tlwi twi-fily-siitli, ihny n^m^lind Dimlmrj-, Ht-jLlIi-nHf 
thB gnaid, which Tra« compowd of but fiiiy continvatale and a 
few nillitLn, &nd, under a iioavj nun, de»tio_vod the atorce. All 
tiigiit loag WiL'y wam buAy in burning tho vilbgc The people 
ridng to nnnc, tbo inrading party, thongh tboy rctomod br a 
di^erent routo^ wero wajlaid, and foroed to dy aa from Oouooid 
in 1T7S. By a quick march, Arnold and SUlknon eonfroiitiKl 
tbom on Buniiny iit Ridgofidil witli four hundred iD«n, Wood- 
ier fann^ on thetr ivar with two liunirei:] moro. and, d rearing 
hui troiipa hy hw wunk mid hin ptjimpli*^ fnll at iJicir IicJiil, 
mortally wuuikdedp yut not till he had taken twenty or more 
pri*ODe««. Arnold, throwing up a barner aerow tlie road, 0110- 
tUDod B a)uiq> Action till hU position was turned. Hin horu 
being killed under liim, a soldier, eeoing him alouo and on- 
tuigled, vrm adraocing on lum n'lth &ced bayonet, wbt^n Ar- 
nold, dmwing a pvrtoU chot his aesfliL&nt, and rotirvd tinburt. 

At tho vtno of iho day the JJntUh troopSj in an oblong 
ci|uarv, lay no Oteir annM till Tiiontiog. At daybreak on Mon- 
day thny niiQin^ divir niaiv]]^ and citoapnl diitigrr only liy 
fonling tlie Saagatiick a wUq al)ove all the Amcncan parties 
and mnmng at fuU A|)cnm1 to tlic lugh lull of Couipo, vrltliin 
half a mUe of their convoy at Noirwalk. Before night tbo 

tea tk> AuaMiOi^ pvp*** ^ EvnIiuiIeo Anutuvii^E. 



15S AUEKICjl is alliance with HIAKOC sr.rT,;ai,zi. 

EnglLjft!! si^t mil, ItuTing lonL a1>out ttro Imndxed men -, tb* 
Amoricanfl loet not bolf «o maiix. 

CougrcM, who ftt Wa^liiQ^fUi&^s instance hftd elected Arnold 
a Taftjor-i^&enl, votod him " & lioreo oaporiflooed, u m token of 
their ^pprobntion of h» gnUiiut conduct," To Woostor tfaoj 

JittitiTti }dvlg» of Ciiiiiuy^iiuut, learning (in>u^i Gifi»onl 
F&TBonit tliAt thd BHIikI) wiTni lailing ImiiKpnrlji nt. Bug Ilnr- 
lior, oat the east tdde of tke great baj- of Long Uarn]. trr^Mt^ 
tlic sound from SacLem^ He&d on tl;e tw«tltJ^tiifxi of Mmy, 
witb tiTo Londrcd coutincntd^ m w]uJo4}0ft48. From the 
CLOrtli beacL of tho lalaod th<}y cumod their boats on that 
t«ck> OTCr th« nmdy point, OEntiarked ogaia on tbo b^j, snd 
landed aftor midnight ^tliin four miloe of Sag Harbor. To 
that phoe iJiey advanced before davbreok id ailenoa and order, 
bariiod uue ve«M?I i>r dx or eight gum, oiid ten loaded trois- 
portH, iKwtmjitd tliEi Htiirm tlmt lii^' n1 Ihif whnrfj WilW five Ofr 
Vi\ iif tilt? Briti»h,iLui] o^jFtunH) ttll lhi< ri^i hnt four. On Utcdr 
rctiini, tboy rrachrd GnilfonJ with niniity £jriRoaon» at two ia 
the aftemooii, having tjuTereed hj land and water nme^ miloa 
in tvurity-BTe hoiira. Omgree* Toted lltlgi a tword* ond 
Wa«Uiiigton promoted Scrgunt Ginnings tar merit in the ex- 
pedition. 

In Maj, H<>wo rcoi.-iv(-d letton written after the newa of 
ttie <iijaet«n at Trenton and PHneeton reaobcd England. Gai^ 
main, whom grlcTooA disappointment nude more and mora 
vvogvfiiL ciprvntuil vxtnTitic rnortificatioii that thi.* hnlluiiiciv 
cf ]Towc*s AUooeesee had heon tami«hod, adduig : ^^Tho/ who 
in^lciitl/ rcfdnti to oooept the inercj- of their aoreret^ cannot 
e^Kpect cleniieEioy ; I fear you o&d Lord Ilotire mnst adopt anofa 
modc» <jf cnxr^ing en the war that the lebcls, throng & livelj 
C3rpericnc« of loMoe and to^criugtt, ma/ he brought an loen « 
poeaiblo to a proper etrnBo of their dutr/' Tlie j^^cirtarr addod 
the Ifing^a opiniou, that in eonjnnctioTL with the fleet "a warn 
divcmnoQ " ahoald bo made " upon die ooaata of the 3kDuMehu- 
letta ba; and Xew IIainp«hir?,'* and their ports be occupUNl or 
'^destroyed.** Tlie adinlraJ would not heorfaen to ihe hint to 
bum BofUon find othor ivwde Icnma of Xrw Ei^liuid; and 
the general made ajmwtr that *' it waa not conastent with e4har 



17TT. TUB OPEKmO OF TOE OAMAIGS OF ITn. 103 



m 



I 



«ddi«Med throDgli bim to the Indian «Altut, oa tiio ^mplojr* 
mcDt of sangea againet the frcutJera of the lonthcni stHtcflt 
bo &0T€r urged "Uio red ebildrca of iho grciit king" todcods 
DfblDod 

On tbe iwenty-dglith of May, TVaabSofrtoa rcnitrt'od liU 
qtkftrt«n £rom Atunruto^'ii to tlju huighu of Middlebrook. Of 
tta mmj, which vr^ti Klyln[^ftBeJi of iio more lba.Ti wvcn thod- 
«iim1 five 1iu[idtvd mou^ be mtujii«d alKiul hlx UicHiMuid in liift 
veJI-climcii moimtniEi t-iun|)^ of which the frjiit was protected 
]ijr the llaiiUn, then too deep to be forded, aiid the rigbt^ 
vbeto did groimd was not good, hy two «trci)g rcdaubt«; tho 
left WW b/ luton) diJiSeult of accco^ Jlcrc* at a distance of 
nboQt nino miiw from Bruti£wick, ho kept xT&tch of hia enemy, 
Gmwn] Hove put on the appeio-auce of opeuing tlic cfLmpugn. 
Two mon £riikh reghncntt wcri; ordorod from Rhodo I&land ; 
boiSM, tCDt^, fllt>ri?^ r^LiiAir^^cincnti, an^ved front Kuglaud; 
nvij hy th» twelfth of Juiit*, ^cvuuttfru tJu>UEt)ind m«u, with 
boatft and punioons for cromng iho DcbwRre^ wore Rttemhled 
at BmnswiclL The Tet«rftn officers, dike QerauD and llritiahj 
^Ked ilot tlw^ had never ttat sndi a bodjr of men. 

It w«6 Uowos purpof^v hy a uu-ift march to cut oS tlio di- 
Yitton under SuUivan, whioh was ^tioued at Princeton; but 
the troopd orders for that vonioo arriTcd livo hoiire too late. 
SidliTari bud roUr^-d to tli9 Dt^lawar^ and waa not pursued. 
Bowc next oeeupiod a fiiio eotmtry for a buttlo-iield, m^ar tho 
Ainorioan oncnnipnwnt During tliu punod Washington's 
ann^ at itf^fit -i1e]>t dte their anii^; la the morning tJtey ward 
ll^l«^A^d fcir liatrlj^ ; but TTown iJurrnl nut vrjitnixi mu iitlac^k, and 
ufily tliraw up fortificatione whicli be was foon to abandon. 

3Ior. ill anil round eongrctt fretted at Wa&Ulngton'a cau- 
lioa. One ^Viucrican gcocnl officer wrote : " Wo most %ht 
or forfeit our honor;" Samuol Adanw wad "not ovor-woU 
lleand witli wbat waa eoUod the Fabian war in AAierico." 
To tvproodtea Wttbiofl^toii acsworod : ^' Ag I haTo one f^root 
objoet in ^Setr, T tball itcadily pvraue tbe meana vhich in my 
jodgmeot load to tJio aceompliiiboieiit of it;" and hooontin- 
nud lo baffle and soon tired out an enem/ of atoch more than 
twire bb nitnitie-rH, On ilna i^eniiig of llw twi^ntivili, tbe 



^m^ Tx s. ---- 



154 AMERICA ra AIXIANCE VTTH FEAXCt t9,tW,\CUi.XU 

mnay nX Middkbrook I«aniM tLat tho wbale British force in 
N«ir 3orHv^ w returning io AidIjoj, and thcf mirroundlng 
€Oimtiy u &r IV Dmiu^wirlc ning wrtli tlivir ftlitmlx nnd Mnlriw,. 

Oil the wojnlng of th« twenlj-aecond, the Anspftch and 
IIcsUii pgcni, who fiuiited the rat of HiiUer's <IIriidoii» 
vere iDDcL cnt tip bv a bodv of about tiiTDC hiuulrod mco. 
WLuu tnoro thxQ h&If the column of Comwallia kad poaMd 
PiMKtavny, hU potroU on the kft wens fiorctlj scA upon by 
Uorgtu'e riflemen aicd driven bode upon tbe oolnmn ; and, 
thovf^ Ilou-e put hitufieU aE the h«^ of the two D«are«t n^ 
muriU to fneut tlw AttAch, for n hnlf-liuur x]\tj eontititiod tho 
ftgbt wltljin tTie duiAnce of forty j-ards, and did not ntire cill 
hb tjrdtTHl up ht^civv urtllltrry uuiJ M.'Liur«d the woo^ vtth 
gtapo. 

llanng taken tlie advice of lils general <»ffioeret WashlDgtcn 
QQ tLc twci^tjr-foartJi came down with tli« miin bodjr of his 
army aa far aa Qaibbkttowii, and Advnnc^^ Lord t>tiriiiig'e di- 
rkion with aoone otiior troope to HatoDchm, with ordeirs in no 
CTC&t to bring on a gcneml cagafi;«m«ut. Stiriing, who w^a « 
brav« many bat no tactidanr mv lit to amit an attack. His 
podCioD «"» inmed and hU pa-ry put to fll^rt, t«aTui|( two 
wimII nuEiimu Thtt Briti>ih TiwL HlH>itt vc vaitj inein ; the AnMri* 
cwi£, inclDding pri^iDen, full twice tliaA number. Vaahlntf- 
lOD rokuiKd to ^le heighta of Middk1>rook. On the ihlrtle^ 
HcvD craeaatcd New Jcracrj-, never again to »itp on iu ml\. 
A groat ^Vniencan rictonr wonld not havie giren a deadlier 
Uow to Britiph w«pn:ioiu:y. Jer>«jmcn wLo had accvpUxi 
British protootion dod to bt«teo iflaod. 

In rtiiladolphU, conffTcat Gelebnt«d the fint anmronaiy 
of indopondonco viHi a focrlinj; oi M«untT. The b«Ufi nui|f ^ 
daf and all the ^venio;^; thipf, row-galleys^ aiid bcotn a^wcd 
the new flag at tlio ibiriL<vn UiUtM Stnteat thimntn stripee^ 
mttcma£e red and vhito ; for tho unioD thirtccai stani, vhite In 
a blue tvid, repnsitiutin^ a new coutetlaliun. At oiui o'clock 
the ahipa in tbo ftream w«re manned. At three the meinliera 
of Qoognm and ollioors of tho f^Tcnrnwiit of FeuDi^lTania 
i&ied togtther. '* Our country ^ waaofli the Up« of crery one; 
**thehQroc« who have faUcn" wero commeiDoratod ; the He** 
dan baodf captured acTiunto&rpl^ytdexooUiontlyKelL A£to^ 



inr. TTIE OPEXI^ffG OF THE CAMPAIGN OF ITTT, 155 

wud there were military pandei and at night bon&-ce, ^ny 
Toric«, ukI ftgDiietuI illumiimTiori. 

Six <!flyi* iHtrr ai mwt (faring ndveiitur© gueceeded. Pi<*- 
caU> d)e ciimmajidi'r <if iIie? Ilriliiili fon^iw uii RI^chIi^ Tnlniiil, 
li&d hu qtiar(L'n^ ^t a f:Ln]i'hoiiiw alKiiit four milw fix>m Xew- 
port, on the west lado of tti4 Island, a nule from any troops, 
villi no jxdroU abng Uio nhorc, i\nd no protection bnt a lentiy 
and the fiuudthi|> in tho bay. Lttfomacd of tbia iBAhnoeei 
WiltuDQ Ifartooi^ a nativi? of Wjurt^n^ then & lieutenant- colonel 
!tt the Kfaode Idbnd luiUtio, ou tbo niglit following the nintb 
of July emlinrlcod in wlialssboflfs nt Warwick neck a party of 
forty volunteers^ steered between the lilande of Pallonoe and 
Pruitaiic^ aiitl Iiiiiil[<[l it liiidwc^xl f-n*j^k. ComTTig tjji urrtiw 
lleldi^ they fliirroiiDded Vre^cott^A hoiwet bnrat open the doors, 
look liim and IJentei^ftnt IWringtun out of tlicar beda, hurried 
tbem lo llio witor without giving tlirm time? to prrt-on tiicir 
dotho^ and, while mou from the scrcral camps wcra fc&rcMn^ 
for tboir tracks on tiio sUotd, tlvoy pu^^i under Uic atiM-n of 
dw j;nerd-^p which lay againct llopo Inland, n^ainod War- 
wick, uDcl forwardcMJ their oaptivea to tbe Anterlcan heud- 
qnarlere in Provjdonc«. In rank Frcacott wu tlio e<iual of 
Lee, and ihey vere proua[itly exubangod. 



L56 AUEBICA IX ALUAXCi: WITH FEAJSCE. kt-IT.; oilui. 



CHAPTER XIL 



TBI ADTX3ECK OT VCKOOTXB nOK CUCADUl- 
itlT-AwiL'SfT 17T7. 

'■Ton campngn will cod tlio wnr," vtm tbe opimoo pva> 
bj Biednel; and thioiigb lixd Suffolk bo loliatvd Ibo coo- 
tniDCd f&ror of tbe Brilidi idn^ who vie to kls ^« ^tha 
adoratiini of M tl>o tuuT«ne." FltuLad witli cspeetttMna d{ 
^017, OarieCon emplojwl tin unnscuUjr miU wiatv in pnf»- 
ittiooi. Oa dM last day of April be pve soAeoce to tlie 
dvpotiiii of tbo Six Ntfiooa, and iccvpCn! ikaar avrtioM vhb 
diBBka and gifts. Odwr Iv^ bodiea of lodiuwvncnpgHi, 
unArr leaden ot Uvir ima ftppronL ** Wnst^ied colntLM ! ^ 
aid Eicdenlf ^ if Qtcm vQd aoola aio laditlgod in vn^.^ 

To ttcnie the Uoliawkt to Ifae Britbh Mb, Jcaeph &iiit 
nil^ d>cm to abasMko tbeir old ifaodfi lor lHkd» EDon tODotc 
frau Aisencaa 0OtUoaMQte. To etnaknot hia aalbontj, 
Oitei^ tiCBr die cod of Uay, tlm aipoko to a oosncO of vir 
rion of tho Six NatwTw: 

"Tb« United Suies are now ond peo^; nfivaoc aa; 
rnl »pint 10 kid joo into wmr. Brutbof of ilia Mofatvla^Toa 
win be 00 mon a pw^ fwai tke time yoa qidt toot aocina 
liafaitalkai ; If Am la aoj wroAeb m> bad aa to Uunk of p^ 
Tmiling opQO jon to loa« iba a w ui rtwwn ap betofgd ^ yw 
Jorefatbers, be ii ycmr UlUnat tmamf. Befbn tmnj mooda 
paai awiT, tbe pride of Kpgtod wtD be hU low; ihm horn 
fc^ipj will it nako joc toMled tbat n« hara pRHrwd tfaa 
pcptr ai i ^ aoconMally FCCOistiwtMed to ^i3s famybabapndDg 
ofthowart fiMbon of tbo Six Kattoaa. tto A^ariana woQ 
kacnr jonrgnBt&flw aod power ««axtfain; teonly mbob 



ITTT- THE ADVASCE OF BHRGOYSm PROlf CANADA, I57 

vhy tbej did not wk yonr help against tlia cmelty of the king 
vafl, tliat the^ Uioughe it ungeneroiu to dedre you w au1Ti>r In 
ftqiumJ In w)iT<-ii ^oti hiut ii» ttmtvni. ltr>iTif'rK, tn^u^tirti ull 
I havo now aud id your hcarto ; for the day will come whea 
yoQ wilt hold mj memorj in veneratiocL for the good adrtco 
oocitftincd in this tfpeeohJ* 

Tlip JH^ttlcre in the Tnrd hTikH this year took dM name of 
Vermont refueed bv a great majority to como undof tha Juris- 
dlotloD of Ntiw Tork; en tho Gft«etitli of .T&nnarj 17T7>thoi7 
coDTomtioQ docUiod the Lcdependencg of thdr statd. At 
WindAor, on the eeooud uf Jmhh, i\ivy appoint^ a eouunlttee to 
pn-pare a wmtiiiiMlUm ; nod ihi^y hopiTi) Ut \h'. nfrvriv^d into the 
Aincritan qdioeu Bat, as New York oj^posed. con^^M, liv mi 
oneertaiii aaajority ag&iiut a detvnntiiod ntiuoritj^, dlr^i^mL^ 
tho intcntioQ of Ttcogni«iiig Vonsont u a ecporoto i^to, 

ti«tee char^ Snint-Clair to "cail liutily fcr aid of all 
kiEidB, {0T DO ;riMtL>nU t'ver iuel by eurpW nmat>cn or oror- 
prapontion ;" and liv then jvpoinjd to PJiilad«]phia, to intrigue 
for Ma rdDBtatement 

On the twulftli, Saint<Cliir, the bciit cif tlio bripulicrc tTicn 
in the Nortb^ reached TicondDroga. I-^t© claj« later Sdicyler 
YDuted liiii anny. Mumit Dariiintv, H-Tia^li nrLTlLiAtigft l.lii< cnitlct 
of LakoQeorguondwHti thf? "kc^of tLit pMitioTi/^ wb» k>fl: nn- 
ooQupied. PVom tTie old Ki«Dch intreiichtiientt ti> tlie nonth* 
oartern woriw on tlic VcrmQut side llic wrctcbcdly planned 
tad uniimAfacd dcfoDCce extended more ihun two milce and a 
half; and frotn csul to end of tlie Btragg)in|f linea and mid- 
fdieod blocV-hmtaoi there wu no spot which could Im hold 
agafnat % mporior foroe^ The British could rencb tbe place by 
tltt lake more awlftlf than the AmericjiDa through the forest 
A noocnQty for ftvactiatiJig the po«t migitt arim; ; Intt Stbuyl^T 
•bmuk fruan ^ring definite insiJuctIoiifi» &nd^ ivtrimmg to 
Albany, hiiMt'd himwlf with fbrwardrng to TieoTidcriTign ra^> 
pllea fur n lung aiege. 

On tho nxth of May, Burgoyne anivod at Qocbec* Carle- 
ton noelTed with amaictncnt doflpotcfaot ccnnmng hia conduct 
in the laat camptugn, and erdorin;- him, for ** the epocdj quell- 
ing o£ the rttbcUion," to make ov^cr to u inferior olttccr tho 
ooanmand of the CaD&di&n anny ae gooh as it should croea the 



158 AMEBICA^ IK ALUJLKOB WTTB FBANCS, sr.tT.iOnnL 

boaiKbr7 of Hit proriiKic of QneW* Ansvering vitL poe- 
ocoato roeninhuition Uio jiuc rvpruudiee of Ucrnuin ftud of 
bis adviser Lottt Amherst, be At onco yicl<Iod up tbc cliicf 
mUiUij atithonty^ luid, aa civil f^v&mot, paid a h»if!;iitj but 
tmqnestioitmg obodieitce to the roqnjeitioiii of Buvj-oiriM. 
CdoinicU vere inade for flft^D tmndr^ horws and five hun- 
dred carEn; n tWrKnufl CknadinnK, rrlnrijint a&d proiw to de- 
Mi^rtion. wt^ro calK-d out as road-miikera and wa^nera; aud mix 
wcoks* iiiippUcn fi>r tLe &jnij wctx^ croirckd forwand upon tho 
0136 lij» o£ ccanmunicaticia bv the SomsL Uurgoftie lad very 
ncu-ly all tbc foroo which bo bad ropreecfilcd bb anfficknt. 
UIb offic«n vrao wcJl duam, eapodaltj Fhilt!p« and KicdcccI 
Aft majoi^f-eoeraU and tbo nigfiland^ Fruer aa aa tcttsf? 
bvljuadkr. A diverakm, iron vrhMi p«at eouequeocca wiira 
ezpOcCod, wait to propped bv wuy of Ijike Ontaiio to tho Alo- 
hawh river. Sir WiMhni Howir vnm ni>ii6eil that Burgoynd 
liad onli*f« to f^iret-- n juiietioii u-jUi bid antij'. 

On the fifteenth of Jitnc, Bttrgojruj advanced tnm SL 
John's, aa hfi thought, to cuy victoHce and bigb promotion. 
Offioora' Vi-i^ca atUrnded tltcir hnflbandfl* promuin^ tbcnuclv^ 
an agrecnbLo trip. On tlic 1vcnti«th aomo of tfao IiKlia&fi, 
rticdding tbo first blood, bronf^t in ten acaipe and aa nanj 
piiaoiuua. The noxt day, at tho enmp dcat die river Booqnot, 
a littlo north of Crowit P<iint, Bofgoynat, the applandod vmxtrr 
of plava for the sta^ gitLcdng round him the chief offlcos 
of fan nnny in tJudrgala uiufoma, m<?t in cimgn^vt about four 
hnndnvl Iroquoie, Algonldn^ and Ottawa Mvigtv, and tbos 
applied U> whaX hecdled "thear iriLd honor": 

" W'arrionSf yon aro ^«e ; go forth in mi^tt of yonr vnlor 
and yonr cauM ; strike at the codudcoi eoeiiUea of Ureat Brit- 
ain nnd AjDcrienr diatarbcn of pnUio order, pcoec^ and hnppi- 
MMydeatroTerAoioDoniDcrocspaiTiGideaof tbotCate. Thccirclo 
romxl yon, tbo cbiefM of bia majoaty^a European foreea, and of 
thoae of tbo pnnoee, his alfiaa^ oateem yon aa brotbaiB in thv 
war; emulooain ^oryandln Mendildps we wHl redprooaOy 
givo and r(*oeivo oxaniplua. Be It our taii^ ic n^late yOur 
pa»ioDa nhen ihey ovcriwar* I poatiTely forbid blooddtedt 
ivbiTu \<m Anr* not fij)poH*d Id arms, Agi<d inen, women, nbft 
diTO, and priaoncfv miut bo bcM eurcd from tba knife and lb« 



im. THE ADVANCE OP BUEOOYHE PBOM CANADA. IM 






-j^tlfto. but j:im aLoJl boQoUcd 
to ftccomit for ecalpe. your customs iuvc afibcod an idea of 
lioaor to iucU bod^ of victory : you »hall bo fJ]owt>d to toJfc 
tb« sc»J|w cf tbo dttdj -whtai killud b7 yoiu* liro iii fair oppod- 
tioti ; bnt on no pretence &re thoj to bo taken from tiie wound- 
ed or CTOQ flying. Should tlie euuniy, oa liieir piirt, du» (o 
i-i>tint«tiar)[*[< iicIk ttf luLrbimty t/iw.ird Hvnus who tnaj f»11 into 
Uifiir hancK it ftTkall bo jours to retaliate.'* 

An old Inx|Uois diief repUtnl : " ^Vlit'it joa fpeak^ ir« hear 
tbo Toicc cf our great ^thcr Ih j'Qtid tbc grctt lake. Wo hftT6 
bocsQ tried and tempted bj tbo UoatODiJUiB ; hot we loved our 
^tiii^i and our luUehotd Iiavq boon idiar|>ciicd upon our ilSoo- 
tJODl- In proof iii dneiaiiyi our wboto vitLigi^ ub^o to go to 
vftr, are oome forA. The old and Infirm, ottr infADU and 
uiv4?e, atouo remain at home. With one common ofi^ent we 
jirtKuiM? u cunnUiuL «ilH)dii-JU-<*- inn}] ytmUnm onli^n^l und aII 
yoa Am1\ rmlcr; and ma; tlic Fathei of days give yon many, 
ai]dsaeoee&" 

Having foA«t«d the Indiana aocordmg to their cuatom, Bar* 
gojnc pnblialiod lua speech, which wflcctcd his instructionfl, 
Edmsnd Burlce, vbo had locinicd that tlio niiturd forocUv of 
tlioae tribofi far oxoocdcd tbc f^root^ of all barbariace mon- 
do&ed tn hiacoiy, prouoanced that thoy were not fit aJlk« for 
ih4 king In a war wUI^ hU potjple ; tli.it En^liKhtnitn ^lould 
Devcr conttrra their evil halite bj tleshing thera in the ftlangb- 

of BHti;Ah emlmiiuU. In the boiuie of oouimorui Fox con* 
iored tli« kicig for HiifTrnt^g thi^m in liia cunip, when it was 
mO known tliit " I^imt^Jiy, luurder, and dcatructlon wero ever 
imepariblo from Indian warrion!." When Suffolk, before th« 
lofda, contended tliat it was porfoctlr juatafiablo to nao ail tho 
hmuib vlii«fa God and natnrie had pnt Into tlieir baada, Chat- 
ham caltcd down ^Hho mtxt dcoUiv«) indignation at thuM 
aboodnablo ptiaoapl^e and tbU more abominaUa avowal cf 

In a proclatnatioci issued at Crown Point, Burgoync, claim- 
lug to Apeak '^ In eiiJD.4<!iouFintt» of Chmtiamtv ajid the Iionor 
af fo1di«ndiip,** c-afcimnd h'w pt-noinjtiuns ti> tlin Ainrricatbt bj 
menaces like thctc: *'Let net people ccnaidor tlieir di^tonoc 



160 aMEQJCA nf ALLULSC£ WITH FRAKOE. ir.rr.; ck,xii. 



from in;^' camp; I bavet>at togivefitretdito tbelAdknforcs 
under laj direction, ocd ihoy amount to tliouAUuUt to orcitekc 
tbe Iifttxlenod oncniice of GmU UritaitL If the iteuty <rf 1m6- 
tiBty sLotiJd rdm&in, I tnut 1 fihaU stand acquitted in tbo oy« 
<^ God ftnd mui in ftxooutiug tUe vcuigcftiusu of tlHi «t4to agntiut 
the wilfol oQtOflflta." 

On tJju kit day of Jtm^j BLWBOjme decUrad Jn gen«re] ar- 
dere ; " Thig ■mij' nttint not. mtn'«J, ] " wliilf f'aint-C^lHir wroto 
to Si^uykr: ^* Should tha eneiiij attack ufy the/ will go back 
foi^lcr than lliu/ <;anie.** On tJie fimt of July tko iundfiug 
army morcd up tbc lake As tbcy cncaoipcd at evening be- 
fore Ticondoroga and Mount Indopcndcncc^ tho rank and file^ 
oscJnsivc of IndkuB, niunbor&J tlirce tliouaand aoven huadfod 
and twonty-f-jur Bncish, ilu\i<i tLoufand and sixtooD Gonnara^ 
two buodred £Dd fifty provindale, beeidea four hundred mA 
eoventy-thrvo fikilfid urtilluriata, wSth in oxcttdro luppl; of 
artillery. On ;1iii tMrrl, one t)i SmntChuj'^ aUb ppomlaed 
Wiuliingtori ^^ t)u! totu] dtiftat of ihts tfiimuy." On tliat da/ 
Biedf»el w»? iktiidyiiig liow it) iiivcAt. Muiint Independcnoo. 
Od tha fourth, I'hillipe aclzed the niil!^ near the outlet of 
Lako Qeorgc, aiid Iiemineil in Ticondcroga tm tlut Aide. In 
the foUowirg night a party of infantry, following tbo intnoa- 
tioQ of IJcntenant Tiviss of tljo on^^noerB, took poaeeaaioB of 
Mount Do^nncc. In ono day mor^ battcriu« from tliat hill 
would \ihy ou both fort^ and Rkod<««] complott the loTMt- 
rooni of Mount Independence. ■* We ranst away" add 8ahi(> 
Ckir; \i» conncil of vrar wt-ro all of tlio auino mind, and tho 
retn-at niust \m mndd the very next night. Tho garrifeoiL. ao- 
cnnliiig Ui his li^w ivUtiiatjs rou»5ted of tbirty-tlir«Q biuidred 
nun, of whom two thirds vcto cSoctiro^ bat with ecareely 
tnaio than one bayonet to cveiy tcuth aoldicr. Odo nguaea^ 
the inToJidii, and fiicb »tore4 u tlicrc woji lime to lado, v«rd 
aont in boota np tbo lako to WhitoboU^ while tho groat body of 
tbo troopa, undor ^nii^vCIoir, took tJio new rood tbronfih tbs 

Thtjj Mi ample storoa of ammunition, Qonr, e^}t moot, ami 
lier<!s nf oxi'ii, more than seventy cun*ioii, and a lai^gti nnmber 
ijf ti'titM. Biirgoynij^ who i^mii tip in llit- fln*^ lamt FnMV 
with twenty coiuponiea of ERgUfeh grenadlori, followed by 



4 
4 



im. TEE AnVAKOR or BITMOTJre FBOK CANADA. 16i 

BJedcMl^s infantiy and it^crTc (^i^qa^ in pursuit of UiG arrnj 
of Saint-Clwr; uitl, as fluori as t\m dmnnel belween Ticondi^ 
rogK ujk! ^foitiit Iiitlcjmiuleuci; eoulil Ire cleaned, tfic (tve>ty 
beiriikg Bnrgojno and tho rcet of lii« forccis chawd after tlie 
detachmaDt wLkt b&d escaped by vaicr, Th« American^ 
bvmngthrae of tbdr vtf«6lA, aluiudoncd two otbenund tho 
fort bX WJucohoU. Everything which thc^- brought from Tt- 
eeadorofEa w&b destroyed, or fell a prey to tlioir pursuant. 

On tlM niDO day Burgoj^no rvpoHcd to Iiim govomtncnt 
Aat th» amiy of Ticonfl4?roga wjw *^ dUbandefl and totally 
mined." G^noaio ciftd to Cit-iitrjl llwwu lUia O3tmnp!o of 
''iniiif] prrigrpw," Jiiid prtHiirird ilti i*nr]\f jiirielion of tbe two 
Mim^», Men dieptucd in EngloDcl irhcthcrr niofet to uduxliu 
die ffword ex die pen of Burgoytie ; and were aui^ uf the cntiru 
conqnoit of the ojnfcderato provinces bufc^re Chrutmas. 

FubHo opinion to¥> ngmn^t (Schuyler. Of tbc evacuation 
of Ttoond^Ofiia, Hamilton reoBoucd rightly : ^* If Uio prK;t woe 
ontCDAbJc^ Of required a lar^^ rmmhcr of troop* to dofond it 
llisneoidd bofpa/^d for the pii.rpo«o,it ought long ap;o to have 
becoi forewsD and givcu up. Iii>^tead of that, we bive Ici.pt a 
lsi;go ijna/itily of c^iidi}|i in It, mid hrtvt- Imii hifnping tip vco^ 
valaaUe magajdn^ (>f f^tcrcji nnd proviuoiiA, that lu the crlEii^id 
KKOTicnit of dvfvnicc xne alwjjdoned and 1(M." * So juilgod tti« 
pnblic uid coDijcw. HchTivkT hod, ba Iho condition of hJa re- 
appointment to tho oocuDand, token upon himeetf the reapon- 
fibiU^ of tho dtfcnoQ of Tieondoro^'a, and h&d ekbaed pmiAO 
for h&riag piled up ample «toiv« within itn woIIk Ho eongbt 
toeaoapo ^m oondetnnation by insisting th»t th« retreat wad 
modo wkluont die htiut luiit fn>ui hiifi!tt*Uj and wu^ '' lU-jU'Jjp^ 
akd not wuTTLnEed bym*n.witT.^ Witli manly rmnkiii?«<^a?nt- 
Cfalr WHuuied hh hUown tlit< jintiHiwQrthy utwhicli had tared 
Ut dw ocnuitfy many iti iii^ bmvixt defendera. 

On the aecond of July die convention of Vermont rcaHonv 
bled at ^ndtfor. The orgaida law wMdi thoj adoptod, bkad- 
iag^lbo cultnrcof dicirngcwitli thetitditionsof Ftotostaoduii, 
Mmxkod that ail won ore bom free and with inalioDahlo rights; 
tUit they may einigra&> from one state to another, or form a 
new sure in vacant oountriot; dmt "erorjr aoet abonld obecrve 



ICd AMEBICA IN ALUA^'<7E ^STTQ FHANCB. sr.mtonxn. 



tliG Lord^A d\Y, and keep up Momo Aort of religiotu ironlup;** 
that every man mnj' choooc iLit fortn of tvligioiu wonkip 
** whicU ehfLJi BOoTn 1o him moet agrdoablo to die revealed vill of 
Q(kV' Tlio.T proniod for t, ecbool in eadi town, % gnnnna^ 
Behool in cu^h oount}', umi n tiitivoTvity in tbo stnU). AJl 
offiicen. alike executive and Ic^elative, v^ere to be ehoMD ad- 
nually luid hy bdlot ; tlfj frevmeii <»f tjvt'rr town and all <taiy 
yeai^A nvidt'iifjt wi^n; u]4T(jtr& Evi^ in(^mli«.-r of the 1»oma of 
n^irefientatives most dealftre '^tiis 1>eltef m oiiti God, Uie n>* 
WATilcr of the good und tJie pimiAherof tW wicked; ul tlio 
divine irtFpJrntion of tijc vcnpturct?; and id tlic ProtcetAnt 
tdigion," The Icf^ial&tivo power ves reated in one general 
VBBfymhly, snbjeet to no vcrto, tltongU nn adrieoiy power -wu 
pvcn to a board c^mMnting of tho governor, lioDtonaot-gover- 
nor, and twelve conncillore, SUveiy wa3 forbidden and io> 
ever ; iind tliore oould be no frnptiu^iinicnt for dvbL Oneo in 
seven yi>iLrs nn elective coimdl of censors woa to take cane tlut 
frucdom and tlio oouAtUntion wnre [irtwHrvtHl iu purity. 

Tbe roarki.^1 KitiillArity of tliis Eyetcm to tliat of Pennsyl* 
Tiinia U aifcribod in pm to Uie influence of Tliomas Yoiing *if 
PbiWlclpfiii, wbo IluI publuJi^d an addroM to die poopio of 
Vermont After the Iom of Ticondcrogn, the intiodactioa of 
the eonatitntion wiw postponed, leat tiio prooesn of ohonge 
ehoald interfere with the piiblie defence, for whieh tlie Yer^ 
mont conncU of safety ^nppUoated aid from the ITew Hamp- 
ahJn committee at Exeter and from Haamdiiuelia. 

On the iiL^it of tJie atxUi, FrtM^r und bU party nude their 
Kvonac mvcotocn mllcv from the lake, with tlial of ]tiede6el 
thnw niilea tn their reai. At tlirvc m tho montlug of tlio 
eovciLth both dctAclunente ircro in motioiL The eavagea liav^ 
in^I discovered tho rcar-giuud of Saint-Clair*a tnaj, which 
Wjimc;r« contrary to hia inetruetiona^ had encamped for the 
night at HnbbELrdtoiLi mx mUoa uhort of Co^lotcn, Ffm^^ at 
fivt.\ order^ hia troops to adraaoeL To their great aurpiue, 
Warriur, who wiu nobly aailsted by Colonel Ebon Fnncif and 
bis New !Iainp«hire regimant, tumni and be^n tho attack. 
Tlie EtikIIhIi uere like to be wo«alcd» vhen Rl<«1t#)el wftli hb 
vangLimtl utd company of yagen came np, thc^lr tuuaku iilayEog, 
the men «nging a battie^ynin. Franci* for a third time 



THE ADVANCE OF BUBOOTyE FROM CASaD.Ci^ 

oHnrgofl at tlie lioul of hU regiment, itnci liold tti^ (memiefl sit 
bmy till Iw M], On tin? HppmjU'h of tlie t)iPE« G^mijui bat- 
talkiw, Ilia laen ratr«atod toward tlie ficfutlL. Fm^itn-^ biking 
Riod«t«1 hj tho liiiiid, tJuiLko<l Lttn for the timely rc«ctia Of 
tho AiDoric&iUf fcvr varc kilU^I, nnd most of tiiote en^^n^d In 
the fl^lit wade pood their rotreat; but dufiug tJiu <iny the 
BrituJi took mr>ro tliun two hundn-d t^tnig^lor«t woimdcd mou, 
aiid inv^ds. Of iho Bnin«wickoTS twentj-hvo woro killwl 
or wounded, of the British one hundrvd and tUty-five, TLo 
1i«T^ lo« Mopped (be fmnnil; und Saint^^Iidr, with two 
tboofifliid coDtitieJitiJ tiXH>|>ii, tnui^ljed tini])o1e6(«d t^ I-'grt £d- 
vmnL 

Tlie Ttritifih rrgimrnt w1iic)icItaM?d the fugitives front Wliitiy 
Wl tuok ground within & luilo of Fuit Aiui. On Uio oionuJig 
of the dgbth it» gnnvon drove them nearly tJjrcc tuiicfl, took 
ft captain and thi^ privnt^a, and inflicted a loaa of at loaat fifty 
(II killed and n-ouudcd. Eeinforced by a hrifpide, Hua En^dt 
rvtoniCHl ciily tu tlud iLc fort bitnu^d down, and Che guriaon 
boyond reach, 

BmgoiTQe cbcdc to celebrate tfieae eventa by a ^y of thonkK- 
giring. Arothvr dixip|h)int.m(^it uwiiitoi) him, JTu rukt^d 
Ou^etOQ to htjld Ticoiideroga witli a part of the three tbon* 
fiind troofw left in OuuuU; rarleton, pltsadlog biBn inKt.ru<^tionji 
wUdi flonfin^ him to hie own provmce> rctuEcd^and left Uur- 
l^oyDO " to dnun the life-blood of bidanny^for the gnrnaoffL 
SopplMof proviiiionA ctxmo ttutHly, Of tlic Canadian horses 
eoQtneted for, not moro than ono Uui-d arrived in ^-cod condi- 
doa over the wlM mountain roodjt. Tlio wagoiu were nude 
i/t prooa wood, and wore deficient in ntimbor, Fortbor, Bui^ 
KOfDo ahonld hare turned back from ■^^'hitehall and moved to 
tba Hnditon river by way of Ijiku flcorgu and ib^r old riad ; 
but Uie word vtia: ** Britons n^Vfrr recwlaj** ami after Uic iialt 
of a fortniglit luf tuok tlie alivrt cut to Fort KdwAixl, Uirougk 
a wildenkeaa brifitling with voods, broken by numeroui creeks^ 
■ad tnMchftroua with moraraea He reposta with conq^laccoKiy 
Ibt oontnctioin of more than for^ bridges^ a ''log-wot^" 
orer a mon« two niiloe in extent, and the reinovaJ of layen of 
falUa tunbertMco. But thia peratsteut toil in tlio bait of mid- 
r, vDong myrnda of toaecti^ diapMtad kia Groopiw 



IH AKKHrCA IX ALLIANCE WITn FEASCE. », tt. j CTI. Xlt. 

Eariy ia 3n\}\ Dorgoytid coDfe>?^d to Germain that, ** wen 
tho I[m1Eila« luft totliconedvcitftJitoniiKTuitooliorrii) bk think of 
would «ii4ni( ; guilty and iwnowml, wwm-n wnl infKnU, vroald 
be !i oniiJiEOQ pn-v/* The geDemI, narefthcle^T le^UiMi to 
ti«3 ibtiii n:i iiLHtriLii^mU *if ** Itrror," and ptOQ^Mil, after arriv- 
ing 4t AUkui/, to %eni them ^townrd CoaDcctknt and Bo»- 
tOD,'' knowing full vc\] that they wero loft to thcmeelr«s by 
Ja Ccvdo Sftiat-Luc, tlioir l^uikr, who VBi impatient of contrd 
in tlko u*o of tbo Mttping knife. Ev«rv day tho nngoi bros^^t 
Id «cnT|ifl ns vreW oa prit-nDen, On (he twenty^cventh, JtDO 
Mftccrt!^ n yooug wuaoon of twvmty, botrothod lo b loyalist in 
the Bntkh lUTviorT anJ i>ii^niiing Ivrvrlf tiiwW the procectioei 
of BritMi mnoBf was ridia^ frum Fort Edward to ihe Brithh 
Gorop mt Sandy ITilV qkoi-IimI hy two Iiidluu. Thr TndivH 
qnamUod aboat tho rctwaid promucd on her aafo arriral, and 
At a 1^-milo irom Fort Edward ono of them mnk hia Um^ 
hawk tn b«r akulU Tho incident wm not of mnnial bar- 
baric ; hot tbu masewire of a bemthod girl on bee way to 
hor brer touched all who heoid the itofy* Bnr^ojna, from 
ter <u ■* tho taial detoctton of the Indkni,*' paHonad tfat 



SchnyW oved hiB plaoe to hit Bodal paitlon, not to 
tdeota. Annoii^andacupectedof awuitof penooal 
be fonnd ororything go ilt under hu command. To the ooati' 
ncntal troops of Saml-Clair, who wen aaflefffa^ fmni tfaa k« 
oftbearcMhoftondtcoteibo wiamaUatoratoffiaooafideDee; 
nor coold ho rooee the people. Hie ehoico for goreriMr of 
Kow YoHc feU on George Clntoo; ''hEa ehafaetor,'' and 
^uhtngton to tho conndl of nfecyi ** will make Una peott- 
Uarly naetol at the bead of yonr atat^.** Scbnyter wroce : "^Eh 
fuDity Mtt\ conni^tSontt do not cnlitio hiin tu an dklao^nlihod 
a prfr«nuaeDc«.^ There ooold be hd hope of a ^mcoemhi cam- 
pugQ but with the hnuty oo^cnlM of lt«v KngUnd. Of 
the mmtia of Nov En^and the BMA uamttndertiMUef 
ba« left biA tcatmociy that, ^'whcn bnm^ to action, tlvey 
w«ro themoel perMrvmng of any in all Kotth Ajnenoa;*'yel 
Solnylar gar^ loaro for ona half of tbani to go boaa at ooea^ 
tbo reet to follow in tkrva w«da^ i&d than caUad i^en Wail>. 
tngion toBopply ihc4rplBMabytru^bvnithtaonUk of Hod- 



|T7- THE Ai>VASCfi OF BITRGOTSE FROM CAXABA. 16fi 



to liU fncTicLt Uui 



fidutlicm ftoWi 



Fon nvor, tajmig 

wottli two froin New Enj^Tand. 

On tlie tweDty-#ecoiid, loiig before Burgoyne wiia ready to 
tdvmncT^ Sc'liiijliT n^tivnW in u pfmilion foiir milt* hflnw Fort 
Edward. Hlmv iiguiii lie complained <>£ liin *'^ ex^toeiire (o im- 
moclUtd ntiD.*' Ills fr[t:udA iirgr^d liiiti lo sll^ace tlifi growing 
oupicion of hvi wuit of vpirit; lie fltiAWcJx*!! : '*lf Uicro ia a 
battlo, I ahidJ certdnlj cspoeo myeclf more than is pmdont," 
To the Kew York c<itiricil of soiaiy lio wrote on tlio twcnty- 
foartb : " I wirnn to tlinpiitc liVcry iuch cf ground ttitli BiiP- 
jl^gyiKp, And retard IiIe dtraceat as lou^ aa po^eibto;" and in [oea 
tli:yi D wuok, witliotit disputing JLn}"thirg, he retreated to Som- 
togn^ h.iviiig liU Wart rHh on a ]iviMtTiVi jit llir jnivtioti nf flic 
Slotawk and Hndson. The ctfiira^'e of lht.< coinmandtT [>eing 
gomjp liL-t ufliccnt And lijft mtny \jn'amt »ylni\csA. Fii>m Bjt;i< 
toga, Sclraylcr, on tlic first of Atignftt^ wrufc lo Ihc council of 
nfclT of New Yorfc: '*X hav« bocn on iiorecback uJI day r&- 
eomioitriag ilio couniTj' for a pIvMi to euc&mp on diat will 
givo lu Q clinnco of rtopping the cTicnij-'fl curtvr, I liavc cot 
^<A been able lo find a spot tiiai has tlie Jeaet proepeof cf an- 
awtrin^if iW pnr|X)ai^, and I believe yen will iocm loom tbat wo 
tro ntinvl slill J'orthvr v(>QtU. I wUli t1i.il I ooiiM Kiy iIlu tbo 

>pft uniur nijr coiiiiiiand were iu gcjtnl ?*^)irItSv Tbcy are 

lUi otUerwiae. Uiidrr lliuw ciivan^titiuirw tbi: cni;niy are 

iniring rtn^Dgth and advancing/* 

On tho fourth of Anguat be ««iit ircrd to oongrew tbat 

ityno u at Fort Edward, ilc bo^ witbdniwn hia trvM)pA 

CtsUdon and is bending hia whole forco tlus way. Jlo 

proWUr bo }tero in cdj^it diyi^ ^'^'^ unlctt wc aro weU 

iforacdf ac much firllicr s6 hd cboo««« to ^.^ 

On tli« dJdh, Scbny^r wi-i(c« to Go^-emor CUntj:>ti of Xtiw 
Ftirk; ^*TbeeiMmj wilt miou niov<!, and our MLn*n^h UdaOy 

TnrOKing, Wq ihall ogain bo obliged to dotratpp Mid retreat 
And^ na hb ouljr mouroe^ he AoUdled uSd 



The loaa of Ticonderoga alarmed the patriot* of New York, 
gUddnwd the rojalifftf, and tlxcd tbo waToring Indians n cilc- 
taia, F^vo c«nntic« were in tlic poncssion of tbo onctny; 
ym« otlieiv ntScfod from disunion and ^marchv ; Trvon coun- 



1116 AUEEICA rS ALUaHCB WUll FEA50BL IT^m) OLUt. 



ty iinjilorGc] imme^liate Aid; (he inllldi of Wefltelw^t^r weins 
iibenrWI in t7u<iroH-D ilufvnn?; in tbe ctlusr 0(KUitic« »CAJin?]y 
men cBOUgh rcnuuncd at toiDO to Bocmw tbo plentiftil barrc&t. 
Uenacod cm its border from tbo SuaquebanuikJi lo X^o Chain- 
p]dii,iJid on creij p&rt of fcho Hndaoo, Nu>t York Iwcflme the 
battlo-fiold fortho Hfo of tho young ropabltc ; it« oounciL eec- 
onded Solmjler'a piayore for rtinfoit^i^monu. 

The eonuoacdiGfr'in-cMdf, in Uk- |ilau cf iho eamptign, had 
assignvtJ to lliv northum <)<iiantii^at Toore thta Its Ehare of 
trcicjjiM Anil rE<f^nnve8; adO haji] addod one lirigade wblcb ww 
lirvnnil tljc! ,-igmmLrnt nnd 'rf whjrU Ini itfixMl in jirvMnig imvl, 
for tho army of Howe vtm twice or thrice as ncmcroiu «a that 
from ('aii£bf!a. In tJiifi time cf peq^lcnty, irhca the couatiy 
from tbo Uud^n to Maryljui^ roqitircd to bo gvardcd, tbo 
aitro£tii?a from Schuylor^ frenn tlio ogtmeil of jKov Yoric, and 
from Jav and Gouremeur HorrU *^ dc-pnties of that eoondl, 
]>ouro(l ill U|>oii WibJiiDgtoQ, Aliniit'fl bj Sduykr's ivmt of 
fortitude, ho ord«ivd to the north AraoU, who was fevleai, 
niifl Llnooln, who vas aecepcahle to ibe miliitA of ibe oscera 
rtati'K, anilj <r\vn tlioogh It w«ili«nc^ hi* ovm anojr irmtnoT- 
Mjf still one moro brigade of ojicellent continental troopa 
nndeor Olorcr. To k;uHt-rt llic: ming of New Engknd, ho 
TTTOte dircctk to the brigadwr-^cucnils of lUfimdiuaetti and 
Connecticut, T:tr^a^ tbcni to march for 8anto^ with at Iciat 
one third port of tin- mitiih under their ooaDniand. At tbo 
aame time be Ude ^Ln>lor *' odver deepah* * ezplaintnft that 
the foTt«« which might adv^noa andor BnrgO}'no oonld not 
much exoo^ flvt* thouund ram ; that they nust gmhonx areiy 
fortified p<wt li-ft behind th«m; Unt their pvi^greM muM bo 
<IrlHvnl hy tlwir baggs^ and artjilerv, and hjr tha nno o w h jr of 
<<Qltuig new roada and elearng uAd com; that a ptrtjr ihould 
bo itatkMied in Tdrmont to hwp them in oootinna] aaxIcCy for 
their rear; that AnM>Jd fhoold go 1o the rdief of Fort &tan> 
wix : tliat, if the inradora ccntinuod to act in detachmmtet one 
v^.-<ir«nB fall upon aomo one of those dvtu^menta m^jlkt 
fitUl 10 the whole oxpcditioa. 

[n a lEke apMt he azpitMed to the oooncll of Kev T 
" dio rooat aei^bla phaam at d» cmrtiooi of th« atate, dl^ 
membarod aa It vta> and under Arerj diaconragtrnK-nt and c&- 




inr. TItE ADVASCE OF BUMOTHE TRDM OASADA. 167 



LEVI 

iw. I 



adviotage ; '* the mcoffis cf BurgovEK^ ha pradictod^ would ba 
tcmponrjr; tho notiAeni KUtc-^t could not be a^kod ta dt^tutl 
their fonxf aincc it t^m &11 Deeded to keep Howe at Im^' ; iJi« 
att&chmeittof the e&ttera state* to tlie caiueiiuarod their sctaT- 
itj wh«Q i&vokod for tJic safety of k eirtor fttate, of themselves 
of tho continoat ; tho worst ofieot of tb« looa of TiooDdcrogt 
WW tho puua whJeh it produced ; odmly oansidorcd, tbo c2po- 
ditioa WW not fonxudablo ; if Xcrw York should be eeaeonably 
KOofided by its raitem n9i|;hbon, Burgoyne would £nd it 
equally difTlt-iilt to aulvwicti or Ut rt^iwaU 

AllUiiK wh.i]e SchnjWcontlrLiii.'d to d««pond. On the thir* 
teenth of Audita; lie could write from Stillwater lo 'Winliiiig* 
Cod : *^ We arc obliged to give wvj «id retrcAt before a vnatl^ 
wperioT fono, doilj ittciouDng in mjmbcr^ &nd which will bo 
doablod if Ocijoial Bur^yno rencthoa Alboo^', whidi I a|>pTO- 
bend will be very toon ;" and tho next diij ho moved his army 
to the fint inland in tho month of tho Afobftwh mar ; and tt 
Albany accepted applauso far "the widdom of fiis tafo to- 
treat.** * The £nit m-tIou;* bluw was Atniok by the huRb^idnton 
of Tryotl comity. 

Bur^>jfiie, oil liiH vaivm U> I^Jiidoa in 17Td, IijuI ca:«nred 
iCa/ktoD to Genunin for not liuving Mrnt liy Liko Ontjmo nnd 

Oawe^o and Mohawk riven on auxiliary oxpoditioD, which 
bo had oJlottd to lead. Germiun adopted the plan, and settled 
the dotaiU for ita execution diicily byaoTo^ca. To Cnrtcton, 
whcm he ACGOfied of "avoiding to otnploy Indiane^'* Le an- 
DOtmeed the king's ** resolutioii that every means sboiild be 
OTHplojed that Fn>Tid<^fice liad put in hU iri;Lji*^ty'a hind for 
cnuhlng the nrV-llion.** Tlie dMnrlimrHit whiHi wm m-t njiAii 
for tlwi iwrviof tinihrr Lheainiiitaud of Lieut^nact-CoWitol Saint- 
Letfar, vaiying from tlic ^-'hrdiilr <tS Gennnln in ita conattta* 
eoi partj tac^r^ Ibaa Id ita nombcnf exceeded Mvcn hnndfcd 
and tifcy white nkon. "TIjc Six Natjona inclined to the 
rebel* '^ frou) fear of bcin^ finnlly abnmlonod bv tl^o king. 
Tbtt Mobawke could not riae imloe« they w<>re willinj; to 
leave tbear old luuiiiit^grotindi; the Oneida* were friendly 
to tho Ameiicans ; even tho S«nf?o^ wen han] to bo toommL 
At Itondoqnai antired ibem that there vaa no hin* 




168 AMERICA Uf ALUASCE fflTE FEASCK, m.tT.i c^xn. 



di^noo tD tlio woT^palL ; tZiitt tlifiy trouM litve ouly to look on 
ind eee Fort Stann'ix fill ; and for seven diiir« he bTiehcd 
UrgcMC-a (m ito fighting men and ou dieir vIvm and children, 

tluMaand IitdiAU warrior^,*' oLtlatnlv ^inore thnit dgbt ban- 
drcd,** joined lie n-liite brigade of ^tDt-Lcgper. In addltku 
to tboWf lintnilloiii the licutcoont-govcnior of Dctn»tf in obe* 
dienoe to orders fri^m the Mtcrctarjr of etotc ecnt oat fifteen 
KTcnil portice, ooonstiiig vi tlio aggregate ol tvo bandroc) and 
oigbty-niiu; bravi^ wiUi thirl; white offioom and mngon, to 
prowl on ibe frontiers of I'entigj-lvanu and Vbrgjnia. 

CoU«c(ii:ig bifi forc^ aa be adraneed froiiQ Moatnol by vaj 
of Ojtwi<gij, Suint'ljr^T Ml t-br l.liird of Augtbft cnmc m^ar t]i« 
carrjrtn)<-p1[Lt!4.*, wbore for untold agi-« tLe nativea fiad l>ome 
llieir Ijork caooea orer tLe uutvw plaiu tliat d]\-id«A ilidwatoi 
of tbc St. LAwrenco &imi thoea of tl^o lIiidM>D, Fort Stut- 
wii proved to bo well coDetmctod, e&fo by cortbworka agBiut 
artillery, tind pirnmiiod bj eix or tK^ma bubdrod men under 
lJcnt«iiant<^j[onel Gnnsovoort. A moasenger froia Brant'a 
^iter bion^t vord xhat General Nlehola« Herkbner and tbe 
milltU of Tryoa countj wer* ma/ehing to Sta nliel A pUn 
vaa made lo hy for tlictm an Ambnah of iavag««^ 

Daring ibe evening tlie aavagea flUed the woods vlik yelli. 
Tbo Dcz^ tnorniTi^, baring laid lUfidc tbvir MAiiki't« and robm 
of for, thoy all went out^ naked, or clad only in btinUnfC«lurti» 
inaed witfa apcar, tomabuwl:, and innaket, xai supported Igr 
Bit Jobn Jolmooffi and roynl Yorkcm, by CcloncI llutlcr and 
ru^n, by Claii^ tmd Canodion^, and by Lieutenant Bird and 
ragulam. 

Tbo froeboblert of tlie Molun-k vnlley, mcft of them witb 
t)ie utym of GFrmane fn>tn ibe pAbUinuo for oflBcvre, semi or 
fl^t biiudred En Dniiiber, adanfonned » to thn itningth 
of tlir iKMJc^iiig pa^y* nurtlicd ctn-Jmidy through the wood. 
Abont an hour before uoon, when Ihoy were witlUn bU milaii 
of the fortf th«lr van entered the amboocikde* Thiqj irere 
nrprijed in front by Jolmaoa and bia Torixn, while tiM In- 
dian* attacked their flncka with fory, nnd, after oslii^ tbdr 
oraBkets, nubed In with their totsaliawka. Tlio patriott fell 
back witkont eoaftuioo to bener ground, and renewed tho fi|^ 



I 
I 



I 
I 



im. THE ADVANCE OP BDBGOVfi£ FKOU CANADA, 1<|9 

agtinii mp«ncr numbers. Tbcro waa no dianoo for tactics in 
this battlo of iho ^domoea. Bm&ll partite fought from be- 
Liiid trecB or fallen Iggs; or- tbo white man, bom on dio btinki 
cf tbo Mohawk, wrofiilc^I nnglc-Lundo^l wUh tbo Stmoca war- 
rior, like himflelf the child of rhe soil. HerkiineT waa htidiy 
VFtnmik^l lnthiw th« knee ; hut he remajoed ou die grouiul, 
giving artlew t" thft t'nil. Thomn* S|H!iLrrT ilit**! l}m itr-jith nf 
a li€«ix The lultle ra^ed for al Icaet an liour and a lialf> whca 
the AwcrlcaiLH npulcwd tiieir a.-ttbukuld, hut v'iUi tliii |iit(« of 
flbont one bondrod and «i\tjr, Idllcd, wounded, cr taken, of tho 
bc«t lue^i of wostem ^ow York, Iho ^ava^ fuu^ht vrith 
viJd voJor; tbrco-mid-tlnrtj or lnon^, uinong Uicin tlio cliicf 
wamoiv of th9 Sonec&B^ lay dead honeath tho ti^ea ; shout as 
nuiij inore wero badlj woondod. Of the Yorkera ono cnj>tiiiii, 
of tho Ttiitg^ry two vrcn ktllod. What iiumhor of pnvaio^ foU 
is not told. The ItHtiah hss^ incTudlng Kirag^ and white 
men, W43 jirulahly tvhikiit tniif hundn^l. 

Thrro tncj] havhig c;ros»ed tlie moras hito Fort Stonwix 
to &niK>iiniC« tlie fl|i]>i'iK4ch of Ileikliner, hy Oia'm-oort'tt order 
two hundred Mid tift^r men, h&Lf of Now York, half of Mamo^ 
diitaotts, tmdcr Licaicrnaot^'oloncl Marinm VVillettf toado & 
wDj ill the direction of Omko- Tliey jxLMcd tliron^ tlio 
i|Barton of tho Ycrkcra, tho nngcr^ and tho lava^rc^ dnvmg 
beforo iliem whlt^ ajid Indiana, chiefly ai^unwa and cMldroD^ 
etptnring Sit Jolin Johukion'M pnpcrr, five Britiah fliLgt, the 
fitr-rt)tK'« and ti«<w hUnk^m and kittled of tJid IiidiiitiK^ and 
four prlaoneiK J>*arnmg from t)it*rn the cheek to n4>rklnieT-, 
Ihr party of Willctt rotrinicd <|iiickly lo Fort Stanwix, iNmnug 
tlicar flpoUfl on ihuir hhoulderx The five i^itixred colon wero 
displayed under the contincotBl flog; it wu tho iii^t tunc that 
n eaptorcd hannor liad tio&ted under the mArs and atiipes of tho 
rvpihUe. Tlic Indiana were frantto at the loM of their chiofa 
pikl wuTTiorn ; tJioymiffcrod m tho chill nights from the loot of 
their clothe ; md not erezi tho toatiirinx and killing their oap- 
tive< in which ihoy wnni indut^l could pn^Ti^nt thutr hogin- 
aing to rvtom homo. 

Ifeantltue, WDlelt, witli T.ic»U.'nant Stookwdl oa hijt eom* 
puifon. ''bfftii good wi>^Nl«nofi,*' mndft tli«ir way ptft thm 
ladiiui qnartcr, at the hazaird of dcalli by bortut^ and ^t their 



170 AUEBICA IS ALUAlfCE WITH FRANCE. ir-ir.iOLziL 

nqnest Sdmykr charged Arnold ^tb an ejpoditioD to nllo¥0 
tho garruon. Loog beforo iu iipproacli aii IndiaD ran into 
Saiat-Lc^Gr* c&iii|>>, reporting tliat a tliotisAQd mon were eooi* 
is^ af;alji«t tiom; anotb^r followed, dotiblii)^ die tiimibcr; n 
third bnyngLt a nunor tlut tliiv^ tltouaaad miMi were elose al 
baod; And, rtunf to romwKtnLnciv &nd i^ntrtntiu Irotn their 
Hiperintei>iteiit4» and from SuhiX'hf^ff di^ wild wurioia robbed 
Hits BriLiiJi (icTiof-ni uf tiitdr doLlii^s jiliuidrrtil tlw boalfl^aiit) 
Biad« ofF wiUi tBo boo^. 6vnx-Lcgcr in a panki, thot^ At^ 
nold waa oot within fcirtj mile^ liumcd after tbem before 
nigbtftJ], Luaviiig lui tt^utd, artiUcr}, and rtovti^ 

U vaa lIcffldiDor vho ** lirst revetted the g\oonxr aceoe " 
of tli« rtortliem oampaigo. Tbc purc-iiuDded hero of tiio 31^^ 
kawk Tallov' ^'^orrod from ]ove of coiiDtiy, not for roward. 
He did net want a contlnentaj oocamaiMi or money.'' Before 
eoDgnsM hiA dcddud liuw to nunifcut Dietr grathade he died 
<ft hie wovnd; and they decreed Lim n nwrnnnent. Gana^ 
Yoart WIUI remtfdad by a vole of UvuiLa and « couunuid ; Wil- 
Idt, 1>jr pnblic pniM^ and "an degant Kword.'^ 

Tbo einplojmcnt of Indian alUea had fulcd, Tbe king, 
the minitftrr, and, in dne time, die Bridth parhamtntf irere 
infonncd officult^ that tho red men ^^trcoehorooiljr oommittod 
nTa^oa upon thoir friends;" that ^'th^ co«M not be eoo- 
trolled;" that **thoj kilbd thetr captlTei;'* tha£ "^therewai 
infinite difficult to iaanagettaoi;'' t]hat**tboy giwmoreind 
more tmreaioiiable and iinpcTtnnate." When ^ Seneea war- 
riont, retnmmg to thi^r loilgcaif told tho Jitory of tho «langhler 
of their chl^ft, t!iar TiUagn mng with yeVa of r^e and tbe 
hmrla of muciniia'jii. 

Bur^j^e, who od the thirtieth of JqIj- tnMk his hcad-qaar^ 
ten on tho honks of the UndMD, had delachmenta horn Bcrrea- 
tocn cava^ nationi. A Bmosvidc ofiocr d^cribet them ae 
"tan, warUlcc^ and ontcrpriamg, bat ficndiihl; wi«koA^ On 
the third of Augnit thej brought la twen^ acnipa and aa 
manj captivec; and B«;;ojn>» tpptoved Ibeir inconuit ao- 
tlri^. To prevent deaertMoa of aoldi^r^ it ytm azmoimced 
In erderi to caeb tvgiment that the mrage* were enjoined to 
ica]p wwrj nnavay. Tlie Oitswaa bi^nd In go hofne ] but, 
on the fifdi of Auj^e, ButgOfiM took from all hj» ivd warrl* 



ITTT, THE ADVANCE 07 BTTROOTNC FROM CANADA. 171 

on ft pleJgo to ftay tfirc»g1i ihv aanjifttga. On lliu i^ixth he 
n^ported liimseU to Ocn^rnl IFciwe as ^* wetl forwud,'^ *' impa^ 
ticflil to giuii Oh- mmtlb of U»* Thfoluivrk,** biitiint lilc(*1y 1»''W 
in poaKKion of Alb^n^^' before *' the twcmtjr-eccond or the 
tiTOciT-third " of til© month. 

To tSd &]iiiitr]x!g«r hj A dlv^rftic&T &ud fill bia cmmp with 
<]raitght cjkttio, honofi tnd provitioKui from ^LHod nu^uincc 
nt Beiminj^toti. Itm^jne on tbo «1<iTeatb of Anyj^nst sent cut 
4a opodldoQ on t}i« left, oommacd^ hj Baiim, % Bruimrklc 
Uoutcnniit-culonul of dm^nuL, iinti c^uipfMitvl cif moro thnn 
four bondr^ HmnHwirl^vi'^ ITnn.iii iirf-illi^TnfilswTib two pjuidod, 
dio idect rcrjw of Bnil^i uLarkHiiien, a \nrty of Frc?nT4i CanvL* 
diuii^ Ik iDorc itii:itE.-^n>im piLrtj of prorindiil rciyjtli«t«, 4nd a 
borde of about odc hiinclrcd and fifty Indian*. Biiip>7iie in 
hk MgomeM rode after l^nin* and gavo him verbal ordcra to 
march direotlj upon Bennington. After di^poiin^ of tbo 
atone sA that pUre, ho might cioea the Greion UotintaiiKt 
doecend the Connectiont river to Bmttleboronpb, and enter 
Allxiiiy with t•ilSTi^Ii'g^»^ arid lb*> luuin anrtjv Tht» iilgbl of 
ihct tliirtj^arntii^ nniirn pncan^|iod nboDt fonr miles from EVn- 
idugton. on a lull that rbea fnun the WallotviiHAoIi^, ju»t 
within tbo atato of New YorV, ^VTif*n. *?Jtrly on the morning 
ot the foortoenth, a rciconnoitTuig partv of Americans was aoen, 
ho wrote in high spinta for uiorv troops, and ccnatruttod strong 
intTeiKhincnteL Sorfeojixo cent him ordore to mflintmn hi« 
post ; and, at d^t o'dook on tlie ^ftoonth, BfDymann, a Drum- 
wIdE lientonant-ootond, wUh two Bmnvwiok battalions and 
two cannon, marebodf in a constant rain, throttgb tliicl: woodi^ 
teUisnppoTt 

Hie k-gUIultin? <if Tfi-w KLiiii|w}]irT\ in tlte tii!d<!1e of Jnly^ 
rtocelTinj^ thet nipptioKloi7 lptt«<r frotn Vomtoatt promptly n>- 
aolvfid to o(H3perato *'wi£h the troops of the neir atat«," and 
ordenxl Stork, with a brigade of miLitU, '' to *top the progrc« 
of die enemy 00 thi^ woetem frontior." Upruini; at tlie call, 
the nun of Mow Hampahiro flow to \m standard, which bo aet 
Qp at CharlostowD, on tbo Connecticnt riv«r. Scbnjlor ordorcd 
Iben to Join bi« retreadn)^ army, and^ bccanae the7ebow to 
Mhw ilieir own wlac plana, Schuyler hrouglit npon Suak tlie 
eeBsnra of ooognA for dlaob^ienccL But th^ upright hero, 



AUEBICA VS ALLLUiCE WITH FEA5CX Kr.iT.:ciL 



cooiolting-intb 8etb Wuncr cf V^nnoiiC, taadt hi« Ui 
etk tbo fomteenth of Augvet at tbo dirtanco of ft naUt iromx tlie 
pceC of Bftom, to wbfmi be vvnlv offered tuttla. The reptncnt 
of WuTL^ Cftme dovn from Uu>cbeiter dsHoj^ ihe raJn of 
Oio 5ft«0Qth ; ukI tioofw uriv^d ftom the tre^emmwt eoantf 
of MwB»GhaaettA. 

HTfam tlir fun nwe on die nxtrx^irth, Stark anMxirtnl viUi 
his offioen the pUn for the daj. Bms^ Beciig onD bft»b of 
nMD, in Ahirt-doercfl and canjio^ fowlmg-|»eoee withool Imjt^ 
nclif rtnl Uibiwl bit «ftmp, mistook them for friecdlj cmaxtrj 
pecqple pbcng themsolTOt wh«ro bo could protect tb«m; tod 
•0 five bnodnd meo under Nichols «iid Hemok united in his 
rur» WhSlo hb ftCCentlon wu atTG«t«d h/ a foiiit, tvro hon- 
dred tDor^ postod thnnMlTW oa hi« n^t ; ind 6cark^ with 
nro or three hundred, took the front. At llipw* uVlodc Bsum 
wu iteckgd on evtr}- ijdc. Tho Indiaiui djviicd hctwivn twv 
dftonlmimtq tod ficd. kftruip their gimd chirf and othex TO^ 
rion lifelees on the Geld. Sc-k KogUnd 6hftrp«hoot«» rma up 
within eight rv^ of tho loftdod cannon, to pick oS the <Mt^ 
Doooon. WbeDtftftorfiboitt two hotm, tbo firing of the Bnm^ 
vicken £bd:ei>ed from eeucitjr ol powder, tbo 
icaled the bru^work and fon^t them hand to fand. 
orderad liu infimrv with tbo bftjoiwit Ui dngoona vttb tMr 
nhroa, lo funv a wbv ; hot En the attempt be Id) murtaH; 
WDondnlf anil hi» vriimui inxvpi HirTvndi*mL 

Jwt then the battaUooa of Brejniaiui, haring takca lUrtf 
hoam to march twenty-four naltt^nanw in d(^iL Warner now 
fiivt hfOQght np bis rcgttnciit, of one hundred and fiftf ben, 
intoactioQ; indwithtbcdrakl Stark bogMianowattMl^Bring- 
thc eanDOD juft taken. The fip^bt ti^Ecd tHI eimMt, when Brej- 
attMi, ihandoBJne bia aitiPiy and pwtt of hKcwoudadnea, 
otdnndaMnat Itepvniutoiwtlvtiadtilla^fat; tboaowfao 
cacqwd owed thdr ntviy to the darkiK^o. During duo d^f 
len cbm thir^ of tbo Anvrwam wra kiDed, and ahoot fortj 
wne wonnded ; dm Ion of tMr enootj wna ortiinaled al fall 
twioe af manv, heakka at Icael ttX bflttdtvl and &u>rty-two 
yrieonent of wbocD more than four handred wen Gtrmana. 

TUi yiacrft one of tbo moel brilBant and o^wtfal of tba 
war, wia aduered ipontattcooijr bj Um Ifbiwluiui of Xow 



17TT. THB A0VA5CK OF BCKGOTNE FROM OAKADA- X73 

Hompftliirc, Temiont, and weiEtora Ma«achii«ett& Stork only 
confines th« n>|>ortj; of Hc««iaii officcnwh^ he writes: '^Had 
ottr people been AJ^umders or Cbarlecea of SvodeEi, they 
coulil rail liavu lnOMVt-<I lii^fnr.'' 

At iho ncwB of Brv\viriuijn*« rotrciatf Bur^yiiG ordered Ills 
zxmy under arma; and at titc head of tlie fortyiMsvpiitl] rc^* 
mcQ% lie forded Uie BnUcnkilT, to meet the iroam-out Cagittvce. 
Tbo loM of troops wtu iircpckrablc^ Omodiana and Indiana 
of tlie reotolcr uaticnB began to bare in difigiut. For eup- 
pbot, Bargoynti viw thrcm'ii Ixich npgn shipments from Stog- 
IsDcl, painfully forwarded from Qoebec by way of Lake Cluim- 
pUln &nd Lake George to the Hudaon river. Before ho 
miiM miirvii forwATrl hn iixuaij with wiinll mrjim of tmu?porta- 
tioii, tjTing to^liter fl|j:>roA for thirty <iay^ and drag nearly two 
hundred boalti over tvro lijng cjLrrying-]>lAceei. 

On the ^t of Augaeb cnngrc-^s relieved Sdinyler tzom 
oommaiui by a voto to which there was no negative ; and oii tlio 
fonith eleven ^ntca elected OaitA liis anoceaaor- Before G^tca 
AsniDOd thu coRunand, Fort 8t,'mwix W3& safe and the victory 
of BeiuU]ip:ton oohlev^ ; y4>t oonffi^ees Lo^tCLcd to vote liiin ail 
th^ pow^r« find aU the old which Schiiyli^r in h.l$ moodi; of do- 
ipondc^^ had cnm-ntod. Touched by th^ Hd^^id^ fippeala of 
WaflhingtoD, tLf^Hsaiidn of !]i*i nn-u of MaruacliimcttH, t»v*iii (nmi 
Quo counties «f Middli'wrx and K*«»rv, were m motion t^-ward 
Santoga. (kaigxem, ovemdiug WajJtingtou's advice^ gave 
Sc^ttyler'fi moeetoor plenar}- power to moke further re^ium- 
tiont for militia on Xeir York, Now Jc»cy, and FcDOiyt 
vonia. Wafibinf^on had c^uUcd from his croope tivo bimdrcd 
riflenKOt, and foraKid them under Kor^giui into a butter oorpa of 
■kinrnfihors than had ever been attached to an army even in 
Euope ; con^^e^ directed thtm to l>o forthwidi aent to aaaUt 
GaM ^ainit t}iu rridiniit! ; iLiid WuHliington ol>cycd fto protn]>t- 
Ij tfast the order might aeem to liavtf been artti7i]wto>d. 

Am for HdmybT, hr prfilTi-red Ijih *4'rvi<H?ft tu the gt-ni^ral hy 
whom ho vu KipcrK:dod, ht^rtlly viihod bim «accc««> and soon 
loomed Ut *^ jnittUy C0Dgre» for depriving him of tlie couuiuuid, 
convinced that it was their duty to Kicnfico the fecJings of nn 
{DdiridExal to the aofety of the frlato when the people who only 
ocraJd di-fcnd the country refiued to eerve ondor him.** 




m AMERJCi. or ALLUlSCE TITH FBASCE. sr.tr.; 



CHAPTER XHL 



PBDGftESS OF l^ne THJ-IAM BOWK AJIB BTSGOrVK 

Jn-T-Ocnma 90, 1777, 

A ootTT araec vheQwr WiiUiigton retaiaod inUioriljr<nw 
UifiBQwchi^ (>f UwiiortberDdeptttaNaitillflanfPaaidedind 
tkit "tfacj DCTcr intancM to ■ ttf O tt afe or diwawwrribe U» 
poiwer;" biit,£(oin«s«»viffiipmetQ«ottfiiBtbdrowiiaiift- 
OlcAi, fraa the pride of unkorit^ Aod jeiJoovf of U« « 
p op ihri ^, Uw^ sU^tfcd bk mMm and ncg^eeud fak 
Tlwy nnoddlad th» cvmnuavrj dc pai t m a i* i> lfa« 
of iIh! rampa^ on % ^yttam vliidi no com p ttenl m^ mnU 
■■dsrtake Co eaecnto. ViifaingloQ, ibrhrvg br as ■nqj, 
nisod ud oSocsM bj Idg united otatM^ *^ nsod wftty nsttBi 
in Jiii power to doatfojr >tate diolinotloD to it, wa3 to hare 
rrtt7 part ud paotl of it eooiidcfvd w ooota 
nMTO and nww icMrrod to the aMm tto ncnttif of 
uid tbo AppaintmcBt q£ all hit Moont oAotc^ Politittl asd 
panonu eovwhntioDB coBtraQpa tho nooioBDott of 
and wtt^^iMi ImuJ not T%ar aooo^ to ^op ibe 
**Tlie wmriw M B wru^k* frir nnk,'* and tW 

pTCfi to fattagtt adrondom oi extnva^ttt 
ondo dtbwrmt **a Jmt u praaa rta flo n id m gwat 
A natfliii^ " ffarit nf reforaatioD " wai at fint «qul)jnadi^ 
ohbh; Kalb and I^fijacta^ amriiv ak nil^^kk n«r tba 
ondofJnlr.nMtwiataMpAa. Tba k w» taU tkat W 
iajado d«±tod ao mora than beat« to tU ha* H£i in tbo ov«» 
of Ibart^ vitbont pvaka or aBoVBoi^ oo^wa fBva Ub te 
garic of majci ganilial, a^l WwMinHw laeahwd Ite too hfa 
famaj; bvt at fint tlw cbim ctf Ki2b wm np^K«rd 



ITJT, 



HOWE ENTERS PHlLADEUmA. 



175 



I 



On the fifth of July, rjt'in;™] H<iw<?, I«a^"liig lucire Utui 
Bm-cti wgiiiv:nif in Rh/ido Mniid, and atxiiit six tlimiHind m^n 
ttad&r Bit Ilmr^ CUntoa at h'ew York, begaa to eoibark Uie 
mAjn body of hu arnij f»r & joint cxpDclitioa Tritb tho lund 
fovce agninat Philodclpliia. The troops, alike foot and ciiTalryt 
were kept wiudn^ on ehipboard till tho twout^-lMrd. Tho 
fleet erf ncnrlj thtco liundroJ »[uJ Hpont saven dayA ia beating 
fiom Sandy Hook to the ^apofi of Oolawore. Fiudinff tlia 
Delawuo river olwtracted, It aieered for the ChoeapeiJca, luboN 
ii^ i|;aijwt llid ftcmrJu-rly viiultt of tliQ ecMtson, Angnst W2A 
hilf gono vrhpn it (iiriMtd Capt- Chark*; Hitdon the twetJty'Sfth, 
after ft Toy^« of thirt^-thft« daj-A,il utichonsd lu Elk rlv<'r,nlx 
fuiloa heloT Elklowii And flfty-four milco from Fbikdclphia. 

ExprCBEicg tbo Bti'ange rosi»3iihi$ and opmioua of luauy 
oi hia eoJlea^aoa, Jolm Adanu, tho head of ihc board of vna, 
could write : ^ Vi'o ahoU nkc «&d Bcrapc cuongh to do Uowo'a 
boaineea; tho contiiWEila] trmy uudL-r AVanhuL^^on i^ more 
num^roiis by tavcrol thousftDdft thcui JIowo'« wliolo force; tho 
eii>eniy giro ont that thoy are eifi^hteon thoismii atrong, biaC 
n-ti kuovr better, md that thoy haT« not ten tfaouflackd. Woib* 
tngtoD Ik vcTy pnident ; 1 Kbould pnt mom t» nxk, wirro T in 
faliilioea; I am «ii-V of Fjihiari Hjuttfiiia. M_> Un\t<l ia,a«hort 
ftod Tiolvnt war.** Now at tlmt tinio ihc army uf Howo, apait 
from the corpe of cDf^oecrs, couDted, at tho Joweet stAtotucctd, 
ftOTCDteeD thoQBand one bmidred and eixty-wven toeo, with 
officen atnocntrair ^ o^*^ ^^ ^ muiy morOf all «oldio» by 
proftfrioD and pcrfeotly oqnippod. 

Oongrow gavo itfa^If tho air ^f ciHciency by caBing out tha 
militift of Uai^'lanit, I)v<laKaro, P^DBBf Ivania^ and Xow Jonoy ; 
but Kev Jorwy bad to vaCdi the fon^o on the llndsan ; tho 
■liT«lioMani on thu Uaryland (sactjera alinm kind In the Arjiilhm 
toanty of Delaware were dtsnlFoeted ; tlie PeiLm^Irnnia irulitta 
with VutJaiiglon did mit kicmuI 1wt*Ivq Iiuudrcd men, and 
oevvr iocnaaod beyond t%'cDt>-'liTO hiindrtd. 

On tb« twcDty-fourth of Augtut, ^VaolunfrtcD led tho cou- 
tuMfital army, dccontod wntli epraya of green, tlirongh tho 
crowded Btroota of riiiladclphia; tlio r\Qxi day ho reached >Vit- 
mington juat aa the British anchor^ in the Ok with the pnr- 
pooo of maicbing opon Fhiladolphia by an eoity Libtnd route 




lie AMERICA IX ALLIANCE TITn FEASOE. w, tr. ; «b- xra, 

tbnmgh an cpen country vlilob Ii4i] iu> difficult ^jwaot, no 
nTCTvlmi fi^nLiMr oikvj uu] wu inhabited cbiofly bj- royaliita 
Qu^cr^ WTiflU SuUiTao, wlio bail }^t ]aU. two liuittlral 

the very b^t meu iu a Mcntdcn^i cxpodHioQ to SbUcD Mnd, 
brought up liifl divisioQ, tho American ai-my, which ftdranccd 
to tho tiigbkDds hcTO&d 'Wilmic^on, vaa not moro than l«lf 
as cuincroQs aa Uid British; but Hovro, frotn the wmIo of 
hoiyet en hU Long vojag^^ wac compellod to wtit tiU 
conld bo provided. 

Oil tie ibird of Se|>t*N]l>er ibt^ two <livi«ioi» under CofnT 
vralliA 3iid Kti^vpliaiiu^-Ei hngnn thii nuirrh toward Philadel- 
phia ; Maxwell aad the liglit troops coToposed of dnfca ni 
one bmidn^d m«n froui tadi brigade, occupied Iron IJill, And» 
after A *lkarp fJcinriiAh iit tlio woodn with a Ix^dy of i^tcrman 
yn^re and ligbt iufn&try, withdrew dowly oud in perfect eva- 
der. For two days longor Howo waited, to prondo for hif 
Vk'oumli,^ iiic>u in tho LotEpltal-«hip of tho ftoct, and purduw 
etill more in«ui« of tntneportation. Four milm from liim^ 
WastUiL^n took |Ki«t bt^liind K^l Clay «reet^ and ii»vii«d an 
attack. i)n tlw i-igblli^ Tli^wif Aritt a wtrang cxihtmu in front of 
tho Americmu to fc%n an attack, while Ua main amiy halted 
at UUltowQ. The l^tidh and Gemkanfl went to rett in full 
ooofidcnov of fuming Winfthington** right on the morrow, and 
cnttinif liim oQ from the rood to Lanautor. But Washin^on 
had diviui^d thiMi pur]>odo, and, bj a nastci'ly and really »ocrv% 
nMTXHDontf took po«t on tho high ground* alx^ve Chod'n ford 
on the north aide of the Drandy^tinc, dirc<ct1y in Ilowtf*« path. 

TIm- Uigy^ffi of dit* unnv whh &eiit forward Ui Chewier, A 
bfttt^ry of c;inTuin v^-itli a gi^xl |iara]ii.-t gLiarded iIil' ford, Tha 
Aiiibriiuui hrft, ftvt.iiij^ on a tliic^kf continuoofl forest ^ong the 
Bmndywine^ wliich Mav Cbid'tt ford Iteoomce a rj^pii, encom^ 
bered by rocks and shut in bj irrupt high binLs, wha fnffi, 
cioutlj dcfundod by Anuatrong and tho Ponnfiylvania militia 
On ttio right tho river wm bidden by thick woode and tbo 
ncwTemues of tho country' ; to Sntlivan waa assigned tbo duty 
of taldng *^ evGij ponrainrj pnwaudon fur tho iMMmrlty of that 
Hank;" nnd tho «i brigadea of hi!< mmiuaiwi.mwJ^ling of ih« 
diviiiona of Stirling, of SUaphoD, aud hii ovm, went e4«Uijuod 
In tididonjt along tlie riven 



DOTE ENTERa FIULADELPmA. 



liT 



IVEIIJ 



On th9 twilli (Iio two iliv!«ioti« of ito BritUh, h<\ n-jqiecl- 
ively bv KoypIiaLiBen and ComTjUUi, formed a jtinction at 

ii«t SqQftre. At ^rt the ne^A moroicg more tlian hoJf 
ci llowc'9 forces IcftTiJig thoir bnggngo even to their kntij*- 
udB beluad tliem, md lod tj trusty i^uidce. Diarchoij uudor 
tho goiQtnl Aiid Corcwtllis up tli« Gr*»it Yidloj road Co crow 
tbe Bnnijjwiiio at ite forks. About ton o*eloclc KnrpTjAiD^nn 
witfe hU cohinin^ couiing m^on ihe river at Chad's ford, seren 
milttt lower duwii, liuJted iuid lie^n u loiig ^nitiiOTiiulK, luuxiU 
f**ling tio piirpoMTfif forcing tlie pnstngv^, Wa*luDgton had 
'^crrrtAin'* mfomi&doii of tb« movement i>f Howe, and re- 
tolrcd to strike At once &t tlio dtrL-iton in hw front, 'vrlncli wba 
loMiUum boJf of the iiritish army* and vae citcn]mt>ered with 
tbe befgagi) of tho wliob. As Wadhin^on rode up ncd down 
hb UiMt tbo iLout* of lii« moil wiiue<wod tholr 0OQfid<*Tio&, ftnd 
M b* ^lc9 to tlhem in clio^itg wordi thoy clamored for liat- 
dei Sending ordera to ^nlllvan to cross the Brandvwine at a 
higlier fanl, pruvcDt thu htutty n;tuni id tlie Ikk7j with Huwu 
bihI ComtE'allJs, and threateD tfio hit Hank of Rnypbaiis^, 
Wulur^j^ton piil hsa troops in mutitin. Graene with the !w3- 
tUKO wu ftt tbo rivcrV edge And nboiit to he^n tho flttackt 
vlion ameesago came from Sullivui annotmcing that he had 
diMtejed U* ordun, thnt tire '' iuformatioQ ou whioh theso 
oidon wore fonndod rausit ho v^toh^** 

Th* ittfoniiation on which they rerted ^ae predBel; eop- 
net; hut thv fuihireof SnlUvan overthrew the dMign, wluc}i 
for roooMB reqnirod «vtftnou of exocnition. After tho )om of 
two honn. woid was broiiglit ihikt the division of CamwaJlIa 
hid pniwnl the fnrVs ami wm rnming dciwn vHtli tlm ml^int to 
turn the Atoerican right. On the instant Sultir^ was orderod 
to confront the adrjince. Ix^nl Stirling &nd SU-plji^ri jKMted 
IbeEr troofw in two lines on « ronndcd cinJocnce iiouthwcrt of 
Birminjcham meetin^hois^ while Snlhraii, who ehonld have 
gove u> their ri^t^ marched hU di7i«icn be/ond tlieir extreme 
bft, iMvinf^ a gap of a hnlf-mil^ betwBon ditm^ 00 that he 
ooold render no »erric9, and was exposed to be cnl oflL Tho 
gvionl officvm, whom he ''rodt^ on to conKidt," explained to 
him that tlis ri^ht of hu wing wai unprotected- Upon thia, 
he begin tu luandi bin division lo hiA jimper plftoH. Tlie Brib- 




]7d AMEBICA IK ALUASCE WITH FRASCE, O-.tr,; <«. Ml, 



fell troops which behold tbid movement oa thoy lay %t rest for 
a iuH UoQT of tor their loag nureb in the hot day, wen M to 
tli<» fLttnch bufonf }\o coulJ form IJii lirio. IIim dhicion^ badly 
ooaducted, tieij witliont their artillery^ and ^^ould not be relied. 
Their fU^t BxpcNwd ilie fl^nk i>f StlrHtig and Stej>h£<ii. Tlion 
twu diviKionii, only Iialf da uitinrriinM m tbi^r w«Ailan1i<t ui £j>]te 
of the "nnofiicerlikc behavior" of tftophcn, fought in good 
cftnterit, lUiing tht^ir artillery from & distAnce^ thalr muMkc-tft 
only when their enemy vraa witliin forty pacts;; biit nndcr tho 
obaigD oE cho IJcmiMis and Britifih ^nodJefB, vbo tI^mI with 
eAoh other iu fury as thvy ran fom^ud with the bayoDot, tho 
AmvHcwi liiui ooutiru^Kl t^ hroiilc from tho riji^ht* Co&wiy^ 
brigade vwi&tc^i w^ll; Sullivan sbowied personal coorage; L^ 
ftLj^ti^ preAent aa a volunteer, Uiough wuundvid in tho leg 
whili? raltyiDg tlu^ fugitives briiLtid up thf; wouiitl an ho conld, 
tmd Wpt the field till tlie doeo of iitQ latUo. The tliird Tir- 
giuia n^nient, commanded by Kiinibftll md fltmtioodd aput ia 
A wood, held oat till both ita flonkB wcro tamed &nd h&if iCft 
officore and one third ita mon were kiUcd or wotmdcd. 

EIowu wcint^ likely to got in tho rcnr of tho coatineDtal 
army and <?omplete it» ovi^rthix^w. ltiit,at the aound of the 
cannon on ih« right, ~WaHlungt<><i? CAkli^ with him Gnrccoe and 
tfa« two hrig«3«c of HttblonbnTg and Weodon, which lay near- 
e«t rhe dceTie r:if n^rttoii, moved swiftly to tho sup|fort of tho 
wing thnt liju1 lKH<n C(iTiiid«Kl tu Sullivan, and hi Nl)ont forty 
mlnutofi met them in full retreat- IIU approach checked tho 
pontiiL <'!autJDUAly making a new arr&ngemcait of hk forces 
Howe again pmhod forward, diiriag tho party with Qreeno 
till ihity came upon a strong pocation, choMn by Washington, 
which completely oommonddd tho road, and whioh a rofrim^nt 
of Virginifliu under Stovcni and another of P^uuylvoiuiiii 
nnder Stewart wer« able to hold till nightfall 

In the ht^t uf tlic exigBgen>ent the divUion witli KnypbMW 
een crDfleed the Bmndywinn in out* btaly nt Clutrx fottl. Th9 
Itrft wing uf this Anjtricans, nndcr the command of Wayne, 
defended ihoir iotrrnehmenta a^funat an attadc in frunl ; bat 
wlen. near the close of the dAv, a auong detachment threat- 
ened tlicir rvar, thoy mode a wcll-cjdcn>d retreat, and w«n bflt 
piuvuodi 



I 






HOWE ENTERS PHaADULf HIA, 



\19 



Ii^btwiu folllDg, nlten ivto Imttalioni of British ^t^ 
dien HDCkf ^£>sulcw ind l^fouo-ktoo tvovit^mI orders to occ^npj 
a ciikAcr of hooiofl on & liill b?y<:mi) Dilworth. Tb^ marcbed 
csretnnly, tlir (•tTc^nw with eUexilLf-d HwonK At. fifty pa'^iv 
from the firet houpq; Uieiy wen; nuqirinod hy a. <i<*dlj^ fire from 
Jfjkxwcll'fi corps, which lay in ftmboah to corer the American 
rotrcAt The Brituli ofliwrfl acut for help, ?jtil were iKrJirly 
routed before Ucncrul Agncv ooiitd hriog relief. Tho Amtri- 
oiDfl Ukq withdraw, and daricnc^e ondod tho ooot^t* 

At midnight, ^a^nffton ixom Qh^Uii twizod th« firet 
tnotnont of rcupito to rff|K)rt t^i c*cngT\s« liii} ckfcatf making HiO 
ttiGiiie^ owtiiig blame on no one^ tn^t even allnding to the dift- 
parity (if fnm^s hitL dimhig wiOi i^bit^riiij^ wnnlit, Hik kwi^ 
In hillod^ woundtxlf aitd iinwinci^ wi^ix* 3Ix>q£ one thonsaDd, 
\ett ntber than more Except the severely wouiideil, fuw 
p riwocra were Ulcen. A hovitxer nnd ten cannon, among 
them two Uc»^iAn licld pieces captured at Trcnion, were left 
on tlw field. S«T&ral of tbo Fr^noh offioora behaved with grcut 
gtiUnby: MAudutt DuplciMu; Lewin do Flcnij, whoAo hor^o 
wii Bhot tmder him nnd who^e tnorit con^re^ reeop:niBed by 
TOt«; Liiajette, of vhom Wa^ngton iold to tli« t:nr^a: 
" Take care of him h* thniigh hii were my son.*' l^daakl tlid 
Polo, who 'in tiAi duy tdiuweil the duHrig uf lulvc^niro rftthor 
tlvui the i^nnlitiEs of a oonrniHtidK^r, wad c!reated a bHf^adJer of 
omdry. 

The lo» of the BntUh army in killed and wonuded wafi at 
Inai iiTC hnndji-d and aeTeaty-nlno, of whom flfly-trtgl^t wure 
offlcset^ Of tbo llc«0ian oHieiirrffn Kwuld and Wrcdcu rccoired 
hvm the elector a military order, llowo showed hia usnal 
CoOfBge xuvicr tiro ; but nightfall, Cbe want of eavalry, and th« 
eaoreme fiti^a of hi« army, forliadtr pni^nii. 

Wh<ai congrecfi h«ard of the defeat at the Bnndywme^ it 
diroctcd Pnlnani to iviml Rftwfi himdrLvl continenta} troojii 
to die eonTmajid«3%in-r'}iii.*f wiUi all pf^wbU i.^xpi^litinn, tmd 
nmnnuned eonilueotul truoje and milidn frum Maryland aad 
Tii|;nua. Thn ntttita of New Jvnwy wcrts ki^pt at home hy 
a triple raid of Sir Ilcnrj Clmton, Tho aawnibly of Penn- 
i^trvuMt rent by faction, «boee this raoraent to (!haDgo nearly 
all iti ddcgatoa la ooi^;re«L The people don^ IIowdV rrate, 



180 AMERICA IS ALUAXOE WITH FRANCE, v.tT,;cn.tm. 



boiDg liLTguty QiulIcotk, wcro fnonclly or paceivtt. Negro i^v«i 
pnij«fd for Ilk success, hoping 'Mhat^ if tlie Briliali power 
nlHmM be viotoniiU.^ nil Oii? iic^ra Jjives wtiulil t)ecuiiiA free." 

Wafltkgton, who bad marched fiom Chester to Qcnmii- 
town, after b&Wug mppliod bia men vnth pronedou tnd £ortr 
rociiijA of cartrid^ee, recroiaed tbo Sckaylkill to confront oooa 
moro tlio army of Howo, wbo bad boon dotaiDod ooor tbo 
BriDdywiiif^ t^ be could eetid bis vounded to WOmingtoiL 
Tbu tu-o ehi^fd marcbed toiraid Ooftbeit. On the abtt^ectL, 
Douop utd liift jagon, who pr wrod forward too npUly, were 
eoconDtered bjr Wayne ; but, before tbe battle became genaral, 
a ftinoun ntlii twl ui, wliicb otxitt^iittid a}\ this itext ui^t ; and 
tbe Amcricati army, a^ bom the poor iinality of tbeir accott- 
tnonents, tbeir caitridgee wore dicnchod, vrere obbged to rv- 
tiro to rvpluniab tbear anuntmiCioQ. 

It vaa Dcxt tbo purpon of tbo Erituh to torn 'VTaibli^ 
ton^e rigUt, eo aa to ibut hun up between tbe rirera; bvt te 
took ean to bold tbo roadi to tbo Kmth ai well m to tbo nortb 
and w«tf: Late on tbo oightoontli Alrxandor namiltoit, wbo 
was orderod Co Tblladelpbuh to secure milltaiy aiores, gan 
oOBgraM nodoFi uf imituHlmti^ dangrr; and !ta nMmbcm, fc^w 
in DiUDber» fled m the night to mett at lAocatter. 

VboD, on tbe niiiete«ntb, the AnMcioan army paaud 
tlirOQgh the Sclmylkill at ParkeKn ford, Wajno wn5 left with 
a largo body of tro^M to fall t)poa any detached pvty of 
Howv'a aimj. On tbo ni^ ioUowing tbo twentiftb, jsat m 
ho bod oftUod up bia mm Co nuke a jnactioQ with aiiotbar 
Americaa party, Majof'^Oeooial Grey of the Britieb army, with 
Ibrot t^bnoiti, br^ In upon Ibn by nrptin, audf mdng 
the bayonet anly^ ktUed, wovodad, or took at Imtt tbne bntt- 
divd. IWlcTWM and Wayne^ ppeet tte a of mind mvW hk 
cannon and the n»t of Ida troc^ 

The Lsaa opeMd tb« way to FUhMpfak John Adam, 
tbo hcftd of tbe board of war, binwd WaiAagtoii without i^Dt 
for banncetotted to tfaaoMltfkiUaof OoSc^IkiU: *^U 
be bad Bent one brigade of hie ngnlai- troopa to baTv beaded 
tbo milttia, be mi^t bavo eol to piaeee Bow«^a anny In av 
tempting to croee any of tbe fonia How* wHl wvt for bii 
fieet in Delaware riTV. Heavw ^[tant oa one great aoolt 



I 
I 



" 




BOTE ENTERS PHTLADELPmA. 



I Ivtding niind would oxtr^fuite tbe licut amnc fn»n Hm 
wliich MXTin^ to AWiiit it.-" 

Wliilo John Ailaiub waawriiiuj. IIow*e ituivh] down tin? 
and cnciun{>cd dciig ttii: Sc-linj'lkil] fr»m Vqllt?}: Forge 

Tioich ercck. There were matij" fords on the tftpid rixcr, 
which iu tho&e daya flowed at ite will. On tbo twenty-sooond 
a MDMill partir of Ho^iv'^ ivrniy forced tho puAOiigo ut Gordon'i 
ford. Tho foI1<JH'ing m^\A and uiontinif Cbc« main body of 
the British army crossed at Fatlaiid ford noar YalWy For^ 
and enaaxDped witli Ite Mi (o tlie St^hu^lktll. Ctingn*« dii;- 
guKflid iU ]m|Hiti<iic-r! 1>y VLiLirig AViiKliinglou [Kjurr to cliange 
officera ludvr brigadiers, and by invjtlng him to eujiijuii hln 
annj upon the coantij antuiid Iiim. He could not by swift 
nuichcA bang on hx« enoin/ 1 rciir> for moro than a tbcusuK^ 
of hifl DMD wcro borofoot. liejoinod by Wayne, and Btrongth- 
cnod by & thoiuond Murylimdcrn uadcr Smaltvrood, he acnt n 
pttctupcory order to I^itna,m. who wab ^Idly pLmainf- attocka 
on Suion Igbuid, Pauliu Hook, Ne^v York, and Long Liuji<], 
to forward a delachment of t^-^nty-firo hundred m«n "with 
tbo I&»t pueblo delay/* and to druw hia remaining forces to- 
gntli^r. m tb.it wttli aid frrtm i]w miHiiK itf Krw York tm] 
ConneKiciit ^ the pasaea in tlie Qigblajida nif^ht be |>erfectly 
acGtjru." TT*.^ re^puvCcd Ontcvt to nsturn Uteoorpof Mof^i, 
being resolved, if he conld hat be ecfoudcd, to force the aimy 

Hotre to rvtrtot or capitulate befora winter. 

On tbo twi-ntr-fifch that army cncamp<,'d at Gcrnaantown; 

d the next morning CornwaUIf^ vrith tho fri^iudiera, after 

dayf had beion con^nmud in a march of fifty-four mtleay 

riiitadclphio. But it was too lato for Howe to aoud 

Cd Bnr{(oyii«. 

On tlio uiiiotoonth of Aticpi^t, Gatofl ibBj^rmit^] tlic oomntand 

the QortbL'm army. whiL-h ky iiiTks milo4 alxivo Athany^ 
iMar tlui luotitba at tim Mci]k;iwV Afl^r liie tii^tum of thd 
batudiond with Arnold and the airival of tho corps of Uoi^ 
pti, Lia oontineiLtAl Iroopi, apart from oontiuental aoexmaoB 
of nailitia* OQitxnnnb«rcd tho British and Qorman rcgolflta 
whoin he wae to mocl. Artillery and email anna from Knaco 
wrivod at PoTl8m</iith, Now Ilanipabiro; and Not York 
oat ita rtaourcM with oxluuuftiro putrjotbm. 




uf 



19S jLU£B1CA IK AUJA5<^ wrm FK4NXE. sp.m;aLxm, 



The nr ol Amcricft wu & vnr of idcM inoto thu of 
tonal pow«*r. On the niDth oi September, Jiy, tke fint dikC 
jmtm <^ tbe ii«w coiiunoair«ftlth of New Yori^ ■« be Ofi«Md 
iti Miprane ttrart in Klngstoii, ehtrged the gn&djvf fin than 
Tortb : " Free, mSiif and eqml gctwtame&t bogiu ti> rit& 
I>in»e PraTbdeDce has loade the tjr^nnj at prtneca fautni- 
fM*it»l in Imakicitf the rj^alnp uf ihear iabieetL Wlio^rer 
oom|«it« OBT pTMcai with our fovnor ootwtitetioci iriU edndt 
thai «II the caluniticA i&cidcol to this war will be isD|iljr c(h» 
fffMilrft bj Um I1MD7 Ueeeiti^ fiowing froa thk ^oriova 
itvohrtiati- Thirteen eolookft imakedbtd j heeoiXM ooe peo- 
pfe^ end tBuaiaaonflj d«t«niuDe to be tno. The pca|teol flna 
ttate heve cboee« diedr eoortitiitiaQ mder the gnldanee of 
inewn end cxperirooe. The b(g1w«t reepeot hei Wn paU to 
tiioea gnat and fiqul righUof KuoLiiiafltara whadi^ioaldtev 
eira* roauiu iaviolate in eroijr aocwt;^- ^*>tt ^"^ Imow no 
power but faeh aa jon eieale, bo kwe Utt a&ch oa wqdre al 
Adr oUigatkn from jonr oooaeiiC. Tbe rigliti of oooKkboe 
aikd prrraae j«4K>neBt are bj Bitvn aabjeet lonoooatrol bvt 
that o( the JMt^.** 

Giteir after tmotj daj« of pitpentSon, dot«3 hifi ann; 
10 Stflhraaer, aad oa the mlfth of Si p ttnber ^e iped m 
Blfaraa^a He^^ a ^r of hllk jol^ <kiI nvHj to the 
Hvten, whi«^ KoacinaKko bad laleotad aa the gruHoJ oe 
iMA ihetr CDeaij «« to be waited for. The am/ oanBiad 
nDetbowaDd efbcd^ov, eager for actioik 

For the vmy of ^ugojM a hiadfed and eigh^ boiii 
vcre hanlod br Ida jrs ol hoieee era the two pottagea hotweea 
Ldn OcofBt and the river aft Sanaoga, end Ueo with pm- 
vhtea for one aMVth. Thncalltig in all hia mestkegsra 
Dp hii eonpeedoiMv and with le» thaA dz ihoa^ad nnk aftd 
file he proeeeded tonM A3bmy- Ott the thirtith Ua araj 
BDai^ the Hoiboo at Sdu^WvOb hj a bridga «< boM*, nd 
MWiti|ad within nx mBfli of the ABencMi anay . 

At once linoob, cenTJsg oat a pha«i«certari with G«lei^ 
sent nvn lueaHMlff btv If adug SfM tivape withcnt artu* 
IeiT,iiDder OiottJJehaBwamef HiiwabMHama^aM 
tb Britiflh m Iheirntf. U the aHfaaf t«i^ht «{ Ae 
i%liriniilh Bkowa iiaipriaed ite MtfeM rf TkaaAnfiw io 



ITTTi 



BUEtQOYNFS 0QILRSia>ER. 



188 




udiD^ Mcntnt Defiance ; and, with the icm of not mora than 
nine IdUed and wounded, be tot froc oiic; Lundrcd AmcHcMi 
pT^ODon, captorcd ianr compaziicd of r«g:tilrLrfl tvntl others wlio 
guarded tbe eiow portap« between Lake Ch&nipl&jn &nd Lako 
Quarf^ En all two hundred uud uiiietv-tbrco men with unni 
and Ave cnunrtn^ and (l<>^tTiijr<!4! ui SLrniod tltinp, guul)natl^ And 
oUlier hoflls t-i iKe nnmbf-r of one hcindivd and iUty Wow 
ttifi fiilb of Tjiku (teiir^, nnd GUy iiTH>ve thi*[tf. 

Tho Pritijih u-my, nfnpping to rebuild bridges and ropair 
adraacod Acarcelj four miles in aa luany daya Tho 
4^ the well-«Jioaon camp of the AmoriconA tondicd tho 
od»on A&d could not bo umuicd ; their left wait a high hdgo 
cf hilb ; thou" Itrw wfto prol^t^ \>y a brc<B.ttvork. To get 
forward, Burgoyno masi dislodge them, IXia army moved on 
the nhurUNmtb, an on forirKT dii^-ti, in thn^^ eoluinQic: t1io artil- 
lery, protpeftirl hj^ Kicdoi^l attid BnitiPwi*^lt tnmjui, tmk t,}i© 
poad ihrfliijfh (he uitadoua ictiw Ihu rivtr ; ihtt jpuieml M Lha 
centro ic^roM a d«M^p niriDc t/> n field on Trocm-w^fi form; 
while Fnecr. with tho ri£:ht, niado a cmmit upon the rid^ to 
occupy heighta from which iha hit of the AuieriooiiA coidd 
bo MaaUecL Indians, Oanadiimft, and loricA hovered on the 
front and flanke of the eevoral colnmn^. 

In coacun«M>o with the advice of Arnold, GatM ord«i«d 
out MoTgnnV riflemen nriil tlui light inffljitiy. They pTit a 

kct to tiighl id a qiiBrt<»f pjwt one. but retjivd before the dJ- 
wiUi Bur)^J'll■^ I^fuilin^ lim fin-n niu>hK<Trvriil tlituKgh 
U>o woodi^ and vvcuring ]m nght by tfaickete aud ravmes, 
^OT^^xu next fell unexpectedly upon tlie Icrft of liic Britiah 
ccntriit tliviJiioD. To *ij(>jH>rt liim, (Jatw*. at two o'clock, ecnt 
oat throe >'ov ilampiliiiv battalions, of which that of Scam- 
hkI met tho «nomy in front, tliat of CiUey took theiu in fiaok. 
Uoi^n with hia riflomcn <;aptnrc>d a cttinoii, but conM not 
tprtegk ofi; hUhoreovaaihot under bim in th«wftrniflnf;af^ 
nMnt. Trom half-|fait two there wft» a Inll of a )uilf'hf>iir, dur- 
ing vlurJi Diillip* hronght more artUloiy ag&in^t the Amerl- 
ajid Oatca ordt^fH) orjt two T«g{it)enta of Corwet-tl^t 
Tiiiitia tuidor Cook. At thirv^ tho battl« became grtieral, and 
It ragnd tfll after suDdovi u. Fnwr fcnt to tho aid uf Biir- 
goyne aoch dvtachnitDtd m he cotdJ trpan; withoat endanger- 






^■inilit 



1S4 AMERICA m AIUAKCB WITB FRAKCC, n-.rv.; i^xnx. 



mg Ills ovm poutioD, ^hicli vrod l]ic object of tbo daj. At 
four, (ratci ordered cut tlio New York rc^tmoot of Corlbnd^ 
foJIowcJ in Jx hrjf Liinr bj^ tHat of Hcikr/ I^vin^on, Tbe 
battle w.-ui inurkc'^l b^' tJiu oh)(lifiiLt& CQurugo of tLe Aiponcuu, 
but by DO niftna?uviv; man fought ftgikinet niftx^ rcguneot 
u^iiuLt regimtiit. An Amerie^i jiarty would capture a cut* 
Hon, wm] drivn nfT tlit* HriljAli ; iJht Unti^Ji would ni]l^ inr) 
recover it wiili the bayonel^ but oEilj" to fall back before llie 
ddidly tire from the wood. The Atuerican^ udcd no ulil* 
Iciy ; (ho Jiriti-ih cmplovcd it with effect ; but tJic comnatDdcr 
of thoir pn&oipal Uittcry woe killed, and Bomo of bis offioon 
and ihirty-mx out of forty eight matrowoa were kUJcd or 
wounded. At fiv^T alt too Ifttc in tli« day, BrigMlisr LoarDed 
woB ordered with Im bri^t> and a Uaaaadiuiem ngimeut 
Co Uu* wit-my'a rear. Befortr the mm went d[jwii Burgojnio 
WKs in ditngk.^r of r r*"iit ; iliti troops nboiii him waT<?red, whso 
Kedebel, wjtJi a hiiiglu rvglmeui aud two caiimm, Sniggling 
tliroi^h tJiw Ihiclictn, ncrow n rarinc, clirid>cd the hill and 
charged tlio Americans on their right tkuilL Eveuipg wai 
at handi and thoio of the Amcnciana who had teen cxigiged 
for nioro than throe liaan had nearly exhausted their ammu- 
nition ; th^y withdrew within tholr lince, taking with theui 
tlwir wounded and a Luniln^d captives. Oa tbo Brit lib dda 
Ihrco major-^iieiicrala came on t^Q Add ; on tho Atn^ricaa ddo 
not oxn>, nor a bHgadiur till nctr itji cIcmc Tho glory of the 
day wiu* ilnn in tJici et^veral regiments of himbaiidm**n, who 
fought with one spirit and one w^II, and needed only proper 
eup|>ort ajul an nhlu g«n(^ral io h&ru utlcrlv nmti-d tTi< i rf 
Ilurgoync. Of the Americana, pr^M justly fell U|ih iq 

of Virginia and Scamniel of Now Ilampvliire; nono ollevvd 
their liro« mere freely than Cjlky^a coatinontal rogirocnt and 
the Connecticut militia of Cook. Tbft American lo«^ tnckd- 
hig tbo wciincled and mtMiiig, prorod \im than throo bnndr^ 
and twenty; di^tingrtiahod among tfao d«kd wm Lloutenant* 
Cclocel Andrew Colbuni of New Hampehlr^ Thi* battle 
eripplud tho Briti«l( force irrciric^vubly. Thatr loss exoeoded 
BIX bundrcd. Of tlie tiIxty«^ond re<gliuent« wliicli tt*ft Canada 
five liuudrul HtroJig, Oivm rvutaiiiiHl Ibm than «xty men and 
four or iivc offiixis. " Tel) my uncle 1 died like a «oldier,*' 



Bl'HG0V2(£'d SUftKJ^DEB. 



185 



£ 



\2At vonLt of ITcrvej, one of ItA IteDtetmits, a hoy of 
mxtocn^ who vaa nionjilly ivotmdc<J. A ehot from a rifle, 
meaat ior Burgojme^ struck aa ollicor at hie side. 

Tho Bntijli army paas4>d dio ni^lit in bivou^ (inijcriiniis ; 
thtt 6^vui^m cf Ifurgojno on Iho fivid uf Wttlo, Mornuigro- 
veoJed to them thfiir de«p«Tftte oondition ; to formor difficuttles 
vaa Added (lio enouuilinaiee of their wounded. Tliulr drtd 
wi-rii 1)tmi?i1 pminM'imiiAlv, irxcMTjit, t.hiif, iint^rrx wrn* thrown 
ilo IioIm bj tli&DU4!i]re«, in ono pit three of Uie tweutietli 

imont, of vtrlioin the oldest wu not mora thau ADreiitecn. 

An Attack iip-^n the ramauu of Biu^jut^t diYirioii, ivhilo 
it WM etiU dtBcoiinoctcd and mthout intronchiQciita, va^ urj;ed 
bv Aniold; but (Mea vuit^ forainmuuiijonand inon: Iroope. 
Tho <{i3anvl Uitwc«n tlii'm gmw morv Utu?r; an<l Arnold do- 
maiid^ and n^ceived a p&esport for I^hilad^lphi^ Kepdodng 
of bii rwhneu, hs lingered Id t^ie oanip, biit c3Dld not obtuiu 
■ceim to Gntr-^ nor u njtrmi:iiut. 

During the twoDtietli the DHtiah general Giica.ut|>od IiIh 

ij OD Uie hetglitft Eieor Fre«inaa*« liouatd, m near Uio Amcri- 
lincs that bo coald not nuvko n morcmcnt unobaerrvd* 
On ibe Iwenty-iiret lio received from Sir Henry Clinton a 
pmnifiO of & divcnion ou Hudson river; and oni^^rcrcd that 
he e»uld mainiain hm position until tlie tvrolftfa of Octiber. 

Sp^ of the BritUU watched the condlticn of Putsam, and 

had not Hffi(nty ta di«^Th>vur tlioint. fn hU easy Tn&nner ho 
a br^ paK of the T^ev Yorlc mflilla to go homo ; bo 
ho now hnd birt alkout two thamumd rtuTi:. 8ir Keixrj 
f vritli four thonund troop»j feigned &n attack upon 
U hjr binding troopa at Verplanck'6 Point. I^iinam waa 
dapcd ; and, ju«t u tlio BriLiob wijthod, retired out of tho vaj 
1o tJio billa In the rear of Fookakili Goorgc Clinton^ Ihic 
^ovcTUor of Nov York, knew tho point of dan^. With sndi 
force ofi hoeo<uld colloot bo ba«t«ncd to Fort Clinton, while 
hk brother J$mm took command of Fort Montgomery. Pnt- 
Bixn ahould hav« rei]ifon»>d thdr giurkont ; instead of it, he 
ctdeni troope awaj from tlicnrif and loft i\w pajuc4 nnguardod. 
At daybreak tjn th<< i^itih ijf Octol^er the nritliib and llewlana 
dMombflLricrd at f^tony Puiiit; Yxttglian, wi^h nioro tlian ono 
tliooiAZid nieni advaxiccd toward Fort Clinton, whil^ a oorps of 




186 AMERICA IS ALLIANCE WITH FBANCE. xr. iV. ; 4di. xul 



tboDt a thouBuid oocnpled Uie fti^ of Dmdarbefi^ and, hj a 
difficnii, c^rauitoQA niarcli of tovon mJlos ^^ ^^^ «/clock <ttUHB 
in the icar of Ton Montgome^, Vaiig)un*« tvooftt vere then 
ordared to stotm >'oit Clinton MHth die bayoMt. A ^Uanl 
RtiaUnoe waamdo bjr Ae gorcrnor ; tnt at tbocloMof tiri< 
lif^t th» Britieli, by Ui« eaperiori^ c^ ntimb«nf foroed tho 
worki. In like maoiifir FoH Mon^^omerj vas earned; but 
tbo two GonHnanden and ahnovt aU of boch ganton a oteqivd 
inlti tliA fonst, A lie^rjr iron obalo with a boom hid b««n 
ficretolied Acros8 the river from Fort Voncgomeiy to Antbott/a 
Nium. Orrrmluig the dirctfrtinn nf Gimmior Clinton, Pntoun 
ordered down tmro continent^ fngntes for the defence of the 
diain; but, as they w«ro badlj mannedf one of tbcta eodd 
not be fot off ID tnoe; tki» other gronndcd opfcaite Wot 
Point ; and both vnere set on fire in the ni^L Port Covtfi- 
tntMD, oD the laland oppeaitQ Weat Point, was abtDdeihdd, <o 
that the river v» open to Albany. Pttcajn, raeelfl^ Ivge 
reinforooiDOBta from Couoectit-at, did nothing widi tbcm. On 
tbeenreiitlibewToUtoGaSea: ^T ctnnot prerenc dko OMnj/a 
adnaxsDg; prepue for the wont;** nnil on th^i^ith: ^Thm 
enemf can take m f&ir wbd and go lo Albany or Hall Mooa 
iivflb (real ei^iedilioD and iritbont a&j oppeaitiocL^ Bat Sr 
flonj Ointeo, 'vbo ovghl a nontfa aooser lo hare gone to 
Albany, f-arnaoncd Foil Montgoiiiei; and rvtvnied lo New 
Yoik, InTiJi^ YaBgban with a hrga manodiiig cgpcditJod lo 
taoe»d tb* Hod^u. Tasghan did no men tbaa ploBdar and 
ban the comi of KingBtoQ >nd the nunsiona of p^triott abqg 
tberiTv. 

After dwfaaukof the nuic4c«ndi of Sap twnb ar theooo- 
dititm of BBry>jroe rapidly givw more perriwdl^ TlirAtuefi- 
cana tn hiaraar bnlDadoim ibe bri^a-vUdi bt bad bnil^ 
aadaonramed iathowooda thai bec«U gdoM JsM Idtt 
of their vtaatiao. Ifia taigiB( partiea vid ftdy»e«d poata 
«m banaaid; boiatt gf«vibiB ttdveak; ite 
€Mabflnd with at hammfftt bndiodrfekasd 
One thiid jmrt of the aolifiaKa rvtiaft w« ntmdvi. White 
At BiiitU) ainy itedbad in anber. Oaitt vaa eaoMBt^ n- 
Mbned. On the t wa^yiweMd Ibtak amrid, and acwfc 
DlthtfHgbcwiiig; htiwafaBwidbytwo 



inT- 



BCIEGOTIIE^ fiORRENDEB. 



in 



I 



militia- Tbc IiK^aiw mrltirfj awaj from BargOTna, md by 
tho fioal aC Schaylor, contrary to iho wiser policy of GaUiA, n 
Bmall biuwi, cH4>ily of OiieidoB, joliKsd tin) Amcn<;an CAmp. 
In the oroniiig of Ui« fotirtli of October, B^ojne oaUcd 
PtiUlJps, Ried«Ml, find Fruer to conii«iI, vntl )>ro}K>i«d to tbcm 
It^ a rosodiilKiut tuaroh to tiira ibft hit o( Hut Anwtricaii*, To 
do this. It Witt aiirtvif»?<l, Uir Rrii[*h mnKt, for thro© davs^ leave 
Uieir boats aiid praTisiona at tha maty uf lltn Aini^-ru^uiK, 
Sicdefcl adviftod & *wift retreat to F«rt Edward; but Bur- 
goyno itiU coDtinacd to wait for a co-operatii^^ army from 
below- On tbc acvcDtli lie a^^reed to makA a grand n9CODnoi»- 
■nn«c, «nd, if iJic Amcrioaoa oould not bo attacked, be would 
tliml: of a rctrvnt. At ^bvov) o'dook on the morning of tbat 
d%y Mven hmwiped men of I'Vaaer'a ocmioand. ihtav lioiidnxl 
of BrcjiDftun'^ mid ^vo Imivirod of Ricdi-ik?rK, Vtxny pickod 
oat for tH(T wrvi*x>, Thi\ hip Jmiir wag cIiom^h. tbat in case of 
davwUr lufjlit mlj^liL iiiLcirviTiii! f jf tUttir rt^lief. They wirni 
led by Bur^/nc, who took with IJm l'hll1I[H, Riedeset, and 
t>wor. The fate of the army bang oii U»e Lmo, lu^d not mimy 
mort t^an fiftoen LuiirUed men could be spared without ex- 
poabji: tbe amp. Tliey ent^rxxl a field ai1>oat luilf a mile from 
tbc Aaierknu* wbcru they formed a tine, and sit down in 
donUo ranks, oBerm^ battle, Th*>ir artillery, consi^tin^ of 
tAffiit braM pLOCM and two liowttxcrit, urojt woll povU'd; their 
fmot wu opon; tb» gi^iiAdiena under A<^kUnfJ, nationed in 
die forests, protected the left ; Fni^er, with tJie light infautry 
as4 an Knglifth r«^in«ttt, forriwl tbc Hglil, wbScb was akirtM 
hy a wooded bill ; tlie Bnin^^wickerFi held the eentrs. Wlijlo 
Fra*er sent fom^ere into a wheat-tuld, ("anadiana, prorincialB, 
and Indiana wen to get npOn Uic American rtar. 

OatMf having in bia camp tcti oir cloven tbonoand mtn 
eager for battle, rcaolvcd to aond ont a force efficient to over- 
i^Nlm the dotAchmcnt By tlio advice of }kforj;in, a Ainnit- 
tflkeona attach waa ordered to be nmde on both ftanke. A 
Uttl« before three o^clock tho eolumu of the Aueriean r^^t, 
oonpcMc] of Poor's bnj-adf>^ followed by tha K«w Tori: ndlltia 
nadarTen Broecff, niiinovi^d by the well-^erred grape^^ot froai 
two twf]rp^>uiii)i'-nianr1 four kjxr*. marrliKtl on toengp^Acdt* 
land*a graoadkra ; while the men of Jhlorgao were eecn mafcing 



ie« AUEHtCA IN ALLIANCE ^ITB FRANCE. v\tr,: cm.im. 



a cir^t, to roach tite tlank and roar of tite Britidi liglit, upon 
which tlt« Amen GMi li^btmfautrj under DoarboroimpctQOOBly 
dotceoocUd. In liiugcr of h^Jig flurrount^od, Bur^joo ordend 
Fnfier vitfa tlio light mfniitTy and part of the tweotj-fcurtli 
re^in«Dt to form a second liiiu In tlie rcju-f to i» to MCnre tbd 
n»t,ti3tt <if HiK army. WliiJu ^x^N'ntlng thU ortltTj Frnser vw 
liit by s. ball fram a sbar[»aln>otj>r-, ami, fatallj voundcil, itm 
led Ittdc to ihtt cunp. Jtut tlicrr^ vritliin twenty minntm from 
tho bcginniag of the action, rJio Bntr&Ii gi'cnodicrs, auiTtnng 
from the sharp tinf of rimtketrj in front uid flank, >rArcTtd 
and dt^, leaving Mnjor Ackland, their commander, Kvcitlj 
wounded These movcmontfl exposed the Bmsfftnckcr? on 
Ijoth djiak^ and ono rogUneiit broke, turned, and flod. It mi- 
lled, but onlj to ritmt m lo» diftordor, drirOD hj tba Ameri- 
cATiH. Sir Fntncm Clarke, Bnrgoirne'fi 6ist ^d, sent to tfae 
rescue of (lie artiUerj^, wiu mortally wounded before lie could 
delirer hia mcnsogc ; and tho AmcricanM took nil tho riglil 
inoces. In tho face of tke liot purauiij no £«oond line could 
be formed. Burgoyno exposed himacH feoikntly ; a ibot 
pd«ed tluough hjd hat, and tmotltor lore hi« wni&tooat ; but lio 
m oOEnpoQed to prt ike ^rord of coninund for dl to rotrt^t 
to tho oamp of Finwr, wliicli Uj to tlio right of h«ad^uartcz«. 
Am he cM<rrodr lio betnjed his amte of daofper, cfyinft out : 
" YoQ moBC defend the po^t till the very la^t manT* Hio 
AjueHeam punned vdtli ftiiy. Aniohl, vlio bad ridden upon 
tbe field mthont onlera, without eomraand, without m itaff, 
and heaide hlmsi^ir, like one iiiUixinilH], }'et carrying K^iue 
authority ic the highc^ ofHcer prevent in Utc actiooif gav« oe^ 
den which av^eil tUtmglitle^&n^^ rather than conn^^w Dj 
hia commflnd ao attack v» made on tho alTOQgoat part of iLo 
firitieh lino, and oontinuod for more than an Lour, thoagh in 
vain. Meantime) ttic bri^:ack of Lcaraod uqmIo a clreait and 
acmdted tho quartora of tho m^chncnt of Brv'vroann, vhkdi 
flaokod tbe extreme rg^ht of tbe Britiab eamp, and was con- 
tieeted u-ith IVacor'a cjuartcrv by tn-o atoekado redoabts, do- 
fr[i(k!<? by Canadian (v>rnpaniea These inttrmadiatr n->1cii]btjt 
w«rc stonuL-d by a M;L«arhu«:Ttta nginMsnt fceftled by John 
Brookii, af^cnra^ g<:Jvcnior of that atatei and vilii little looek 
Anioldt vho bad jinned in this laet assault^ h>si his hone and 



I 

I 



I 




*- — ^^ till 



[m. 



BCRGOTJTE'S SDRRESDEa 



1S9 



vfli himjdf bidlj vocndod irithiti tlid tvorki. Timo find Um 
loM of blood rMtored hi« efms««. Tho Tcgimcnt of ^roynisaai 
I was now eipO£^ in front and ronr. lu colonel, ilghting gal- 
I lajitl^y w^iH ijiiirbilly i^olkuW ; mnm* «f liU trmj|iDi fed; uid 
£]ie rost, sboub two bun'lrcd in nuinbor, HiinnulvmL Colonol 
Speth, who led a euiaU body of GcnoaiiB to Iiib rapport, vraA 

kt&kcn pmoner. TLd position of Bn^ymomi waa Uio key to 
Kurgoyno'e camp; bat tlic dircctione for its rccoTcrj coiUd 
not b© esMnt*4. Nij^lit ended the battia 
During tbo tight, umther Gat^si ncr Tineoln Appoorcd on 
the field. In hi« rrport of tlio ncHon, Gaiee ninied ^VrnoM 
wkh Morgan and L>«arbom ; and congreaa reatored Arnold to 
tluT niik whii^li Ike hiu] duiiuis]. Tliv! iirtloii won ibif Inttlt^ of 
hu«bandntcn, In wKicb men of the Tnllrj of Virginia, of Mary- 
land, of PenuBylrania, of New Vork, and of New England 
foQgbt together with one spirit for tlie comaion canM. Tbe 
annjr of fioi^gOTDC wn« greatly outnumbered, it« ciMlc ebinr- 
iig» Iti hoepital cumbered with eick, wonndcd, uid dyioj-. At 
tm D*cloek In the nlgbt to gave orden to retrent ; but at day- 
braak lio Iiftd only tnLniferrvd bin crnnp lo tlie hcighta aboro 
tlie IiotpllaL Li^t dnwned, to ^cw the topelaune^ of his 

Fraeer (xucvtiocird tLe migaoD eagcily 3a to liis wonnd, &nd, 
wlioi be koFDed that be muat ilie, be cried out in agony; 

I "Daicnod amlntioii!" At auiutct of tbc eighth his body, 
attended by (be officenri of bia fumilyt wa« htmiQ by ccldion 
of hie oorpe to the f-rcat n?dDubt nbore the Hudson wbeno 

' bo had aaked to ho biiriiHl ; dnj tbroo majorgennRUfl, Bur- 

' goyno, Pliillipo, and Ricdc^gel, and none beside, followed as 
moaroeie ; and, under the fire of the AmeHoan artlllGry, tbe 

I Ardor for llie bennl of tbtr de»d whu Htnetly olvnTrvrd ovi^r bn 

^B In tbe following boura Ihirgoyiie, abandoning Ihi; uronndod 
^^nstd dck Ln bii boapital^ continaod bU retreat ; hot, the road 
^pMlng narroir and betfivy from r&In and tlio night dark, bo 
,' Ukw/io bait (wo milct ebort of Bamtoga. In the night before 
tbe tenth tbc British army, finding tbe pttfage of tho HudaoD 
too BOODgly gnAried, forioil Uii^ Fuhkill, and tn a vtvy bod 
poaitioQ at Satutogn made their bgt encnntpmeot On tlio 



lOO AIOIRICA IS AIXU>'CE vriH FRAJCOB. If. Vt. ; en. XBE. 



tODth SuTgojiio «ont out a party to raoonnottra tbo rtvad on 
the iro*t oi ibe Hudeon ; but Stark, irbo afic<r the b&ttle of 
Beimir^on lud been raot^^cd at liome na & eaoqueror, hod 
retunnHj wl(}i mcin» tlian twn thoumnd ineii of Nuw Hftmpfiliire 
and Iteld tbe river at Vort CdvranL 

At dA^bn^ik i}( Hiv cicvrtitli nn Anieni^Aii Ijiigaitc, favored 
bj a tbick fog, brake up the British |>ostG at tho mouth of liie 
rifibkiU and captured all tli«ir boit^ and &U tbcir proruioiu 
oxocpt ft vbort cilkiwiiiioc fr^r tivi^ daya. Od th« tvroUth thft 
Bntt«h amy waa contplototy iavorti-d, and ovory epot id its 
Gam]> wju exposed to rille ahot or ooimoiu On the tbirt^eDtfa, 
Bur^oyue for ilie Aral trtne called iheoomzuaden of tho covpa 
til miinril, atid thry worw niminnwii* for troaUD^ on hooonlJe 

T1i« Amcnemi Army luid tbe f rvvliolder^ of N^w York uid 
New hji^Und, who bad TciJiintarily riKii up to rceiet the io- 
?uioEi from Canada^ had, by their nnaoiimiy, courage, and 
energy, loft tho Qiitudi no clianco of cwapc "' The groat bulk 
of tbe ooimiry/^ wrote Bo^yne^ ^'ia undoubtedly with tho 
€oqagroi»iii priiK-iploaadsoiJ.** When tbo general who ahoaM 
baro dlreoEcd them romalned in camp, thoir oommOD teal cm- 
ttod a kiniioidoas coircicpot^denoo of moi'Cmont, and baffled 
the offloore and rotoranfl opposed to them. Gat«f, who had 
never appeoivd In the field * dtiring tlie campaign, took to htm- 
«plf ihn m^tiation, and pmpiMKl Uiat thi^vMbuiihl «nrr«?miiTr aa 
prieoaen of war* Bur^ync replied by tbc pmpoaal that hia 
army aljonld |>um from tho port of Uoeton to Ureat Britain 
cpoo tho condition of not acrriii^ agthi in North Amcffioa 
durbf; iho prceent oontoet ; and that tho officore «hoitld rotwa 
tbctr oanufM faowot, and hofst^^ free from mcleptation or 
•oanih, Biir||;oy&o "giving hit h4mor that tliere aro no pnblto 
atoroa eooreb>d therein.'* Qat«^ nnttuty at tho ne«^ of Brit- 
iiib ftir<.*o<; on tho Hudson river, dowel with tb^e ^'artklat 
of coavienlion,^ and on tliti »i>veute^th *^tJie nunvtmtion was 
fl^ed/' A iHMly oi Americans mardicd Co tbo tmM of Yan* 
kvo Doodle mto tlic tinctf of tho Briti^, who marched out and 
in mute af^tcmfibinent laid down theuf arcne with nono <rf tho 

iwt Gonkm, 11., «*, toe, Bd, tj bM« l» K, T. DBt Uh^ W^ MO, 



I 
I 

I 

I 

I 

I 




IWT- 



BUBGOTN£» SCHKENDilR, 



1»L 



American aoldieiy to witncu tlic ^icctacl«. Brcikd w&a tbcn 
Bervcd to Uionit for thov Jiod doho left, nor Hour. 

T1>ctr cumber, including ot!ice!% was five thooBand m^en 
bnoidnd tnd uLac'tjT'Ocie, &uioag whom were dx uviubifni of 
pvlkment Previously tht^ro liad b<>>on tuVm eighteen Luiu 
tlrc<l (uwi ftftj^i prkuni^ra of war, lucluOin^ the ftiL-k uiid 
WfHinrl^Nl wlio IuhI ticoii ulimidnnt^. Of d»crU*-r« fmm tlio 
Britiali rauk^ there were three hundred ; go that, mcltidiog the 
kilted, pnvnncnt, oud (littaibled at Uubbordtou, Fort Ann, Bcii- 
ningtotif OrucAf the outpoEtt* of Ticondcn.^gaf and rotmd iSija- 
tofjtf tho total loaeof tbo Britub id thie northom campai^ 
WW not isLT froin tea thouG4nd. 

Th« Amcriotm ooquired tiurt/^livo piooaA of tho U^rt ord- 
nanM then known, boside mnnitio&A of war, and more thaa 
fotir thovuiand niuaketa 

CoiTi]»liiintH rmrJind <'<»rigniw I-IielI tin? militjuy diMt of tlw 
BHttah &nii>\ tlio coliora of iu regiments, £Jid anns^ eepedBll^ 
bi^7<0DCti, hod beeci kept 1>a<ok; imd that \cry muiy of tho 
miuIcQli which were left beliind tjod b^'ii ji^irpoecly nmdered 



I>aring tho rcfiiatance to Bnrf^yno, Daaiol Morgan, from 
llie tijDO of hit trtiufer to tlio northdni onny, novor gart* other 
tiMti die wisest eouneeb, &nd stood flcvt fcjr ccmdoct, e£Fecttv« 
loadt-rnbip, and uutttirjiu^able [^iirnge on tlic< t!etd of Itattle ; yot 
Oatfv did not ivrjimnuiid hmt fnr jinimuluiti, but it^Ved und 
mtim »UUlikoc] the raak of brlf;adicr for Jamai WilkiiiHori^ ;ui 
undJetiagoitthed fav^>ritc of bia own. 



192 AM£HICA JN ALUA^CH WiXn FRAhCH. we. mi eiLSttf. 



dUTTEU xir. 



ooarrsCT ro& mc dela^c-akk RmciE. nrx ccerrKDERATiNr. 



S ki tsmpbb XovsaoimB 1777. 

Tt[£ approach to PhiUdclpliia bj vmiot iru «till olMtnictwl 
h}' a double aet of chevaux-de-friM, extending aorosA tfad duii- 
rcl of t)ifr Di^Uwara : ortu^ neveii niiW fnnn FbUftdeljiJiiA, joii 
t*If*w the mnntli of tlw Si'lni^vltilJ, «ml [irnb^trtl by Fort 
MfrtH?r lit lltil-ljiuik iJU tlio N«w Jereej (Jiorv and I'oti lAiShk 
on Mnd IvI^md ; tlie r)tlicr, tive mtlifA «t]U nearer tlie b«jr, and 
cv«rlooVod bj vorke at Billiogipdrt. 

Oa Uio second of Octol>er a dotttduucAt ^ras piit ocroaB tbo 
Dclaworu from Chcfitir; the fton-Uon at BiUin^pcrt, splkiikg 
their gnna, fi9d> Utfvuig tbu 1ow(»r lina of obctraotioiu to b« 
removed without molestation. Faint-heartcdneti sprafid along 
tin? rivtr; from tlie water^mfl a!id <Jt(sn fn>rn tJui furtu tlicm 
«Fti3 rrfh|nittt (Itvcrl.ioriK in^fh i^t offioc*rn And privAfo^, Wafl]>- 
lij^Uin uiUftl act, or dasjjondency will pre^nil, 

Tliti villufi;« (if Gt^miantowi] fanned for two milai ona eon- 
tinuona etrDct. At its centre it waa croawd at rigbt aaglM by 
llowo^a oioamFmimt, which Axtonded on the right to a irood* 
and waa guardod on iti oxtr^mc left by ncman jigon nt tbo 
SchnjlldlL The first batialiot] of light tnfinuy aad the 
qoooQ^a American rungora wore adranced in front of tho rig^ 
tnng: tho aooond botttUon mjt^-K>nei\ tho ^rtbeet pickotacf 
thi^ left at Itfoimt Alrj, about two tniW from the comp; and 
iLt llie h<T]t(I iif ihn TiUjigfEf fa ail o|>cri tti^d ivor a lirgQ Immimi, 
huiU nnliillj^ of ft-ine aiid known ai tlut of CIicw, tho fortSetfa 
n^^cnt imder tlic veteran KiugravG pitched iCd tenta. In- 
tomatioo reached llowo of an axt^E^di^ atldck^ but ho t^ 
^Tcd it witli incrcdnii^. 



4 



im- THE COSTEST FOK TJifi DEUIW,U'-E EiVER. 



im 



Abo^it noon r>n the tliird, Wflfihiugton, At jUstonohia KiU«, 
lonnced to bis annj his pnrpoM to movie apoa Gormantown- 
[£e Rpoke U> tlkeni of tho lacoGndA of iUq aortUcm &nnv, md 
(OTplniii'^l '"t-liut Tlnwi'j wlio Iny nt a ijirfaripe £>f wvcml inilcjt 
im Cuniw;i1IL4, har] fitrtTier weaJcened liiniAelf hy aeoding 
boiUlioD* to DIlliQgn])art» If tho; voiild bo bntvo and 
]]Ull«Dt, he might on the next day lead tUein to vlclon.'* Ule 
plou WA3 to liirect tlie cbicf attack upon Hvs nghi of thd Infla- 
luted piLrt of thd Britii^ force*, to which tLo Approach wu 
OA^; ftnd, for tluit p&rposo, ho gqvo to Orecno tiio command 
of hk l^ft vriiii^^ ci^mpofldd of t)io divisions of Gro^n(^ and of 
SttphttD Odd flanked by MucdouguIVH brljpido. TLuw fonnod 
■bout two thirdft of liis foiVG, I'hp divi^ion^ of SHllivnn anrl 
Wajnia, flanked by Couway^n brl^^e Mid followed hy Wash- 
u^toor vHtii llie brigodco o( NiuJi and MaxwU tnidtr Lord 
Stirling ftS tho rotorvo, aasnnicd iLc more <UfficTi]t l^k of en* 
ga^g thd Brideh left To distract uttuntiou, the Mainland 
And New Jcntcj militia wcTt tn make n cinroit wd como npOD 
tlio rear of tho British nj^ht, whilo on tLo cppomto eido Arm- 
ttrofkg, with the PoDnejlvaniA mOidn, wa^ to dad blo^^'a en 
tha H««iui TigOM. 

Tb« differ^t odaniEis r«<wiTed order* to conduct Ihcdr 
nufvh iif ihout fourteen mlW »<:» aa tJJ arrivt* lu^ar tlio enemy 
in time to mt. And to begin tlit^ att^lc on all rjiiortetv precisely 
■1 fi^e oVk)ck. Accordingly, tho right mn^j after inandun^ 
all night, liilt^d two miloA in front of tlic Dnt^h ontpoet and 
took rcircthmont fjcrocjicd by a fog and moving in fliiencc. 
tbc AidTAncD party at the a^puintcMl hour Furpriscd tho British 
pdokct The bottftlion of light infantry oScnyl resistance ; hnt 
when Wayne'* m«n, elO£oly follow^ by Sullivan's diviaionf 
rtubod LTD, iho Imglo tormdtHl a retreat. Tho oiainon woke 
Comirallia in I^hiladcipbia, who inataatly ordor^ Brideh 
gfttnadioTi and HoiiAuini« to tlio vceu* of action - Howe, in like 
owiiivr fftaitlvd from Iiih bor], rode np jxtft in tTm?< to m?c thn 
ItttlalioQ miuiing away. ^' For sJiaiuLv %ht infiuiti-yl" bo 
oiod in iknger; "I novcr eaw yoii rvtruit Iwfccf, Forml 
fona I ft i$ ocdy a econdng party .^ Bnt grapo-ebot from threo 
of tlM American oannon rattling about Iiiin showed the Btn- 
of tho attack, and ho rode off at full epcod to propara 




IW AMERICA IN AII.IANCE Wrni PRASCt «F-ir,; ctl irr. 



hia camp f->r battle, whilo Miisgrftfe, detaeiiinf^ n part rf hi« 
rtgiTitt-nt lo [iiippurt flie fu^rlvflsi, tlircw himKilf witli six coco- 
|KtnLj>& inti\ Chew's hmise by the vayslde and barricaded its 
loner W][ir1utvH ^til Orure. Tilt! (rarm<m of Uiu AmtTrinuis woiv 
tQi> Uglit t') brencL ica waIK 

As Doching woe bc&rd from Greene, BuUitba^ aa be ap- 
proacLed Chew** hoiiae, diroctol Wavue to paat to tho left of 
It whilt? Itt: lulvunrcd on itfl ri^ht In t-his auimcr the two 
divt«jciiit woro eoparatod. Xlio adranoe wais cdovr, for it irai 
madt?! m line ^ and tht3 tJV)op6 waated thi-ir fimmiinitioii hj an 
itir«*uut firv. ^o.sliiugt'ju, willi MnawuirK part of tho re- 
Mtrvn, •nmimouf^d Mii^gmve to eiirr^mlc'T; bnt tLe officer vlio 
carried the white flii^ viti& tirvd upon and kiUed. TTri^ for^ 
vard \jy lib own niixiel j aiiO tlic £cal uf Uie yoiii^g oifioers of 
his rtn^i WadiingtoD left a aungle r^fimect to ^mtch the houej 
and wiUi the rcvt of the reserve advanced to the frout of tlie 
bottle. 

And where ww Orocne with the two thirds of tbo attack- 
ing force wlu'ch had beeo eonflded to hh eomnumdl He 
re«i;hed thv Brhioh outptnt tlireo ^lurten of :ui botrr bcjiind 
ttriit* ; thmi, nt & gn^. diAUncv fmni the forrc wliidi he wav 
to have attacked, he fonned liia whote wing, and hi Una of 
battle advan(%<! two iiiilce or more tlirou^i tuanbea., tJiicla-tiy 
and strong and Dumcrons pott-and-rul feocco. Iirctriev^ 
Ue disorder was the ooliBcrjDcncc ; tfic line was broken sad 
the diiHtficim iKreiune mi:ted. Mli^ouj^U ewer came into tbo 
figbt; Greene, with the brJgiutoa of &eoU and Unhlecbe^ 
OQtered the villa^ and attAcked the Britiah ngbt^ which bad 
Itod ample titiiu for prcparatlom Tbev were ofitfljuiki^, andf 
after aboQt fifteen miniitf* i>f hmry firing, wm? drirrn back ; 
ATuI tin^ rvgiment which Ttad penotnted fnftbeat was eajiliired. 
Stephen with ntw of hitf brigades came a« f ar aa die Ii;ft of 
Vftjm&'a difimon ; tho cormnnndt^r of the other, whkb waa on 
the eztreine right of the A^ng, left tho way marked o-it hy 
bia ordon and went to CheVa hooce. There the bdgnde 
baltoi and with li^t 5e1d-pie««a be^vi to PU7 upon ita walls. 
For thSa eoononade Wayne'f diTWon<v>ii?rl iM,t ;>cconni, except 
by anppodn^ that the ^tlab rigbt Itvl gaiuwl lii^ir rear ; and, 
throwing off all oontTol, they retreated bi di«order. SiiQinn^a 



4 




IT1T. TAB COSTTSt TOR THE DBLATARE BITER. 195 



mMi bad exptfri^li'd tiLoIr EirnriiunSliort. Tim Kuglti^h iKtUaliona 
from Philvlolpltl^t, Ajlvftju^tngon n nm, vero eti>Ne At hand, lu 
Ilia fog, imikB at Atiierl<;2uu had repeatedly itiinUkuii ewli 
ntber for Aitu^, At ikbont Ljilf-pcut ctglit, Wjuilkington^ who 
kad " expowd himself to the hottest fin^" eccing that die d&y 
WM lotttf^vG the w<»rd to mtrcat^ond sent it to 07&ryilLTi«bEL 
Owe WW taken foir the removal of gvctj piooo of lutjIJciy, 
Britidi av^ German officora of tho Itngt rank jtidgod the Attack 
to have beou waU planned, and th^t hq retreat was ever oon* 
dcbctjxl ill iM^ttvr {>nltr. 

Id tlie o^HHilI nport n( tliiH mgHigraJOiit, tW miTiTnAfid^jr* 
iii-diief fttaim! with unitparing exactu«tf« iha tardj^ arnvnl <if 
Ones* and tb« vnng under hu oommind. The rtnowal of an 
attidc eo aooa after tho defeat at the Bnudyvrine itupilrited 
coPgrci and tho aimy. 

To open the Deluwaro nvtsr, the fleet of Lord Howe, bo- 
twoen tibo fonnh and a^^hth of the montlif ikachored between 
KevtiuNtle and Reedy iBhuid. By the middle of October a 
urrow and intnciLte dunnc) t1tn>ugh the lowicr ol«tniction in 
the river vu opened. The Dj^jwr net of cTievaQz-dfwfHve wtu 
iiDtuuiJi«d; and tlie forta on Kt^liujik aiid on ^fitd UUnd, 
which protected it, were giLrmoncd 1>y oontinenial tjixrp^j ijje 
fonner midier the command of Cokme) GirotopLer Ortrne 
of RJio<Je Ifiland, the latter of Lieut^^nantXJoloncl Bomocl 
Bmitb of SfarjJond. Mcjuitiinc, fpom tho aoccd«ity of eon- 
ttrnMHof; his foKe, Uowe orderod ^ir Henry Ginton to 
abandon Fort Clinton on the Hudson and to aend him a rcdn- 
fbvoefwot of '* fuH six dioiumiid men,^ Hb mnoved his annj 
inta GennautowD to PLibdelphia, and raised a line of foitifl* 
vtlooM fn>Jn i\ui Sr.hijylkill Ut tltr DrlMwarv. 

Oa the rooming of Ihc r-lglitccnth a n^t^Menger arrived in 
ths Anwrican ctuup, l^migiiig kttera frotu Putiiam and Clin- 
t40« prvtuutnrely but po«tircly annovindng tho aurrcnder of 
ibe dfiny of iAuf^orafi. Waahingtou roceiTOd than with joj 
oo^Makablo and deront gratitndo "for this aignal stroke c^ 
Prondeoeo." "All will bo well," he end, "in Ilia own good 
titoo." 

The nowf c^nicJOv ponetiatod the Britub oonp. The diiS- 
of Moeai to the iTpper cheTaox-de-frise in the Delaware 



cnlfj 



19fi AMEfiICA Df ALLUNCE WITS FRASGK- ip. w.; ob, jot. 



river bnd dclnjcd ite ruductien ; under & foclinf- of esaspentcd 
impatioiice, Sir William llowo gavo vorbil ordcK to Cokmo] 
DoDop, who hiid expreaaed a wisti for a ^i^jiimto oonuoaod, to 
cony Red-tiiuik by luwault Sf it could easi]y be dona On tbc 
tw$uty-«eooQd, Donop, wIUi five ItiaiLiun rvglineuU and t1]<rir 
artilk-ryj four GDiupauIea of yag^rrw, a f* w mounted yag«re, and 
two KiigliHl) tii>wit£r?ni, iirnveil near tliff fort, wlu'ch on ihrtx 
eidefl cuuld U' approached tJiroiLg>i tliielc vroodd vithln four 
Jiuiidr«d yiirdj. It vru a pcnUgou, Hith a high euthj run- 
part, protected iij front hy lu aUuttio. TL« bftttery of ei^ 
ttroo-pouiidorG and tvo howitxcra wiw brougbt up <m tlio ri^ 
wtug, aud directed ou tbe timbrELeitree. At the tr<mt of om2i 
of tho four battalions a^Iectod for the oniault «tocd a Cftplain 
with the CArpeatL'irB and ono hundrud nwa boftriitg tlio fw> 
dti^i. Douop, ttt hjilf-paAt fuur, BUiumoued the ganS^ou in 
nmipuit hmguugt^ A i]i^tiTi(!i; tibiiig n?tiinit^1, hr aiMrtwa) 
a fuw tvoE-da to hlb troops. Encli coloDct placod Liiit^elC ut 
tLo bead of hid dirijiton ; aud at a <juarter !^ure fire, cndcr 
tho protection of n brink Gonncnado from all their aitillerj, 
tiiey ran forward and carried tLo abattis. On clearing it* 
thoy wcro ^mbormHuc^ by pilfalb, aiid were cx]>Med to a t«r 
riblo fire of «niaU anae and of grapo^hot from a coiioea]»d 
j^ll^ry, while two ^UevB, wM^h the bu^cd had hiddoi, nh«d 
tbeir jlurilcH with di]iin-«)iot. Vrt tlic brave IJoAuana fonoed 
on the glacij^ filled the ditdi, and prwsed on toward tho nun- 
part Ihit DoiLOjv tlie <jfl!(tiTn< of liw vXmH, aixl nnim tluui tialf 
tho otimr €ffic«n% wb killed or woiiiukd; Uw lueti who 
cllmbi^d the parapot ^rere beal«n down with lanocs and hayt^ 
nets ; and, as tho morning twilight wai coming on^ the ttttii)- 
onts fell back under the protecUon of their ruorre. Uan/ of 
tho wounded crawled into tho forc«t : Donop and ft fov othcn 
voro foft bobind. The snrvivore m&rched back dnting tho 
niffbt iinpuivaod. An tho BriUjdi »hip«-of-war Vfldt^i had at* 
ttmptod to take part in Hxe attack fi.i1] d^>vni Hw river, Hie An- 
giiata, ct aLxty*four gnns^ and tho Merlin frigate grDnndfd. Tbe 
next day tlici Aiignma vthm vet on firti by r&d-hot ahol from tha 
Atn&rican ^lli^^yH aikd lloatliif^ ballcn^*^ and blew up beforo 
all her CKW could cACdpe ; the KerUu Ha* abandooed and 
bunted. From tho wrt^ks tho Americans bronght off tvro 



I 



< 



[m TIffi OOKTEST FOR TUE DELAWARE EIVER, 197 






ty-four ponntleiv* '*Tliflnt G<mI/' ren^onod John Aduoa^ 
utbe glorjT u not inunediaiely duo to the ooEll[naIlde^in-cHof, 
or idc^Att^ tixtl Adulatfon would kive beon eo ffxcofisivo as to 
«ad>Dgor our ]il)«rtiv<.^ 

Tbe HtflBians, bv tlieir own Liccooiit^ lost in the aiuiLiilt fciur 
undred aud tvru ju killed Jtiid voijitdn)^ of nLotu twcDtj'-tix 
W€ra ofliocns. Two colimolfl gave op tiudr lives. Doaop, 
TiboM thij^fh waa elmttcred, lingered ft>r throe duj-£; to Mnw 
duit DnpkauOt who watched over Lui d^vULUJ, Ijo raid : "It 
is tinbhittg a nuUu ourocr early ; I diLj tlio victLm of my ambt- 
doD and of the avarice of my ecrorei^.'^ Thia vaa tJio mo- 
iDcnt choaon by Howe to complain of Lord Goorge QonnaiQ ; 
CO ask lliQ king-A Iwvo to vi^igii lii» comtnund ; and to re- 
port thnt tLero was no proajiecl of teninualing llie war \rtlli. 
out anothisr campAign, nor tlinii^ i>itl{^-w Urge rtJiifDti't^mriifM 
afaoald be sent from Europe. 

On Buxgoyoc's aurreader, Uatce aliooM ioetaatly have d» 
lacbcd mnforcomcnttf to WA^Linj^on ; 1>iit cron the corpa of 
orjGioa yr&A not rotumod. Tho comntaDdcriD^ii^f^ therefore, 
tliA cud of Octobor^ despatched AlesiUidor IlamiltoD, with 
Uionty to dcmaitd them. Patnaiii fur a ^^hSIo diarejfardod 
the oid«re homo by Hamilton, Gfttos dotainod ft vory large 
part of bU urair in iJli^nertit At AUiuny, imder tha pretext of an 
capedUi<.>n ngitin*d Tiromlf-rc^gA, whji^li he ilM ni>t r:K'^n to 
fttlaok aud which the Britiak of thetnedrca abandoned ; bo 
Wi^ectod to aoDounco Lis victory to the commanderJ nn h 'w t 
of cUdiiig the iimuWrdinution, oom^roai appointed 
to rojpiu the forta and pneeua on tbo Hud&oD riFer. Nov 
aabin^tott had liimMlf reoorered the^e forta and pa^ea by 
inj; Iloiiii'oaoohuoly aa to compel Idin to order their i-vaea- 
ation ; yet eoogieea fbrbado Wofi^ngton to detach from the 
Dortbm amiy more ilmtt tweut^-fivfl Lundnxl hiod^ including 
tlio corpaof Horgaii, wttlnml flrvt iviimultujg Ot-'nt^nd G?it<« 
sorI d«c gurcmur of New York. It waa orca moved that ho 
aboutd not dc^tach any tn>op!i except after oonsiLhatioa with 
Oataa otid CUoton; and Samuel Adatiui, John Adanis and 
Ge^ of UMncboactta, with 3Carchaiit of Bhode Island, 
TOtod for that mtricdoa^ TiniA woa wotted by this intcrfcr- 
Beoidea, wliUe the Dorthern army hod beco bonie od- 



Btnth^ 



tm 




IDS lUmiGA, O ALLU^Ca WITEL fA^OE. Rr.ir,;ca.xn. 



wanl ci> %'i(^ti>r;p hj Qte ifaliig of the people, Wa^ingtoQ en- 
(<Duiiti.>rc»l 111 Ptntiut^Innb Etttanul fendA, atid ft religkiiw met 
■wUiiAt forbade to it« mcmtcre the use of wnox, 

% tUo t^nth of f^oTombcr the IJritiafa liaid ooiDpkted dM& 
baUcH<%« on the ro<.'dy mora^ of l^rl&de Li1aad,five hundred 
jards from tbo Amoriuaii foil on Mud IJilaDd, and bog&c ftn 
i«aiuit firo from four batteridA of Ii^vy ftrfilkry. Smith 
170 tlic oiwrnon that the gurHaoD could not repel a ittomuug 
pftjrtTr; bi:t Maj«r FU'iirf, tlu! FnTiicb vngliuNtr^ ii:]iorted tli9 
p]ai*i> tij t>e 8ill[ defeosible. On the eloventh, Smilli, liivliig 
vhwivikI Si nliglit hurt, pduved immediftt«ljr to RihMiiujI^ ; tliu 
next in raiiV daslrcd to bo rocallod ; and earljr oo the thlrteesith 
tlic bmvQ giirriaon of but two himdrod &nd d|:ht^*ttix fivdi 
men and twcntr artilleriBta VM ooe^dcd to IIajot Simeozi 
Thayer of Khodo Ir^latid, wbo lud dutitifi^fibod hinuelf in llio 
oxpcdition flgtinfit Qu£flx*Cf un^ who now vo]tmt«en>d to uIeo 
the dc«p9rato cominkiuh Dirv?tcd by Tliajcr Knd Flemj, tbe 
f-anieoD hold out during an incessant tK>nibardaieDt and can- 
Di)n»de. On the fift^eulhT the wind proving fulr, tht! Vigi- 
Innt cfttTjing fOXtJM-ii twrnty-fotjr |JiiiiTiiltt>, imrl t]ic Imlk of a 
Urgd Indiainan with tlu-ee Iwentj'four pomtdera, aided l^- tlttt 
lide^ were mq^c'il tlroiijfh on inn«r ch^inel whidi tho oIk 
ftrnctiom in the Hvcr had deepened, and anchored so near the 
AmeiiooD fort that thoy could woid Into it hood-grenadMi and 
marhsnien from tbo mM of thi> Vtgibnl oonh] pick off niQzi 
from i1« j>lat.form< Five lai^ British Bhip«<»f'Wa7, whdob 
dr«w near the cbevaax-de-fHse^ Ict^pt off the ATnerliuii AotlDa, 
and aonwtimcii iirud on tlio nnprotecf^vl ni'h' "f tlio foiL Tbv 
■and batteries, now five In number^ plnv^l fn^m thbty pletva 
itt Khort diatanctw. Thi! nmijiudx turd bhxfk^ioiiMia on Vud 
Uand vrro honcjonmbod, their cannon ncnrlj »ii<fDred. A 
•toximng part; waagot r«ady ; btitSIr WillUiu HowefWhoon 
tiia fiftocnth wu proMat with hia bI^nhc^, gave ordcfv to keep 
np tlie fire ail ni|fht through. In tho ovvning Thayer sent aU 
the j^arriaon hot for^ nun orer lo Bed-b^nk, and afkr mid- 
night followed with tho r«ct Whuo^ on Uto xiictocQth, tho 
Britii^ troops entered the fort^ they found nearly evei; one 
of its cannon ittaiiiod wEth blood. T^c^ar were ordoit to d^ 
fend a plnrv to the ket exiivmlty more fa^tl^fully executed. 



I 



IV7T- THE OONirai FOE THE BELAVARE RIVER, 199 



i 



Hmjer viut rcportifd to Wiulilngtiya mt an ofHoor of tbo bi^- 
c«t meHt; Flevrywoti M'ell-doserved promodoD from coDgrcwi. 

Oofuw^U vpaft next ient hy way of ChofUir 10 BiUingA- 
port wiUi 1 Firong iualy uf tnrti]^ 1j> cloiir tliQ hft bank of 
t]>B OtiUwarvi. A dirujon undtr Greene wsa promptly de»* 
pAtdied fterou the rirer to girt) Lim Imttle. T'umirAllIn W!» 
joinod by tivo Britut battalionj« from New York, ^hile tbe 
AjDencam rciaforccmcut^ from tho nonhciB anuy were Htill 
kept bock. It therofcre beoariio nc^oeflatuy to c^iLcuatc Kcd- 
bttok. ComwiUU, luWng Icvcllod its TUDpart«^ t%itnmed to 
Flifladelpblai, and Green rtjoincd ^EuMngton; but not till 
Lifoy^tte, who ftttciidotl iho wcpoditioa as & volunteer* ti^id eo- 
«iu«d the appkiuQ of eottgn^ by nmting a party of Ile^MianL 
For all dw •e«nti>g niocea^ niauy olBct^ni in t}ic Britiftli cump 
expramod tbc oipitiiuD that tbe st&tot could not be subjugated. 

Tnan day to diy the want of a |^era) gaveninj^nt wua 
more kocnly fell. WLilc tbo wiiiter-^uaitdrs of tbo Britii^ iq 
Pbtladclpbifi wctt rendered Accsro by tbo poe^aeion of tho 
river IkJav&rO) conf^n}^ wliioli vra^ Moflod at in tlid lEnti&b 
booso of loPcU w a " vagrant ^ lic^rdct, miiiiiio<l at Torktown tJio 
work of coitfoderatioiu Of the oommitteo wlio, in June I77€, 
bad been apjMiinted to prepare tbe pbui, Samuel Adaim alouo 
nnudncd n mL-niWr; and nvori b« vu aliwntt wbcn^ on tbo 
flftfwutb of NoTODiber 1777, '^articles of confederadon and 
porpotunl unlou ^ wem adoptei]. in Ixi vubiuitlciil Un ft|i^>njW 
Hoik to tbe ievcnJ etotce. 

Hie pvaoDt u alivayfi tho lineal daflcoudfott of tbe paat. 

neir form of poUtiioaL Life neror a]>pcara but oa a fErawtli 
t of its ajitttoodonts. In ctril nlFmnt, u macii t* in Intf- 
budjy, aeed-time j^ocs befon? the harvest, and tlio harveit may 
b« 90011 is tbo aeed, tbo teed In tbe harvo&t. According to tbo 
AmeHcan tbooryf tho unity of dio colonioft bad, iK^fore tbo 
deokntloo of liuk'p(?iti]eiioe, redded in the DrEtiAh l:in^ Tho 
oonf^Qas of tlie Fniu^I Btxtfci wiut tbo khtg* uicutmor, uud St 
faihtfitcd oaly tbe iMwers wbicL tbe cclcmieo themselves fto- 
loiavrlfti^l to bAvc btrloQ^ed to the cr>vnL 

Hie iwlincta oS locd attochmcnt liad bcca «tt<ei^thciu?d by 
tinw tad by tbe oxoelkaioe of tho local goronmiinita. A&o- 
tioo ootid lot twine iticLf round a cootiuontul domain of 



2/Ot} AMEKIOA TK ALLIASOE Wira FEAHCE. VMT.;ntxiT. 



which tlio groaX<tr pnrt viWi o wildomco, uiodatad with no 
recollectiona. 'HUq wnfedetiiey waa forinod under tJje in- 
fluence of poTIticol idca^ which had be^ deri?]aped by a 
ciniftvitor {H-iiluriiH fcir imtivjclBJil Ami hn^J lil>urLii:«( ■giiost 
uD irrcspoTmbl^ cx-iUml aiitbontj- Now Uiitt powv4*luul |ia8&ed 
to the p<!*:»ple, utsw uutltntions veru roqiiiied stiong en4>Qg^ 
to protect tho uiu^it^ yut witJtout uii]>airiii£ tli« liberiiM of Ui« 
0tak) or tho indiviiluaL But AmoricOf muled by what belonged 
to the paal, look for her organizinf; forco tfao priodplo oi i^ 
listAcoe to povron which iu all tho thirtoon cdoniet hid b^tt 
hanionod intf) KtiiblK>mnosH hy radAtanoo to ^lawiioiL 

During the sixteen iTtontfm that fclTowed dje iatroductlcu 
of tlio plaii for cimftNli^niLUm prt-jKircid bjr T>jcJunMui, ihn 
!qjtrit f»f M.-|mnLttini, foAtnrcd \iy utinoutrollnl inilatgcaico^ and 
by oppoaing intei^tfi aud iMtitiitioiifl, viaibly increued tu ooq- 
grmi \ and every cbaii^ lii hia draft, which of itwlf propoatd 
only a Ic^i^o of atatoa, dimiiuahcd tho cQergetic oQthoritj 
vhi«h ifi the tirFt i^iAranteo of libortj. 

Tho Cmtcd SiikU'A i>f AiuorifiL iDcluded wfthln ihAlr Jnrit* 
diution all thcf lurnC^^ry tliut hnd l>ol<)iigcd to the okl tfairloaa 
colonics I arid, if OanBida would w choose^ they vere ready to 
annex CmiaiU. 

In the rcpiiMii^A f>! Greece, oUxeiuhip had in thoory 1««d 
oonfined to ftbody of kindred faialtie^t which formed an heredi- 
taiy carie^ a iDaUitiidiiKiu* amtocracy. Such & ^vt«m co«Id 
have DO permanent vitalit>- ; and tho Greek npublka, aa iKe 
Italkm rcpabUcd iu after^^go*, died out for Ai-ant of oitjccna^ 
Ajaonoa adoptod iho principle of the all-enibracu>f( unity of 
aoolety* Ai the Amencan terriioir woa ib^t of the old thirtcCT 
OOloiuoa, 10 tho frMr people n^ding upon it formod (he frvo 
people of the United Sutei^ 8ah|F«t and rttiMm wct^b <^^^' 
luliitfTe (enua; sabj^ets of the motiarehy bvoanm eitieffna uf 
the ir^ptiblic, TTe tlul had owed primary idlc^oiKW to tlw king 
of Enghmd now owod primaiy allt^'aoco to united Amcnea; 
yett 00 Uie repohlic wm the nddon birth of a rcrolation. tho 
niudcrntioa of congrOM did not namo it trcaacm for the fonncr 
sabjoctd of the kin^ to adhera to lUa govemmcDt ; only it waa 
held that whoowr eboce to reniain un tho eoti, by reaidenee 
cocepCed prvjtcctlon and owed alliance. This la tho ivoaon 



int. 



THE OONFEDEBATIOK. 



Ml 



I 



vlijT^ for twelvs jfcon^ tree \ahMtia\iM and dtimu w«ra in 
Ameri^aa eUto papers coDvcidbk t«niu» somotimw oeed Obo 
for tlie other, and ftonietimce, for the sako of ]>e»]>icuitj, ro- 
duDdiuitly joi:icd tog^tlicr, 

Iho kjn^ of Kngland claimod a^ hia eubjocU all porsoiu 
bom witliin bU domliiloTis : In Hko luaimer. cvorj ono who 
fint Kiw d^o light on tho Americftn mifl ^'oji n uatnml-tont 
AmpiicnTi c%li/ec ; trot l\w power nf tiiiliimli/ation, winch, no* 
ikr Uie klii^ wttrh eoluujr h^ claimed to regulaU; lijr lU own 
Uwfk, rt;in«]iiiMl tiitdcf thf! confiiilerjicjr wltlj t1ii^ AirpLnito (tiICK 

Tho king liad c-Ttcrdod protoction to cvctj one of ius 
tkf^ in ererj one of the thirteen colonio» ; now that congrcts 
WM tbo mcccMor of tho tiing id America, tfio ri|:ht to c>qtttl 
protoction vua oontinacd to ovory froo inliabitant id -^vhatovor 
tUto ho mif!:ht fiojonm or dwi^Il 

It had Uaui hold under the monan^hy that cadi Americnn 
oolooiT wu M indopondeat of Kngkud r^ the elMtorate of 
HwiuTur; in ihe coiifed«nuiy oi "tlin Tliiit^ St^tut uf Amvr^ 
ia>" each stftte wiw to rvmain an independent povrrcrlgn, aod 
tbo unioQ waa to be do more than an allianoe. TUb tlieory 
dockkd the nuioner in whlcli congrcM ahonld Toto. Peim^i 
vonia and Virginia odkcd that, while <^rtch state might h&ro at 
leaat one delegate, tho rule iOlouIcJ bo one for i^-crr liftj thou- 
itad inhabitdJit«; bnt t!io &mendmont vna rejoctod by nine 
Matoa of^ainAt two, XKiiiwaro beiii^ abacnt and Xorth Carolina 
dirtdod- VCtfnuia would Imve atlowod to oach «Wo oiw nwrn- 
of congr«i«c for oveiy thirty thoiuand of ita inhAbrtancsp 
d in tliia ahe waa «np[>orti'4l }*y Jiihn Adnititi; hut liU ool* 
Inagnm Gant ttp rote of ^kfuRwiritiiH^ttA ngiiriKt it, and VirgiDia 
iraa left alone/ NtHrth Carolma &s liefora bein^ equally divided. 
Vliguia, i^fin mipported hy -lolin Adnrnd^ de^red that die 
tation for each rtatc fJiould be in proportion to ita con* 
ibutioQ to tho public tKaairy ; but tliU wae opposed by 
otiier 8tat«v iDclDdin^ Korth Cirolina and Koseaohuaettai 
Al laat, vlth odIj odd state diridod and no negative voice but 
thai of Yif^nia, an i^qual Tot^* ld coii|rrOBa ^caa acloicwledged 
to bekHig to eadi ^-n^^rclgo Ktabx Tlii^ uiiniber of dalagatea 
Id gnra that vtiia migfit be not Tnw tlmii two nor more than 
•eren for cadi etate. The retuedy for thU inet^italily en- 



SOS AMERICA IX ALLIAXCE Wrra niANCE »,nr.;cii.xrr. 



lianodd ik» crO xad foreboded amuoLj ; wMle ea«li tWo liad 
one vote, *^greut juuI v«nr Jiitercwtiog <jiiu«tionit *' ccmlit Iw car- 
rird onlv bv tlio romrnrniir-e of nine ffUUvi. If tlw Rdri<« of 
SaiULiel Ad^iuiH baJ htmn lutt-ncfd t4>, tbe viita uf mii6 HUhai 
would ftot liavc pruvailird, iiiilcnt tliey rcpru«ciitf?<] a tiinjori^ 
of tlic pcopb of all iho «tate<i For tho trmncdoQ of loift im- 
portant bufliiicse, an afiinnatiTO roce cf seven fiUtea vraa t^ 
4|uired. 1» otlier words, in tbo on« cue tho M*ent of tm;) 
diiidfi of ftU die AUto«, in tbo othcir of a majority of them ftU, 
waa veeded, tlte attsenee of an/ Atate having the foroc of a 
motive vottL 

Tl)e king^s right to l^vj ta«c« in tho colonm bj" parliam^Dt 
or In' hiH |>ivn^t.iv« luul lii*<'-ii d(Ttdt?<!, suu! im> umrr thuik a 
power to Piitko nx^ni.-iitjoun had beuu lumcudcil : in Ukc tnaiuicr 
it wa« assomed aa a fnndanicDUl article that tbc ITnitcd tiut«a 
ia coagTcaa aaaembted ahall never impo^o or kvA' anjr t&x or 
datiM^ bnt only inako reqaiutiodoa for money on the aovoral 
cMea ; and this reetrictioa, Rich was thi* forco of naag^ wia aiO* 
eopted without retuaric. Ko cno explainQd tho diatinotioji he* 
twuon asiipbnor pou'or wL*UUhI 1*/ an huieditaij king in an- 
other hemi^iphcre ami n mi|wnjir jxiwirr which nTioiild be thd 
duNCOi exprobmioii uf the wUL aud reaaoD of the naiifiii. Tho 
ooantiy hiid IdXikvQ with the pa«t in <lDch>Hng indepeadcnoo; 
it went back into bondafc« (o the part in fonaing its fint euw 
atitution, Tlic king might eetalJiah a geitGnl poet-oMcc^ it 
had hccn held, for public oonrcnicuoe, not for a ]nirpoao of 
revonuo: In like manner congrooa mi^ enlhoriie ratee of 
poctogo to dofrnj tho ejcpenee of trtnaporUnit the tnoiU. The 
colonia under tbo k!i^ liad »evi<raJ1^- hn-K<J import and ex- 
pai dotice ; the same poWTr w« nvTrvrd to each aepoMe 
alaUi, to W liinitt^l im1,v h/ the proposed tivttti«* with Fmoc 
■nd SpRUL 

The new repoblic waa left iritbont any indepcndoit rev^ 
cue, and the ohar]gee of tho ^OTemment, ita beiMA of papor 
monoXi its loaWt were to be nltimatelj' dofntvcd through 
recpusttioiifl for Ike qnotaa am o m o ^ upon the «cpttjute atntoa. 
Tbo difEcre&oo botween the North and tlw South gpty^mfs oat 
of tho inftitation of ala?a7 daeidad tin mhs tor tlte diirtnba' 
tioti of these quocu. Bjr Um dnft of Dickiunn, taxadon waa 



I 

I 

I 
I 



im. 



THE OOSFEDERATIO^. 



«}« 



I 



m pn^portiori tf> thvc^wuiaof pnpt;lati*>n. m which nkvce 

to be enumerateiK On tlie t1iirteei»tii of OntulMrr 1777, 
It was moved ibat lIik? Aum tii liti pai<l 1>^' tw^li »t»fi} tnfi> t]i6 
tretnuy slfeo^d be luccrt^cd hj the ^uo of all im>pfirt7' 
idttun dich 8tat& This w^ prompUv ue^dred, ouil kw 
foUo^fcd bjr a motion haviu^ for it* cHjcot to exempt slaxee 
from toxfitioo nl^Ho^tlicr On tTic foilowinj^ day oI«7od steM 
wero pftssonL Tho four of New Eofilaod voiod in th« n^a- 
tiro; Mutjliuid, Tirg;iiiia, snd tho tvru ^'artdinui m tlic affirruft- 
tiro^ Ro^iCTt Morri« of P<mn^*lvanifl Against Itoberdoau, and 
2>iKr of JlCevr York against l>ijuii«f voted with the Suutli, ind 
*] tlitt votat of tiitTir h1aU« wtTm iliviilt^l ;ind liktl;. 7\w dod- 
IDOO rcriod on Ncir Jcncy» and ihe gaTo it for tho couipkte 
«aetnptkm irtan taxation of aU propert> in ftkroa. Thla ia tJic 
finft Lmportuit dirbioa betirooa tJavohoIding ftu1<i# and the 
■liita wivsro i^Uvcry wa« of littio account. Thv r\iio fur aj>- 
pOOrtioniTi^ t^o roTi^nue, aa tindly adopted, wn8 tlie r^]>«etiTO 
nltu of land grantod or aurvejed, aod die buUdinge and iin^ 
provomoiit* dmroQiii, wit]]r>itt rogan! to piswunil pmpitrty or 
mtmbOfS. tlds rendeivd tiie confederacy nngatory ; f(>r con* 
gnw lia^l not [u^viwr Ut inalcci Llia vahiatlon. 

Id like manner t1i« ni1c« for nari^tion wens to bo Mlib- 
Ikhed exduaiTeJ^ br «a^ separate state^ uid tlie ooufederadoa 
d ikot tiiko to it^Lf ponror to coiintcrraiL the luitrictiooi of 
g OT o rnmenta, or to foam agrocmcotB of rociprociUt or 

to <tft^liii nnlformity* Thosa amn^qecieaita suited tiie 

ioiocu of the tiino ; tho lugidature of Naw Jcmcy, ve^ced bj 

eoDtrol of New York ovct the ■wnten of Npw York liny, 

prapoied Mi alt auieitdiuont a f^miL of ^p'^at^r jiower 
orcr fnjvigii ^<)1n^1lfrc*f^ Mnniovi^r, tim^i vlalit dt^cidtMl for 
iMlf vhat iniporta it ironid pennit and what it voiilil pm- 
iSttL Aa a eonaeqnenOQ, tlm oonfederate congren wa« left 
iritbont poiror to MoctJoii or to stop the etavicytTftdo; 

Tbc kiujf bid pottfiified all laftd not alleut^ by royal 
pnla. <m tiiu dtidarttkm of indepoodcnee, the royal quit' 
Tenia ooasod to be paid ; aod oacb *tata acauiaMt tbc omior- 
•Upof tlia royal domain wiUiin its bmits. The valkU^ of 
Ibe mA of ptrSaminit wbiob tmnfiferred iho region ncTtk^mct 
of the Ohio to the province of Qnoboc vtw doniod by all ; Uit 




AMERICA IS AUJA5CE Wrra FBiSOE. ip.rr.s cit Br, 



tho et4t<4 vrJiicIi bjr t^icir eUArtom extended iodcfiniuslj west) 
ar woet and oortli-ffeet, refoeed to oooept the I'luc^d States u 
tiio umpiro to acfttle their bouadebrlos, <>3[Gqii with, regmrd to 
oacb othor. 

J^alonsy of & standing amy and the Aoperionty of tlio 
xAvi] over f!ie ninitar^ |>uw«r wen* ujiiorig lio dout«t tndi- 
tloiut of Rngliiih liliirrtip-. Tt wiw Txirnii in miiid tiiat victorioBi 
leg:ioiis rerolutloalzod Rome: tbat Cliarlefi L souglit Uttntr* 
tLini the [natitutioDa of England hj au urair; tlint hy an Armj 
ChiKrlc« II- wttA bronght bftck vithout conditioii«; thai b j a 
standing onnyt which Americans theiUMli^oa wero to bav« hcco, 
taxed to mointftiiif it hod boeD propoaod to Abridge AiQ«ricflD 
Ubmtioa. In congrvu UiU dij^tmrt of miHiarj power oxisled 
all the n\oro for the conlidcnco s^nd undivided a^e^rcion wlikb 
iJie people bore to the Aiiieri(^aii oomni^iider-ln-elilef, and hu 
tiyr JU (!Xi'iiM<^ tbat himuiii iiulum wibt luuillj^ nupponpd ablo to 
fumisli an einniplc of a military Lborator of tiia contitrjr, il& 
mrona aftor rttijflhing bia work to go into private Life, Wo 
bnTD accn !iow camcati; Wulun^n ondoarored to catabUah 
nn anny of tbo I'uilcd Stntoe* Ilia plon^ which, at tbo time 
it was proposed, oonj^roea did sot rentLiro to reject, ww &ow 
dcHboraE4>ly demolUbod. To prerent n bomogoneooa or|*aalt» 
tiori, it nit only left fo cmi'h of dipm tbo cxcluave power orer 
£(j? niilltiftf but ifie cxdusJ^e appointHiiidfit of the n*gira<.-nta] 
(jiljt*urri 111 IfA <[it(>t:i iif Uttd fin-m* fur tliu p-mrr^l irrvico- 

Af in England, to in Amcncji, tbia jcatousj did not aictisid 
l-^ iiiantiuia aflairs ; the «cparate stateo bad no alons in tlio aj^ 
pointmoct of oBicciH in the navy. 

Am the Idng in England, so tbo Unitod States determined 
on poaicc and ^'Uff aiMit amlianndore to foreign powcra, ood 
BDtQo^ into troatiua and oUian«<i; but, btiaide tboir f;«ikera] 
want of executive power, the grant to make trcotica of occn- 
merco wait limib>d bj- t)i<e power reined to tbo states oror 
importa and exports^ orer iibippiii^ aiul nnrrnur. 

T)w rigLt of coUiing mcmejr, tho Hgbt of keef^ up ftliip»> 
of'War, Wd fotiTos foita, and gamaon^ were aJukrod hy roo- 
gnv0 witli tbo reapectirc italeBi No atato, Mniuachnaetta not 
more than South Caroli)ia> would rabordinaio iu law of tueaaon 
to tbo will of congrcMi The fdnnatiOQ of a claea of natiooil 



inr. 



TiUC iX»NfKDfiBAT10:4. 



20;^ 



ftatoamcn iroa iinpuiod by tLe cliim6 wbicli forbodo onj men 
to ett in eo<D^r<ii« moro than tliroo joorf out of eix ; nor could 
thj> Mm« member of oons^rsm he appointed iu preddent inoro 
th^ui oaw year in any term of throe >'ea)«. No esu^cuiivc di«- 
tiitct from the gmi^rgj (;oingrcR« crjuUi bo dutJfcteJ ia the ay^ 
tcm. Judieid |H>vrer over queadoiu aHmug between Uie xtjtteii 
mw pnmdiitl fur; nml (*<mrl«i might In; i^HluMtKhrs] to fx^r- 
ci»e primar/ jurlfidiction over crimes conmiittod on ihn high 
•cti, vritli appellate juritidiction over captured, but tljun? viu 
•earody the radimcnt of a jndiciitry from which a court for 
execntiog tho ordinnticofl of congn-^fl could be developed. 
CoDgtott voj ineapablo of eifcetiml mporviaioa ov«r oltiocra 
of it« owo appointment and in lU own wrvicu- llio report 
of Dickiiiaoii provided for n con&cil; but this was narrowed 
down to **a euTiumtt«e of Ktatea," to be eoinpo^d uf ouo dt;Io* 
g9te f?Dm Mcli 9tnU% witJi no jhih'it wluitiTViT n7c|>i<C'fing iin- 
liurluit buaines^ and no po>vej' of any kind oioe|it tbat vrUli 
wbicli oongrew, " by the conaent of nine Atatea,'' iiiiglit invest 
them from time to timc% 

Each alate rotainod ite Porerelj^ty, and all power not tx- 
prontj ddc^&tod. Undor the king of England, the xtsG of tho 
frto in coknial ]e;?i6latioD had beon oompluined of, Thero 
WW l>oi ovi^ ^ tiiougbt of voHtiij^ con^iTtMi with a vuto on Hit 
hffiBh^OD of etateflr or mbjoctin); aucb l^^i^Iadon to xho ro- 
TfatoQ of a jodlold tribunal. Eiieh ftiate, Ixdng eate«m«d in* 
dHpm4b?tit iintl fxivr.rri^n, Itnd (T)cchi«iV(», foil, nnd final pnwiini 
in evei^ nnttbrr relating to dunieAtjo police and ^TernLnent^ 
to alavenr and numniniBaion, to tJic conditkina of the elective 
fawochiac ; and the rcctnunta required to accoix lojpnilty to llio 
oaotml f^emment were left to be aelf-inipoecd* Incidcotel 
powcra to earrv into effect tlio powon granted to the United 
Statoa were wichbold* 

To eocnploto the secmiiy acaimt control authority, tho 
ankk« of eoafedeiatlou were not to be adopl-^d except by the 
aaH*itt iif iTvrry cmo of thi?i IcgiAlitlitrw of lliti lliirtotn wjiu* 
rale sutn; and no amendment might be made withoat an 
eqiuJ uDanimity. A gnvxrrnntciit whidi lud not jxjwer to 
lery a tax, or taiw a ioldier, or deal directly with an indi ridnal, 
or koep tta cngacemonta witli foreogn powers, or amend its 





^e A^IKRJCA IN ALIJAKCE WTTEl rSANCK. u. rv. ; ou. nr. 

cowtitudoii without dm unauimom coiuont of its memben, \mi 
not OQough of vital forco to keep itJiolf divo. But ft higluir 
spirit mOTOd over the dorlcno^ of tliat fonnjoss void, K<A- 
witiwtuidbig the defocbt uf tlio coDfedcrfttlon, the Qojxgrtnti of 
tho UrutwJ Stiitofl, iDApircd hy Hat lugliot wUflom of tJ^e 
eighf^enth ceiktury, and fteemingl^ without deliai«i, imbodiod 
in titffir wtirk fuiir c%ipiUJ nMitiltx, whidt Pmildeuce in itA lofd 
for the humau mcc could not let dio. 

The repnblice of Grooco ajid Ifomo had tH>eii MBontial!^ so 
more t^jui goveniTiieiitd of citii^. WIioq Homo excho^tMl 
tho narrowiiuiv of tho nndcitt mnnici polity for ooraoopolitu 
esq^tmeicn. the repabho, from the fal£e pnoctple on which it 
vnA crganked, became on oinplrc. Tho mfddle ag«ii had fro« 
towns and enntonji, but iro nntii>iuit rrpnblic^ Omgnw hftd 
faith tJmt GTie repiiblicAH govenimeut could coinjn^ieud icon- 
tifiBikU] ti^rrittir^T eveu thuii^U it iJiiiuld uxti^^d fnitii tJm Gnlf 
of Mexico to the uttcrmoet Limit of CiLnjidn And the eaatem 
liij^t of If ovfoimdland. 

JlaTing tLuB jirochuincd Uuit a republic mnv oquftl the 
widc«t omptro in its boundfif tho rpUtioii of tho Unitod 8tatcfl 
to tho naturul rights of their iidubitanta ww eeltlod with supfr 
nor wUdom. Somt) of tiie HtiUoc hodf mch aocordin^ to its pro- 
vidling gupor«tition or prejudice, njirroMred tho ri^hu of cImoi 
of wen, Ouo nuti^ dbfntiHiIited Jtrwt, tnotlier CUhoUeii 
umitliiT dimiitfH rif UiD Trititty, aiiotlirT moo of t oompleiSoil 
diftcretit from white The Umtcd Stales m congieNi iinefo- 
\4^f gnffw4iiy the efTifTH ill one aiato to i4iiiiin5lv Uw onore 
in another, rvjoctcd every di^^fnmclaioiDe&t and eupendded 
nono. Tha dcohmtion of indepc&donoo aaid, nil men «r» 
croatod e<]niJ ; by tlio articles of ocnfodcmtion and pcrpotoid 
union, freo inhabituiU w«ro ftiso oithDOu, 

Tbut whidi gave reality 10 tho union wu tho article which 
socnred to ^iho frc« inbjkliEUnU*' of n.eh of tho etitoe ^oU 
privU^^e* and intmnnitiri nf fnn< dtiju^ix in the aereral ftrntcn.** 
Oungraii qp|x<4r»vl l4> ^im tho term '^p«opl«of tli* United 
StaCn." It 18 nowhcTO found in thoir vtidu of ccafedcmtko^ 
and rarely and oooly aoddenUUy in their Tot<«; yoiby IhWut 
they ootirtitatod tho Creo inhabatantA of tho diAor«iit ilatea on^ 
poopK Whoa tho artielae of confatentloD loachod tiouth 



TBE OONFElKKATIOy. 



SOT 



lUttA f*>r wnfirmfUi^n, it wxia pcrooiT^d that tlicj»«iirod 
l1 itji^ta of mier-eitiz«DKlii]> in th<i wveral etatai to dio £n>Q 
bkck Inhabitant cf any «tat«. Tbl« couo{u«ion vai oppofi^ in 
tho ]vi^&1nti]n> of Sniilli fVnjIitiTi, ^i<1, ^ifcj^r ;iTi dnborate epooch 
bjr TViUiam Ileni^ Drayt<iri, I.ht^ jirtioJefl wi^re reitirin^il Uy con- 
grev wUh a rcoDituniandutioii tbat mtorcatiKciiAltip i^lioiilil be 
eonfioed to th« vhitD ma.n ; bnt congress, b; £, voto <if iriglit 
atato* affunst South CaJKtiiiia and li4>or^ one vUto being di- 
vided, refuaod to recede £roin tho univcrruLl i^atom on ivhich 
American h»titatioiuiron>b> bo founded. Thod(>d«ion viunot 
due to Impaadoned plulanthropy : slavery at that day (^xinted in 
fiToryone of the iMrCeeit atatca ; and, aotwitlihi^uiding mmj 
men Sfiut^i utwi^] jinTCtirt}! nrvJiTtrirl nl rlir ihnu^it of coQthllE* 
ing the institudoii, cufaloni H'arci.'ly reo^ii^ed tlia black num 
a» ill equal ; yi^ oaagnxt, mt!t a fixeduoia uf |iur|XMc ra^tinff 
on a principle, would cot aw^rrc fn>m iU poddon. For, 
vboD it reeolrod ppoo iDdependciico and had to decida on 
whom a demiu^d ooiUd ho naado to rcaiiLtain that indopendenoCf 
it d«£nod aa monbciv of a colony aU pcrraonjt a1>idin^ within it 
aod deffitiiif; protaotJon from its law*. Xow, therefore, yirhtn 
intVMtnto riglta ««rc to be confide to the in«nbor« of each 
Btato, it looked upon tjvvry fircmim wlio ow«I pntiwry aJlo- 
^anne to tlie &:alo aa a citij!«D cif the Htaie. The irve hlaek ii»< 
l«liitant owed al]egi&a<^ and inia oatilled to iKpial dvil righta, 
aod BO vaa a dtucn. Congnvis atIliIo it left tho regulation of 
Ibe electiro franchiae to the jad^n^^entof oooh 8tat«, in tho atti* 
dot of cocifcdomtion, in ita irota and ita ttvatica frith othor 
powan^ fodcooed aU tho froo inhiUjitanta. witUont diBHnction 
of aaoQstvy, ereod, or color, as auhjccia or dtiaoiu. But Amer- 
ka, thon^ the boat ropruieui^tive of tho socfd and pulitical 
aoqniaitioii^ of iha cdghtoonth centatj, waa not tlie paiwit of 
thtt Uloa iu modtfni (■irilizati<^ that man ia m conaUtuent menw 
bar of tlie stat9 td hie hu'rth, irrwpmtm of hh Hiioaatjy. It 
waa already lite [mfjik' hiw of rhriatAndou. Had America 
done IcB* aha would hare been a laggaid among the nations 

One other Ufo^Tin^ excoUcneo diEtiD^oiahcd the articica 
of oonfcdomticnL Tlio iiutruiiLcnt waa tfuSii£4:d with tho idea 
of aocnring tho largcat liberty to individual man. In the ao- 
flicait Orodt repnbtio, tho ctato existod htiioro tho mdividual 




)S AUsaiicA i!r AtLrAXCK irmi France, ip.it.; ai.m. 



and &1tfort>cd tlui tmliviilunl. Tijougbt, religioae opioioci, vor- 
ablp, conacieuGc, JtmiuenieDU, JDys, kiitowh, &1] actirtlScfi were 
r^uktii] Irjv 1li<--BUEd; IUl' iiKUvuliuil lived tm}y iw ko inti-grsl 
pait of tbc sUtc A declaration of righte is « dcclaraticHi of 
thoeo liberUee of tbo iodiTidaal vbiub the &tat« caiinot jurtl/ 
Gcmlrol. Tbu Gncvlojratcmof Uw knew nothing of mch tibcr- 
tt«« ; tbo Grook citizen novcr epoko of the rights <^ man ; iho 
individnol vna tne^ed in tho bodj pobtlo. At lut a gorera- 
tniwt founded on cuuwut could bo porfccUxl ; for tho adcnowl- 
edgniMit that con^dcncc has iU ngbu bad broken op tlid 
unilj of despotic power, and mitflmufd tbe freedom of the in* 
dividtiid. Bfmitw Uirm wiui llfif >n jlU t1i» pvrtii, then vu 
the SLtro protnisQ of a wuU-or^r»iuz«d Ufo in the wboliL 

Yel Uio ^^mmg republic failed in >t» fint cfFoft at forming 
ft general miion. The amoko in the flanie orcrpoirered the 
ti^t " The oitidve of oofifedontkii oidearorvd to reoooMfle 
a putiol aorureignty in the nnion with compldo •ovoroigntj 
in the tta^u*^ to «ubrttft a matlMnnatial axiom fcpj takh^ away 
a put and Letdn^ the whole roouin." The pothy then fortnod 
could hardly b* called an organuition, no little did the patta 
mntcslly comqKtild and coiMnr to the same final aotkiiL 
T1u» ttpteiu vaa imperfffct, and wax acknovrludgvd tn be Ini- 
perfecL A hifltcr odo could not then have been acnepled ; 
bnt with all ita f:udu it eoot^ned the ekmenta for ihn eYotn* 
tioQ of n more perfect nnioa The mitimcnt of natkiodtj 
wa« f onulng. llic iramcia of tbc eoofodcracy would not li- 
mit into that inxtmmcnt the ikatne cf the people of the Cnitcd 
gtntoa, and dcMfibed the aialaa ai ao nnny Knrgnign amd inde- 
pesdeot eoauBwdtiea; yet already In the dtenlar leSber of 
November 1777 to the ataiei^ aeklng their aereral anlMerii^ 
tuna to the plan <if confcdmmr, thejr aTowed the por p o a e tti 
aeeon to the InhahitanlA of all the alatn an "inrfHeiiBn aa n 
b«e people'* Tbe eUU that waa then bora ww creiricd be> 
tweeai cppoeing powen of eril; if It wUl Hve» ita lafnal 
aticagtii mnat atnngle the twte ecipeota gf a^ttitiKn end oeft- 
tnl dcBpotjanL 



I 




THE WlKTEfi AT VALi-ET fOKGE. 



SW 



CIIAPTEK XT. 



vDrnm at tallst fosob. bbttaik ]k wabtt of TBoore. 
XovvvBRR ITTr-Apiia J77^ 

WjiKW At liwt HTutliingtcn w« join<^ by troopw from ihe 
nortiiem anu/, a ctamor arvnw for (Jie <!fipturo of I^hi1a<ltit|i1ila. 
Profteeted bj^ Uiu Subu^lkill utkI llr? Di.4uw9uti, tlu? cHt^v r»ii1i] 
bo ftpfircAcliod on}}- from the uortb^ and on tLat ftide a chain 
<tf foartocn Kdoabts extended from river to riTer, Moreover, 
tfao an&j by which it woa cccupicj, hnving bcon reinforced 
from Xciff York l>y tnoro tbim tlirco tlioiuaad mcu, exceeded 
Dli>etc«D thoiidud. Four Americaji offloora voted in eoiuidl 
for an aftMulC upon the Udca ol this grofttly iitiporior forco; 
but tba gtturr^, siwtuoed \jy eleven, digregaidod tho mnrmon 
of eoDgratt and rejecti?d *^ tJje mad eDterpHwL* 

WiUi <|u>ekiiR0 of eye lie selected in ibi; vckhU of WTiite- 
iDanb strong ground for an cDcampmcDt, and Uici^ u'llhiD 
fourteen milttof riul&dj^lphia, a>railed the enemy, uf wUoie 
iDiovgaiienU lie reecived cxat^t imd timely intclligciic«. Ou the 
•ererely cold aigbt of the fourth of December the ilritidb, 
fenrtceo tbouaand etrenf?, marolied out to attack tho Aineriaoi 
GDoe. Bcfora daybreak on the fifih their id^iLUCC party 
faiitdd on a r\4g& beyend Cbe>tnut UiU, eleven Dules from 
PkUadelphia^ iind at aevim thudr m^i body formed in one line, 
vhli a few ngimenca &s retervea. The AmericanA occupied 
thickly vooded hilLi, with u tiumum and a hrook In tlioir front. 
OppQfllte ibt- Bntu^h left wing a bn?e8tnork defended tbo only 
{mint where the bnxrk oonld be eojiily forded. At night tbo 
Lrttiab force mted oq their amu. AVariiiogtoD pimd tbe 

iiom in alraigthisiing hi^ pocdUou; ud tiioigbt tcoordiog 

tea. w^^\4 




210 AMERICA IN ALLUXCE ^ITH FRANCS, sr. rr. ; oi, jet. 



to Kalt) vb'ljo vaa preecot, be had but wven tbooaand rcftUj 
offootivo mcn^ Lo widhctJ fi>r nn cngBgemtiit. Ncu* Uto end 
oi onotUoriby ITowe msu'clied biick to G^rmflntovn, and on 
the n^xt^ as if intending a surprite, tnddenlj rettmubd ojxrti 
thv Afnt^rSrjui left, irliItU \ui modo pn^ixintioitt to ftfvaiL 
Wasliiiigtmi delivered in pei>on to eaolt brigade hu orders on 
die luuuaer nf receivinj^ tliuir t^neiuy, Quirting to a rrdiuir^ 
on tlio 1>ayo&ct. All day long, and until oiglit id tho evm- 
iug, Howe kept up Lie rccon&oitnog, hnl iound the Amcricau 
poution cv^rywhoro atroug hy nature and hy art. Xoiliiug 
oconiTCil but u ii1:uq> cictioa od Edgo nUl between light 
troops undCT GUc and Morjipxn'fi nfiemen and a Brituh party 
lod by Qon€r:Ll Or^y, The tatter loi^t eightT-nlue in killed 
and wonntU'd ; tJic AnuTicnnUf twuoty-sovon, imong thom t3w 
bmvu Hajor ATorrih of New Jersey. On ibe eighth, jiwt after 
nocni, thn nriti^U Ea^ddtTiiIy iitimibiM] by thi^ aborlvftt mail to 
rhikdt^lphi^ Tbcir Ion in tlic expedition cxcccdod one hun- 
dred. Tho ro^t of tho BcaeOE Hovro made no QxcunionBCir- 
ccptfi'ir food or fora^^; and Wtkihingtoii had no choice but 
to eook wintcr-qiiortoro for his ni^fring soldiers ; whilo Oat^ 
with Conway and Mifllin^ formed a cabal to drivo AVa£hin|;iOEi 
into retirement and jiut Oaie* in hk pUcc 

MiliUry nfTairu luii.1 tlin» fiu* bwn eoperintend^ by a coa- 
greealonal committee. After aotuB ]>rtlu<&0j In Jnly 1T7T, h 
wnN fttriniTfl in tin? f<ilh)win|^ OrfulH'-r tii inittititir mi vxnrntivii 
boai'd of war of five porsonfl not memben of oon^jeai. 

Conway, a trtoich cfficerof Jrinli dotoent, !uid long bacD 
eager for highor r^nk. In a timely letter to Bicbait] Ueniy 
hott a irieud to Conwayj Waahingtoa yrrMs: *'Hia meiite 
cxiat nioro in his own imagination tiian in ntdity ; it b a mijdni 
with him not to inint ADytbing vrhich ig to h« obtained by 
impcrtnnlty ; " hk proniotion would be "a real a<!t of Injn^ 
tic^,** likely to " iiieur a train <if irmncdbbltf evtU. To *ttm 
np the whole^ I hare been a slave to the aervieo ; I kavo on- 
drrgiin^ nuini l.hiui miwV mm iin* uwan? »f Ut lianminLto mi 
many iliwordont pnrt«; but it will be impcMiblo for mo to be 
of any further sorvice if auch infiupenible diflicnidea ar« t^irovn 
in my vrhy.^ Conway hrcathoJ ont his dbcontcnt to Oataa, 
writing in mbetanco; ^'Hcavon haft been dotcrminod toeavo 



ITTT. 



TiiE ffwrra AT VAu:Er forgk 



311 



jooT oornitry^ cr a weak gim«a] aic) biu) cotuwoUora voald 
hftve niiEied i^." TLe carTwponcknta vf Gates did not acnipb 
in tlitrir li^tfj^ni tii Ajiini); of llii! cnrnuiiuKlcr-iiM'hirif vrtlli Inttet^ 
aea» or oontenipt '* Thii! onny," wrolc Rcci *' notwitliatoiiO- 
lug die efiiortfl of our ammHo chief, Itod &« yet ^tliRrcd no 
laarcls. I pcrfuctly agree with ibxt tcnttmcnt vbicli leada to 
roqncil joor ucistoncc^ On tbc seventh, ^i ffl JT i ^ leflTuig his 
office (^ qiiait6nnast«i^neTulf of -vihSch lie liiul ncgloctod tha 
duties, vot retAiuing die nuilc of nuijorgcnoral, wafi elected to 
tlio bottrd of w&r. Tho injurioiu woc-ds of Cgiiway baviog 
ttum^h WUldasoD been made known to WiuJiiugt^nt, on cIiq 
litntli liftiMtniniiiiiimliM] liJAkruiwli.'dgDof thrftn to OoDWay, and 
to him aloQiH. Conwaj in nn ictisrvicw jiJ8tifii:!d tliL'iit, iiuuli: no 
apcJog^f, aod after tlid iuu-rviuw n?jHirted Lib delinncc uf ^aj^h- 
ijigton to Uifflin* On the tenth, ^tillivnn, knowing the opm- 
ioa of hit brother olSccra aijd of hie chief, and that on a 
diMUiioiL at a ooutidl of war ub^ut appo£ntiB^ au iutspct^r^ 
gODonl Ooii'vraj''« prct«aaoiu met with no favor, wrote to a 
member of ocngrean: **'No man caa behave better Id option 
thia Gonend Cobwbt ; Ids regulatieua in hi« bri^dc pre much 
better than any in theanny ; his kuowlrdgu of iniHlary matters 
br enceudk aiiy oil^ci^r wtr Iiave. If t\m ofHce of Ltiiipt^-lor< 
goneral witli tlie rank vt major-giruural wuA jpvcn him, our 
arm; wooid eoon eat a di^crcnt lignrc from what they now 
da" Oo the #aine day Wayne expreaaed hw prnpoec "to 
fellow the tine pointed out by tlic conduct of Lcc, Uatcs, and 
Uifflin." On the eleront^ Cocwny, foreaeein^ that Uatee wua 
bo prMide il the boaid of war, ofTerod to form for him a |>InQ 
for the inetnution of tho anny; and, cm tlie fifteenth, te 
advance bla intiijfW, he tendered \m reeignatloai to congrew. 
On tlwj wuTuiitiN'utli, T^vell ijf Mmuiicljtuvtb wrolu ii> GaiiM, 
threatening Wafildngton ''with Uio mighty torrent of public 
damor and ren^eiuoe," and subjoined : ''Uow difTerent your 
emdaet and your fortune I thit< army will bo totally Icet unlcci 
yoD eome down and collect the Tirtueaa bund who wuh to 
fi|^ mder your banner.^' On the twentyftrst, Wayne, for- 
gMag the dawtor that had attended his own nshneaBt did- 
panged WnahJnfften m havinj; more than once slighted the 
£iTori of forttme. On the ivecty-fonrtb, congnsi rceeired 



312 AMERICA IN AXUAKOfi WITH FRANCE, w. rt.; <nL w. 



the rocignation »f Conway, and rcf(>rrad it to tho bomd of «w, 
of which Mifflin %t that dmQ wu tlio hwd. On U19 cwen^- 
«eventli the^ filled the places in that boani^ and ap|)oIni«d 
GflUw lift pnwiilniL Ot; die Kuim ilu^ liiivL'U wiXfUf t<> Gatoi; 
^^We w&iit you in diifi^^rcnt jljun:*; ^o wiuit joti moet imw 
OcmiAiitovriL Ooud God, wLat & eitufttion ve Are in! fai>v 
diHcrcnt from what might have been jnitljr c?tp6ct«d 1 ** BDd 
Le repncaented WaAhin^n aa a ^uerai who coUoct«d a*- 
toDitliing [iuiut)6iH of mCD tii -waa out atockiogB, ilioc«i ood 
breecLoB, &nd *^ Kabiuei^ uiTaire ifilo a vonr 4lt«agnM&U4 po& 
ture.'* Oq the tweoty^pLthf oonfrrc«&, by a tmanimous n>i> 
lutton, dockrcd iu favor of cArryitig on a vHcter'a cuDiwign 
with vigor and KUcci?f9i, aiul iwnt UirvTof lU members to di- 
r^-t tivtry measure whlcli airvumstances might require. Oa 
tho HHino dnv TktlMii, expljiluiuf^ to Oaten ht>w Codwijt liad 
braved tho comniADd<-r-ui-chicff voluntccrod hia own opiniou 
thtit the extruct from Ccmwuy^a kttcr waA a ^^coUcctioD of joft 
dontimcnls.^' (latuw on rocei%4fig th« Lett&r, wrolo to Ocnwuj; 
^* Voa actod with aJ tho di^^it^ of a rirtcoiu Aoldlor,** II« 
vkhud "ao reiy valuable and polite aD officer mifihi ivmidi 
in tlio service.'* To congrcM ho comj>l[iInud that hi« corr^ 
ipODdBTico had be^n betrayed to Wa^ingtorir with whom he 
oama to an opwi mpiura Od tho tlurteenih of Di^iwitibiTr 
congreMy following ^Tiffliti^K n?port, appoiDted Ooawa/ inspetv 
torgeneral, promoted him to be a majoff^eDeralr nwk h£i 
office iiidepctidtmt of the commander-in-duefr ^^^ refcrrcri 
ium to thQ board of war for tho rcifiiUtionA which ho wa» to 
iutfoduce. Some of thoac eoigagod hi tho caW, *" whlob had 
it« eupportore oxdnuvely in tfao Xorth,^^ wiiihod to provola 
Wa£hiiij^>n to remgu hi£ place, 

Thia luippcucd JuM aa WafthIiip;ton at WhitoeoAnh 
doMd tho campaign with honor. TZio pit>blctn whi^ he 
Dext aolve waa ttJ Iceep together LlirT;ii]gh tlie eold win 
anny vriduint tnrilj^ euiiI to ciaDftiici liiu Britnih to Hm en 
of Philadeipliia. There waa no town which would eerve the 
pcupoee. Vallej Forge, on the Schuylkill, but twenly-otw mxltt 
from Fhilftddphia, admitted of defence againat the aitiUerr of 
tboee dayv, and baid more than one irootB oonrenient for eeap« 
into the interior. The ground lay b&tweon two ridgca of hilkiT 



1 



I 




TEE WiMKK AT VALIET FOEGR 



213 



nd wii cototikI by a thick iorcsL Aa Uu men iriorod toward 
tlie ipot, tiiej vera in n^ of clothes and blankets and 
^koct, aa wen as tenfs, and were ftlmost m often idlboitt pro- 
Tigimw Mt witli tUt!iu. Oti tlic! tiliii'fHi-iidi tnliiiy ilitivihI nt 
Valley Forge» with do coTerin^. From !iis life in ili& wood^^ 
Wubington could mc in the trees a to^-rt of log oibiitf, built 
in n^gnLir streets, aad ufFurduig «liehcr enough to tare the 
aimj from diapcmoa Tlic order for their oroction was w- 
cdved by officers and m&n ae impoesibLo of oxeoution; and 
duijwen astonuhcd ut thu oom with wliioh, lu; tho work of 
th«lr Christmaa hoL'dayi?, thoy cbftngcd the fon^t into huts 
tbfttdi^d with boughs Id the order of s. regolar eneaiupment, 

Wmliingtini ww {ullnwr.! tci Vallrj ViT^: hy Irlti^r* frnm 
coDgTRH irAmmittiDf; thi^ ¥viTiaiA»<tniiiccT of tht; council aac] as- 
aeni1>Jy of Peou^jrlvania against his going into vinter-quart«rB. 
To tbU TCpiroof WoflJiingtou, on th« t^T«iity-thin3, oft^r Uring 
dMerrod blamu njxm UiflLin for neglect of dnty as qtuuicr- 
rautcr^gcDeniJ, icpUcd: "^For tho want of a two days^ Fupply 
of pronsiociA, an opportuaity »oar^y over oSdred of tdi^ing 
an advintoj^ of the irnvmy that hag not been either totally 
obfltni<*t«d QT greatly impeded. Men are cODfined to bos|JitaJs, 
w in fartnoT*' huitnw fur waid of fllicfeK. "Wn liavn thiRday 
no les dian two ihoivuiLd right hiiDdivd and nmety-eigbt mea 
tn camp nnflt for duty, becauae they are barefoot and oLhcrwiao 
ttikcd, Ottr whole atmigtJi in continental troope amounts to 
ikO luoro than eight thottaand two hundred in can^p tit for datji 
Sinec tho fonrtb instant our ntunhera fit for dut^ from liord- 
ihipe and oxpctoras haro doenMtod noarly two chonnnd mtm. 
Komben still are obli^^ to at idl ni|^ht by fire& Geutlemen 
ivpobaie the going Into winter^naiten as much as if they 
tboQ^t tho loldien wvra mmlo of (ituckit iir kI^ilvl T cilu w- 
AxrathoaegBiitlanieD that it isa much otraer and !«» distics^ng 
tlnng Lu draw nnnonabnukteri in a oonifortablu room hj a good 
firasido than to occvpy a cold, hlcak hill, and «locp under fiost 
aid vow without ciotho or blanketa. Howcrvcr, although they 
teem to luavc little feeling for the nailed and dlftrctiKd Aohliera, 
1 feel 0ti|»nAiQadantty for them, and frona my aonl I pity 
tiion mlMnes whleh it k Deither in my power to reliove or 



S14 ABCHBIOA IN ALLUyOK WTTB FltANC£. nMT,;cB.z 

TThile iboflLiveriDgaoUienwereshipiDg tlielogs forthdr 
cobms Ibo ctatnor of the PdniBjlTftnuLO* eontintidd ; «sdt tho 
daj After Clmatiua^ Sullivan, vLo held with both eidoa, gftro 
liii ^ttcn iidvioo to Wouliiii^rton to yield nsd fttlaek Hou-e in 
Piulodolphioj *■' rwking every cnudqueacfi ill tn feCtklL^' On 
the last day of tho j«&r an anonjTDoiu writor in the '* Xew 
Jersey OiLMfttef'* at Trecton, supposed to be nenjaniin Rash, 
iK'guti n htTij^ i*t aHTcW iiiiili^r tliif ii;Ln]t: of u Fniiii^h ufUuo', 
to ect fortli the ttnrivalW glor^ of Oaten, who liad couqiuanMl 
veteraLfi with niiHtia, poiDting out plainly Wuhtogton*^ ni& 
ocMor. 

Tto ncit ycflT cpcDDl gloomiJy at Valkj yoigo. To the 
touchii^ QccouDt of tho condition of Um arm;, ooBgnn, which 
hod not provtdiyl cmri magnziBd for wintor, made do rocpoBs* 
o^cepl a promisd to the soldiers of cno month'i exln par, and 
a raneval of authority to take the articles Deoeaiar}' for [faolr 
(uiiiiriirtaMi* jLii}wifitf'iu'r, 0(i lla^ fifth iif iTauuni^ 177^ Waith- 
mgton ronewod hie romoDetraticei : ** It ynU nerer answer bo 
procure 0upp!i«ti of clothing or iirovimon by coexxire tuiaBUxm. 
Such procodurcfl uia^ ^va a momcntarj relief^ but, if repeated^ 
beadi» ^refidiiig cJiutTrctioEi, JQalom^^ and fear among tha 
pooplo, never foil, «7on in tho mort veteran troop« nnd^ tho 
moet n^^d and exaot ^sdpUno, to raj^ in tlio aoldicry a dis- 
position to plunder, difficult to nipproM, and not onlj runious 
to tho inhabitants, bnt, in many instaoccfl, to armiw tfaomaolrc^ 
I regret the oocaslau Umt (wmpdled m 10 tho meaaun the 
rithcr day, arid i^hnl] rurutidor it among thu gn«to>t of onr znu- 
totixmea if we should he micler tlio oecemity of practieing it 
again." Still, c^AngrveA did no tuare than, on tlw tvnth mad 
tvrclfth of January, appcnot QmtxB and iCfflin, with four or 
Bto othorBr to lep^ to bead-qnarton and oonoert refdrma. 

Wliilo thoae vrho iriahed tho geoeral out of tho v&y urged 
hitn to aomo mah ontorprite^ or aent abroad rumon tint lio wbb 
about to reei^ Benjaoun Buib, la a letter to Patriot Heniy* 
refirannted liiearmyof WiAliln^'Tmw hiring no g^novU at 
thear hudd, and n-ont on to iay ; ''A tiatuik, a Liw, or a Conway 
%foald In a few weeka rtaider tbna ijre»>tiljK Somo of tha 
cnntentA of UiU letter 00^ to be cnado pablir, in onkr to 
awakini, enlighten, and akna our ooontry*^ Thia comnumt 



ITTT. 



TQ£ VIHIES AT TAUEY rOBG& 



SIS 



* 



which Rn^h lit J not A^gn his mnie^ Fktrvik Heuy 
irith K^m, and noticed only by aendiDf it to Wa^ 
iDgtOD. Ad inoDj^oiouA paper of tho liko itoinp, trunEinitti^d 
to Ucnry Lanrctifi^ then proAdcnt of co&gr&», took the Bomo 
cUrectiou. )Icai>timG,tfaeooiiiiailandaBMiiiUyof I'eiuu^lvanta 
TOD«wod to ooDgroii cho£r witth that Phikdulphii might bo 
reooTftredand tbo Uritigh driven away. CoDj^txi^e bailed tho 
letter >a proof of a. rising Bpirit, and »lirect*>d the couimittOd 
ftppoi£iC«d 111 gu to ciLmp to cuuauII on tho duHirvd &lUit.<k w^ith 
the goyemiDeot of P^iiti^ylvAiiia joid with Gcufrral AVafJiin^o, 

Coowajr hhvmg vainly etrjreu to ttlienata IjdAyeiio from 
Wa&hingtoDt and even to mduco bim to •bandon tbo tTnitcd 
Statoe, tbo board of war «oagbt to entice tho youtig rcprc- 
■enltttive of Franoo by dnjusUng bim with ideas of glory. In 
OODCort with Coawfty, and without Ci^njiuItiDg "Wajdiin^oa, 
tbeyindnood congr^ee to eanotion a winter oxpoditioa agniost 
Canada, under I^ayette, who was not yet tweoty-ond yean 
oklf with Conway for hiit iicr*<»iid Id euuiiruujd, aiid with SUrk. 
At « bsnc^uet given in hi^ honor by Gate* ui Torktownr Xflr 
&yette brarod the iatri^oraf and made tbem all dnnk hia 
toiot to tho heatLh of their general. A«eured 1^ Gates tliat 
be voold o»>n]inand an army of three thousand mou, and that 
Slaik would havo alreiidy d»C;oyed tlie shipping at i^L 
JohD^B, Lafayctt«, having obCainod from oongrosfr Kalbn« bit 
Booood, and Waehisgton aa hia direot cuperiorj repaired to 
Albany. There the three maJor-generaJs of tho expeditloa 
nwt, and vrcw ntteiid^ or followed by twenty French offictm. 
Stark wrote fororck'N, The avbllalile fuive for the conijueetf 
oountjikg a re^mtfuit wlifdi <lnbs ^hrtjiidii'il from the orruy of 
'Waahic^ikiii, did not exceed a thousand. For the»e there was 
BO atora of proviBOAi, nor dothing saited to tJie elimoto of 
Ooittda, nor means of transportation. Two years* itcr^eo in 
the nonhtm deportment cannot leare to Gat«6 tbo plea ol 
ignomnce ; hl» plan ihowcd liifl utter wont of odmlnistnitlve 
eaptcHy; it accidentally relieved tbo eouotry of Conmy, who, 
writing petulantly to oongress, found bifi reeignation, whicb 
lie hod meant i>uly vjt n eDmpkitit, irrev<X!nbly oecejited. I» 
iijette and Kalh werc^ rivalled. 

Slights aud mjITuIi catjalfl could wound the eendbihtyr hcil 




91$ AiCERICA IK ALUASCE VITH FRANCE. «P, it,; cmxr. 



not AlTnct tJia oondnct of ^uftlilngtorL Hia deMetort took u 
uufnir ^dviDtaf^e, for be vms cbliged Co «^ancacU Uio voalcti«i 
of Ui* army from tb.e enemy, and therefor© from iho puhlii?. 
Ti> WUIiitni nttnlitn, v\n> vnut gntfivriiig mutoriaU for a hjtftuff}r 
of the war, h<3 wrote firr ly : " NciOiiT intcrwt^d iwr udIkUoii* 
▼iewa led noe into the service, I did not solicit iho ooannund, 
biit accepted it after mttdi ontreaty, with uU that diffldeoee 
which a TOiuwioua wit of ability and cxpcticnco equal to the 
diMhar^ of eo rmportant a troet inudt DatnnJly exdto in a 
mind not qoitd devoid of tbougUt ; ftnd, after £ did cfiga^ 
pnreuod the great iJno of my dntj smd il)C object in vUne, m 
far SB n\y jndgmeiit could direct, as point^ly as the ikeadle Id 
thn jHilti. No |MMxiii mrer hi*anl niir dr»p ait exprtsaaun dial 
had a k^doncj to rmgaatwn. Tho aamo pnpci|)lu« (bat kJ 
me to embark m the oppoaitioti U> the arbitnirr clauoft of Gmt 
Britain operate with additioiul force at tkut dar ; nor U it mj 
do<ii9 to withdraw mjr tcrrieo«, while thctf are eoaaidumt of 
importauee lo the preae&t coDteet There is not an offioar in 
the aervfce of the United Statoi that would rctora to the 
ftVp-tx-'b; of docnc^ic Mte with nkora heajtfeh jot tlian I sboald^ 
but I nmn not to shrink in the cause." 

In hu rvmiomdnumvi wtth odfigTvu? Ul^ wmCe with plain* 
immit but with moderatios. fl» calm di^'lj alike trntalfid 
and OTorawcd }ii» julrerMriee ; and nothing ewdd ibake ilie 
eoofideooe of the people, or divide the afleetioDi of the Mimj, 
or penoanontly diatract the majority of ooQCPBBBb Tbuee 
who had beeo moat ready to oanl at hbi soon wiibcd their 
laali word* hcoevolood/ inlerpn-ted or forgotten* Oato^ 
dooied Um cbargo of being in a l^aj^o to npeieede AVoatun^ 
ton as a wlc^red, fil^, diabolica] cahimnv of Ineesdiariaa, and 
wiMild not helicvo tJut anv «udi ^itiA exii4nil ; Mifflin o aoae^ 
ated Unavlf in more equivoeaJ hmgii^o ; md both ntind 
bom the committee that wis lo npalr to head-qoaitera. The 
FVcndi nuDbtcr kmdij ciipreeBed to the oOeen from Ida coon- 
tr^r hie diaapptobatioo of their iakiii|r part in aaj ttU win^ 
eT«r. In the following Jnlj-, Oonway, thinldttf Uroaalf nwr 
tall; wonoded in a dnel| wfoto to WaaUA|ciock : *^ Uy cvecr 
will looo be ever; tfaenfore JMdee simI troth prompt aee to 
declare mjr Im 8enlliiiant& Tea ant iiv tor »t«c die grmi and 



fl 



1?77-17TSC TUK UIM'EK AT VALLEY FORG& 



317 



good mvw May yon lonf? ocjOT tbo Ioto, voBomdoE. imd c»- 
tcOD of tbo09 lUUw, ^bo«o liberti«B you hnvc uMrttsd by your 
Tirtiic*." TLo eommittoc, wliich towflKl tbo end of Janiury 
WSK finalfy tetit 1o consult with W^liin^^n, was i^oinpoied 
«t<*lu:ilivlj *>f niemlien of coiigrn** ; mitl tin; nmjf^Cy of Uiuo^ 
cFpmrinlly f'luLrlt^s Out^H of IhfiLryl^tl mid Jrrim Hjirrey of 
N'irgiiuA, were liM friends. 'Hiey discenicd at OQue ihe filse- 
hood of lUe mmora ogaitifit AVjiAUlQgton. Jatio Honxy ttud 
to him: "^If ymi luid but expJiunocJ ycmrAcIf, tbc«c reports 
' would havo iMWod iong ago/' And his nn^wor was ; *' How 
eonld I baTo thrown off the blame wfiliDai doin^; injtuy to 
tbo common caiuM \ " * But, bi tlui prountftiQiUion of activo 
m cwMTW of rc>liuf^ tbo c1i*p.imnent« of the qnartemmstOT and 
eomcntmaiy rerosunefl like olookA with ^ maiiy d^eckjt thut 
dwy canifeot go. Even an liit«7 a* tbc cbrvtratli of Pobniary, 
UoftAtCtiftof chc eomiiiittoe, retried diat men died for thi) 
want of atnw or oiher beddiajf toraUe Ibein from t^c cold, 
damp cartb, InocnJotiOD wa* for a like rt^Mon delayed. AJ- 
tnoft CTtny 0pec;c£ of cjimp-tran?pi>rlfLtion wae perfonncd by 
DKO who, witlioul A !otirmijp, yokvt] tbcm«olrc« to littlo car- 
ri^i^ of their own makinf?. or loaded thcu* faet and provisiona 
on thedr baeka. Somi^tEmua fuc-l woji wuittln^, wbun fo^watit 
^mOt Bhooi and stockings ibcy conld i^jt wnlk tliroiigli the mow 
^^Pso out It En the timglif>oriikg wooda. Some brlgndea had been 
ft)tir dnyw vriOuMtt inti:Lt. Fur tIuvs t^p-ilu-r \]u'. untiy «'w 
witboat bread. Then; wu dfin^r that the tnjopfi would pcmh 
from famino or diaperae itt aoarcb of food* 

Alt thai time tbo Britu^ij »oldicn in PliiladcTjibui vert wcU 
provided for, ai>d tbo officers quartered upon the inbah]taiit& 
Tbif diji WLTO ijXfDC in pnatlmo, tbo ni^hte in cnt^rbunincnla. 
By a proportMOOto tax on tbo pny and nlh^vnncritf of cnch officer, 
a hoiiM waa opened for dally n^ort and for xveekly ball^ with 
a gamtlif^table^ and ft n^otn dwoiti^l t^ tbo pbiyon of obc«L 
Thrice a weelt drvnia were ena^'twil by amat^rjir prrfoniwt*. 
TliB! curtalu puii.ti^ liy Andn* wm ^n^tiy adininid. The 
ofBccfv, among wh'im nl! mnkjt of tbc Bnti^ ariatocniCTy wera 
tcprmnted, U^ed in open liecntioosncsi- At a gnmd review, 
Englbh girl, midtt>w of & <x>lonel and droaeod in the colors 



318 AMERICA IX ALLIAXOE WITH FRAXCK. Kr. tT.; OK. CV. 



of Ilia regiment, drove down the Une in her opcoi ourla^ 
with gn*ut (>?(k'iitar!uiu TTie pumiit of pleamre wu io oa|^ 
tlint, lui hIIwIl ill wiiitr'T whn ii^it mlOtM! to Utc triuls cf the 
uriu^ at ^'£.Ut*> 1 orge, eveu thcm^li at ooe time it ww reduced 
tr> tivt) tiitiuraiul meu. 

During till? wintrj llic mcmbcn prcscot io congras vrere 
somotimce oiil/ niuc, rarolj 80voiii4)oii; of former menibcn^ 
FrtLuklin, Jefferson, John Kntlud^ Jtty, und othovt wgtd con- 
plojwd 0l»owb4iro, and John AiUmt bad reooDUy been ^oded 
to ffoooeed Deane &d commkeioner in Frnnee. The vt*>nt of 
power ex]>k{tu tli» inEfffii^ency of «oii^rVH^ It propowd in 
Junuar^' Ut lurrcm- U^ii tti!IU[)iw nf il^llirii, lint it liAd no 
credit. So in Jaou&i^', February, and Mai'cU two iiuIlionK of 
paper luonev were ordered to be if«iied, and in April »ix 
*nd ji balf mtlliotit* more, Tlic*o emisuoos wcro npidljrfot 
lo^ToI by corresponding dcprodationa. Wlien Uie Goirent^ 
1o«t iiA xolnvj oou^^reee would tuiYe bad tlie aim/ Bcrre on from 
di«inteu^o(t pmriotUm ; Imt WajiUngloii pointo<l out the ^luU- 
it^r in titiTti.-ui niUnnj which dov» not pcnnit pmctioal a^irs to 
be oonilncted chroQgli a imcceBsloD of years bjr a great raric^ 
of j>L*nii>tm uHlioiit n-gnnl U> iHjttttabhf iiitr-rmbi imd jnict cLuma i 
and, after moutlia of refrlblaucef offivera who abuuld aerm to 
tlie end of the var wurt: pnmiLwd UiJf-|ia^ fur itovun y^arB, 
pnv:it€« sum of cigbtjr dollars. 

The opportunity ot kecfjnDg up an army by volimtai^ oa* 
Uitmttnta hnring been timvn away by the jualouay t4 ooo- 
gron, ^aabington, in Febntary, in a partiffidar ntaimar bid 
before the congraBioaal conunltt«e oi arraiiffefnont, then vilL 
the aimy ftt Valley Forg^, u pkn of an antinol draft a^ tlie 
mrcat and most ovtain, if nnt tlw oaily, miiam V-ft for eondoct- 
ing Ibe war **aQ a projier and reapeotable grvuuii'* Toward 
tlio ond of tbo month eoDognna a<!opb^ thi: adviro, Imt 
cbtnged ila character to tbal of a tnmicnt expedieoi It <U- 
rectod the oontineiital bauaUooa cf ail the aUt^a, except Sooth 
CDfoliu and Geo^ia, to bo oompktcd by drafu fron tha^ 
militia, trat limited tho term of vort'tee to nine montba. The 
eiecntioQ of tlw meanue wa« unoqnol, for it depeodod on the 
goodwill of the flffvenl iUiea ; but tlie acaitered villaf^ pa- 
nder) tbrir milttui for the draft with saflkrHnit n^larity Co 



vm. 



TU£ WJKTEB AT VAtLKY FOITOS. 



219 






w 



■uve tlie aiwy from diasolndon. Variiuiti, a lingiidier of 
ilhode I»l4uid, ]in>poaod Uio omandpat^on of nbvci in t^t 
Btate» on conditioc of their colifiting in thD army for tlio war. 
The tdkoiao approved by Wo^b^fcoa, imd by biiu refcirod to 
Cooko, tiio governor of ihe atat«, w&a aotroptcKl. Evory abl«- 
bodied stavo m Rhode IslimJ rcotivod by l*w libercy t> onlist 
in ttie army for the war. <.>ii piusirg miiiiterj be becamo frefl 
and rrititlu] U>aM tlitt wngt^ and EHii'iiurMgiTmnnbigiviai by 
coTigrEs; to ^iTiy Kildi^r. Tlie ><l&to nudf; touie comi^nsitioa 
to tkdr [iu»t«rK 

VnabJc to f(:iroe a defaulting agent to a Mttlement, congrcM 
in February osbcd the Icgi&Jatnrca of tbo several statca to eiwot 
lam for tlid r«oovcry of dobU duo Vo cho Cmt^l StaW; and 
it invited tbo supromo exocntiyo of overy etato to ^atch tho 
beJtftrEor of all civil and military offlcei^ of the United Statee 
in tbo vxecutioD of UiuSr ofBcoji. 

The n?pilfttT«Ti nf tbd fitJitT of the anny was ahaped by 
Joaejth Hved, now a member of eongrcsa and of the (kaninlUee 
»at by congfwff to the caiii]K XfjtwitliAtuiiditig Hw dktrewee 
of the cotmtiy, tho ayEtem wus foijDdcd ou the nta^m of largo 
oitkoluincDtSr GBpcdolly for thu ht^ (4 the i]uaTtGrmjLft<:r*a d^ 
]icutinent; and for that bead Grceno wa# selected, wilb two 
family connoctioaa of Kood ae his osaij^tonte. The former waa 
to b^ witb the unaj ; tho other tvrOf of whom one waa fluper- 
fluoiu, were stationed near con^;rett, and, by an agn^c^neut 
imoDg t)ioiii«elTV9t^ i!w «nioh]m«^t« in tlie alutpe of commit 
riona were to be divided equally butween tl(9 three. All «4i1> 
ordiiulo api^oirittEicvElit vecm lo Iw niado by the i^uartermBEtcr^ 
geoeitt] himself, and Ihptr cmulument^ wl-t6 1ik<Twitte to bo 
durivcd from comminuoiia. Tiiu ^yi^t^m ww arranged and cai^ 
ried tbrongb oongrtss indopondtmtly of WoAhington, w1io» 
Uiongh Tvpcotodly solicited, troiild nm^or sanction it by bia ap- 
proTol. Grocno w[\a importnnatc in lit* demands to rotidn tho 
oommand of a diriaion ; on that point Wn^liin^^m wiut infloxi- 
bl& Af1«r moKi than another month the sy^l^m of centraH* 
tation vail oxtortdvd ta the coinTntAttuy tbrp.irlinent. To in* 
of«M0 hid profltit by fnmifilLiTig i^uppliiQa to Hut army, Grecno 
diij not Mcrupbi t«> ittUt ititii a mi^ aecret partimt^p with 
the iicad of thac department^ a tlurd paitDer, not in offioo^ 





^0 AtfERlOA IK AUJASCE Wrm FRAKCR «•. iv. ; «- xt. 



being tho OTt^y oimi Imown to tho pii1>lic. Wlten. ho uru ceo- 
ftured ft>r Ilia desire of gainiDg woaJtli fronk hid office a rpiai^ 
lj-nii.ifitir-j{enenil, lit? <jf!trred llie «-ieiiAft lliat, as bo uuda & 
sacrifice of Iu9 commnrd of a <livi«^orL and $o of hi^ dnuiGW ci 
glor7 in ihe iicld, ho had a rigbt to bo coiiQpenaatcd by loTige 

TLo pUce of invp«^cto^gene^al fell to B&ron St«ab«n, » 
PnuoaD ofHcor, then forty-Mv«a ycoft of Bf^ Tbo high 
mUIt^uy rank whicli he awnnied witbont ngh; bot widioat 
qitvati[)M, tb>3 ^tKi ufiiiilfiu of Vergt-nnea and Saint-Ovmuin, 
&e n^t^ixitmudatioti of F.-^ktin, tbi; bftbi of hafipg §ened 
duHti]:: tb(T fecvcn jcora^ war under the ^roat Froderio^ Alid tm) 
merit, rtceitn^ for ]um an appcmttneitt ad ni&jor|;oiufftl- On 
the twcDij'third (A >'ctnia7y ho wu Tolcomed to Vallcjr 
Fof^ip, He bonebicd iho ooimtry of hie fidopt&on bj ^Eiitr»- 
duciTi^ int<i tlL« army a rc^^lur formation tnd emct dfitdplioe^ 
by eetablinhinf; a apirit of onior nnd oconotnj in the In- 
terior £4miii.l£trition of the repfimenlfi-*' * 

Tvt Uiere rvmHiiied a dut*j>ly wjiitisl conflict of c^iuon b&- 
tnovLi coji^^^» ja\*\ i\w cofmnandor^bi-chief on qnMtEoitft of 
pmii!i[i]u acul ppilicv. Wwhtiij^ui wtmlil fmm Out tlr*t harm 
hsd men cDlwted for tho war; coii^^rGee^ fix^iu je^ijuay ni 
BtAnding anaiets had in&ifited upon *]iort t^ltAtm^nttc WtJt^ 
ington wlithod tbc exchange of pd^onora to be condactod on 
one tmif ona mlc ; conf^ee roquired a re^pefrt to tbo law of 
trcAiOD of each HcporiLtc utotft, Wii#hingto» ironld hAVO one 
oontjoeiit&l djmj; congr^m, ao army of thbteeo eGTeQrrign!k& 
CoQgiwv wu Aitufiod with Uio amount of it* pow«r tt a Wp- 
1ms oommittoe; Waflhingtoo wiahed ti nnion with effldent 
powera of govGmntent. CongrcM guarded eeponle Indepeav 
d«Dro; Uio pntriotisTn fjf Wviliingtor) tot»W a widvr rv^jo, and 
in return tlte public alTetrtion, radiating from erery part of the 
United Stnt^ met m Lini. All ^iiit n^trit, and t)i» poptilariCff 
md tho undivided atl^chiiiGnt of the army, mado coogron 
more sedu^le of thtnr own rvlatlve weakneasL Tbey felt that 
their perfect control over tho general wan dno to hJn own 
rature, and that natnro eould not bo fully judged of before 
the end. Xor waa it then known how completely the tafe^ 

* nandlioa'V WotU t.. ttl 



I 



I 



ina. 



tllE WQVIXB AI TALLET FORGB. 



931 



fe 



I 



of Eh« coiinby flptnst militaiy tunrpatlon hj hx ik^ cbanoUr 
of ihx* Aiiicrioon people 

To all^ tlio jcttloiULj of coD^roae^ Wajahingtooi, on tlw 
tircBtj-fint of April, wrote to one cf its deleg&tce : ^ Under 
propcr tiiEutatioui it i& oett4in]/ truo thftt stan^ng ajvwM ate 
da&^roud to a «tato. Tbo piojndioov of othoj" ooontriee hATo 
coly ^atko to tliem in time of peaoe^ and from their boiug ^iro- 
liagL It Ifl our policy to be prejudiced ugaant^ thom in timv 
of wur, thougli tli4jy luro dcljtcnx, liSLvitig all tbo tic<H and Into^ 
Qita of dtlzena, and in meet casBfi propertj roi^ly iineoiiiR'otfd 
widi tbe miltUiry linr. Tbt* ji^ftbtrixjr, itnpniifir. In Uio nxtivino^ 
cto answer not a eicglc good purpose. It is tmjuat, becau^ 
DO order of men. in tho thirtoen atfttee baa paid a more uicrcd 
rt^jird to tbo procccdbigA of congrcM tbun tlie aimj; for, 
witbout arroguico or tlio amftUoat do^fttion from trutb, it mnj 
bo aud tbat no tiietorj now ostuit can fundfik an inatanee of 
RD annjr'i auflerfng audi uncommon hardibipt as oura baa doao^ 
and be^Hng tbi^m vUh ilw vninc f iilii^niT luid fortJtudo. Tbeb- 
nbmitting without a miiniiur is a [inxif of |>atieikoe aitd oWlU 
once vliidi in mjr t^piinon c;vix w^in^ii be jiftmUpliH!. Tbr.ro 
ou^ have been eomo rcmonstnuica or applicabioDs to congrusa 
in tbo atylc of oomptaint fTV>iu tbe anuj, and alarua indeed 
ahould VD be if diis privilcgo were denied; but tli<:«o will iiot 
authorize nor even exouao a joolouej that thaj are thcrcforo 
aiming at nnrooAonablo powers, or raakiug ntridctf nub^cmLTO 
of otvi] antbcnt^. Tboro «houUl bo nono of tbe^ dI«tinctiona 
Ve sbonld all, ooDf^rofla and army, he oonsldcred oa one peD|^ 
•mboriEcd bi one eatiic^ acting on tlio caino prim-ipbt and to 
die nsio end." In framing an oatit t^f fidelity for nil civil and 
mniUry ofSuera, iN»igre«s, inocb aa it avoided tb» ex|jrGffiion, 
nado thim aimr that tbo " people of tlio United Statea " owed 
DD aHegiaioe to tlw king of On-^t BritiuB. Tho eoldlon aorv- 
faig under one common llag, to e«1abliab one o^mmon indo- 
pDodoooOt andv though in want of food, of «boea, of clothe^ of 
atnw for bdd<^n^. of paj in a onnonoT of fixed Taloe, of regv- 
lav pay of any Idnd^ never eiiEfcring tb«ir juat diaoootcoit to 
gM tbe better of their patnotiom, »U11 more clearly forofthad- 
owod a great fiadon. 

Tix tni(t|)a cf Burgrtjrue ivuialiied in Hw tsnvinjrw <if Bofr 



233 AMEBIOA IN ALUA>'CE WITH FKANCEL >». rr, ; <ta xt. 



tcxu Am if preponng an cxcoao for t, total duengagomflDt 
from bis obligations, Biir^ovric, compl^nlng withont reuOQ 
of tlio qutirtorg providj>d for hit ol^icoi^ vrolo und ixuutod 
that thd United Suxee luul vioUl«d the public faith, a&d ro^ 
fnMd ta conf^reei deunpLiA^ tutJi of ttio TiOD^vttnmlsHoBod 
officers nni) »oldfers who were not to ^erye in ATnerica during 
the WBT. On these gnruuds congrwa MUHpt^utlMJ ibis enilinrkn* 
tinii uf the troops under hisoommand tilt it e^c&M n^ve 
notice of tk ntifirjition of the coarentioti bj the ODUrt of <3re&t 
Britain, lliirgofne sailed for l^nplnnd on bk parole. 

To counteract tbo arts of tho Driti^ eaunariM (unong the 
Xndianit on tlio botdow of Virginia and the Carolina^, Colonol 
2^atbaiii«ii Gi]=t vraj^coniniiiuionud to tkko into tLo puliHc mp- 
Tioe two hundr^ of tho red n^on and fUty of tho wbito inliabi* 
tant*i of tliH n(^i gill faring i'uunti«. Care wa* lukon U> pTmorrt 
the frientUhip of tlw Onpkiiw. 

Tht! Aiiierit-^an militia of the aea were i«fitl«Jjp acUre, 
In th<T night of iKo tAvrrntyHicTcntU of Janiiniy n privateer t*>ok 
the fort of New ProridcncCf one of the Bahama iale^ made prise 
of a Britiah Yoaael of war of sixteen ginu, which bad gODO Id 
for rcpflim, iiud Twnptiircd five American vcssolft* Oo the 
seventh of March, Biddlo, in the Cindolph, a United Statee 
frigate of thiny-eix gnos on a cruiac from CharkntOD, fall- 
ing in with tlio Yumiauth, a British ahip of siitj-fonr gniu, 
hoisted tht^ ^tjint am] nt-ri-^osi^ fired a broadside, aod continued 
tlie eit^i^ment tUl hU nhip wvat down. 

TIio Iking of England succeeded hnt poorly in Ills nego- 
tiations for snhsidiajy tn>o|]s. T!ie cnz^ ju-ince of Anltolt- 
Zcrb:it, wlio mlcd oTcr Ixit tliroc hnndrcd 9^nar« miioswitfa 
twenty thousand inhabita,nts, aft^rr unceaaiu^ importmutiea, 
harf^ned with the tcin^ of Erigload to doliror, at hi^ own risk, 
twttlvc hundrcil a:id twontv-cight men. On their way to the 
place of embarkation, as they paaaed near the frontier of 
Pnifida, three hundred and thltty-Tluv» of tli«in dcecrted fa) 
t4in dayx, ami llio nnmW finally ddiwred wm 1cf« (hnn half 
of what was promised* When tliey orrivBd at dieir dofilinatlon 
In Quebec^ Oarlcton tho gorumorT hATing no onlera rcopoetiDg 
them, would not snfler them to disembark tiU m moacngvr 
broaght hack orders from £!ii|^d. 



I 




iwa 



BailAlS IS T^TANT OF TBOOPS. 



S3a 



I 
I 

I 



To nmlcti good tLe lens of TTum<i/uits, die lunlgr^ive of Hmw- 
OsbmI improMod mcQ wherever he coiild -io so wliL impTtnlty* 
Tk« lieartleee meanneaa of the Brumwick |>riiLceB ^rould pui 
bclic£, jf it WM not offlciiJly Btjthcnticatcd. They bcg:gcd that 
tLe BruuwickcTCf who surrciiclo^^HJ at i^arato^ might not Rnd 
tJicLr waj bock to tlidr honae«, whore tlioy wonid jipcil thb 
tmtTic in voldiori by their cotnplaii:tf^ but be sent rathor to 
the BritLth Wiwt IrdEe*. The princes who first engaged in 
die trade (n aoldi+jr* were jealous of t-fi!ii|it.'1itorv, Jind dropjK^d 
liinto tliAt die KtatuA of WiirttTn!wrg, whrrc Rchillcr ran dia 
liak of Iwin^ aesifrtant rargcon to a ixipiinciirt of iut-rc«MiarI«, 
wonld ncTflr suffer & eoutr&ct h^ tlidr duki» to bo oonmiin- 
mated; that Protc«t&nt ^England onght not to employ troopa 
of the elector polatino becxiTuo ihoy wore l^mon Cathotioa. 

HJid offleers or mca seat over to America uttered com- 
plfiintu, Ujt-y M-aM have been «hot for muttnj ; Minibottn, tb«Q 
% fn^tive in Holland^ lifted up die voloe of the cdvilizadoQ of 
liift day ajcaiiist die Irjid^ and vpalce to the peoplea ul Our* 
mnny and dtcr M>I<liirx tbcmsolviefi: "^Vhut new ntiidncs is 
iJjidil Ahu^ HiL-temljlt! int?ri, yon Imni dnwii not dio 4tn.tnp uf 
BXk enomy, bnt yoor own hopci \ Qcrrame I what biiuid do you 
sufler 10 be pnt upon your forthwid I Vou war a^ptinat a peo- 
ple who hnvo never wronged yoii» who flgbt tvr a rij^htooua 
oaue^ and aet yon tbo nobloct pattortL They brctik t^dr 
cbanu. Imitate their OKimple. Have joi not tJie some claim 
to honor nnd right ut your princes? T^ without doubt, 
lien stnnd higher than princoc. Of nU mien, eon«cienoo ii 

!the highetl Ton, p^opl^ tlutt nrtf cheated^ himihledj and 
•old, fly ([> Ami'-ricft, htil dii-n* i?iiihmoi^ j"ur brudiurK. In Uie 
■paciou^ placM of refnpr which they open to euffcriDg humani* 
ly, Itam to apply aocial iuetituti^jna to titc advanb^ of every 
nember of tocix^ty.^ Againrt thi« toe-in of revolttiion the 
faodjjave of Htetc defended himself on principles of fuadal 
law and l^timaey ; and Mirabeaa rejoined : " AVhen power 
breaks tlM oonipact which svonrud and limited lu rlgtiia, then 
vedacanoe heoc^keca doty. To recover freodom, inenn^ctioa 
bceomni jnaL Tluere li no er4me like tlie crime ^ffditU the 
(ivedovD of the peoplo.^ 

Wbco on the twentieth of Korcmber the king of EugUnd 




2^ ASffiBICA IS ALLrAbXB WITH FBAJTCB. fcMT.;cii.XT. 



opened tho wflfrion of parliament, t>iily tliroe s>'6tcma were pro- 
posed- Xho king intfidtcU on a coiiliniuLtion of tlio w&r, without 
regard to the va^to of life or trc^nrc. till the colonice ahouI<I 
bo reduced to Biibordiikation. CliathttiQ &&id : ^* Fmncc baa 
luiiiltod ^ox}, aad our mlulstaiM doro not interpoM) with dii^ruty 
Or eSioct. Ky lordn t yon cJinnot conquor Amencft. In thi«o 
campaigim wb haver dime Qothiiig aod Buffered inndi. Yon 
lUJiy nAull vvrry tixpHiifie, accitiuLiLitti evtiiy ttwixbinm yen ctQ 
buy or borrow, traffic ainJ barter with every liltlo pitiful Gtsiv 
m&ti piince that aella and deadb h\A Bubjvct^ to the -Jtaiiilikv of 
& foreign piinoo : your e£[ort» nro foruv'cr vftia and impotcott 
doubly no from tbifl mcrccnjuy aid on which yr>ti ruly, fctt it 
irritatee lo itn incurable roBonCmeDt If I were an Amcvicaa, 
lu I am an lEnglkbman, while a forel^ troop wun Luidod in 
my country, I iiovor would lay diiwii my ftimc; a«ver, novor, 
D<jv«Lr.** And h& denourced the altUnce witb ^*the borriUo 
hell-houiidi' of nava^ war.'* His advice, freed fivim rhtftAirio, 
wa» to conciliater America by ji change of ministry, and to 
make war on Krauce. The third plan, which ww that of iho 
RoukingUom party, wu expTOMMl by the duko of Ricbmoaul ; 
" i would Aooncr givo np evory claini to Amoricfl than oontmno 
an imjoat and oruf^l oivil ws^r." A fow days later, Lord Chat- 
ham inv«ifch^ af^unftt a »ormon which Markbam, the arch- 
bl^ltop of YorlCy luid pririL<:hwl and pnb1i«hodj nflttcting on tho 
** ideas of liavage liherly " in ATuerica, and denotinoed hia teni^ 
Lu^ u ^ t}in dm^Lrific^H of Attvrbury aiLd Scuditsvi^rvlL'* 

Itetumin^ from tho fatigning debate of the ucond of D&- 
oember on the state of the nation, Lord North received the 
news of the lo^ of BurgoyncU army, lie ww w agitated that 
be could neither eat nor aloop* and tbo next day at the leree 
biA diptrcM woa visiblu to the foraif^ mlniaten. Oonoeadon 
after dofeat wba humiliating; but tJicre niiut \m prompt bo- 
Hon, or Fmnee would interfere, fa a debate of the elcronth, 
tho duke of RiohmoDil, from tlte hopoeilbllity of conijue^t, 
urgned for " a peaee on the termg of independenoi^ and an aDi* 
ance or fedeml nnloiL" Burke in ttiti commona waa for an 
ngTwmont with the Auicricsina at any nte. "The nuniftt-ni 
blow aa little how to make pence aa war,^ (aid Fov ; and pri- 
vately among hb friends, openly in the house of commone^ he 




1778. 



BRTTAnff m WATT OF TROOPS, 



SS5 



denundcd a ACttlcmcmt with tli^ Americans on their own ttnm 
of independonw. Eltot^ afk'n^arO I^rd Mintt, niu\ Giblion 
igretsl ill tlia flpeoulBtivH fipji][»ji Ui»tf aftc^r tTio etiliKftnuce of 
power wiu lost, the nnmc of indepenidence uiE^ht Eju f^nuited 
to the AmericAD^ On that \r^aia tUc donin- uf |icnco wrw oni- 
TCffuL It wad tliG king who perrtundcd his minuter to forc^ 
Um oppoitiinity whiclj nnvor coold ICCUT) and a{;unat tiia own 
WDviotion, without opemnj* to Aroeri^ any hope of pQcifi»- 
tioB, to odjoum tlid pftrliAmont t^i the iwontiath of Janaory 
1T76, In tlu*t mcHith Lord Atnhorst, as militai^ adviser, 
pve the opinion that notMng i&M tlian an aJditioiiiU urtuy ci 
jfortv Uumwuid m«ii would Ih> xufllcii'iit t/i taitv nn oiTf?niEavB 
war in North America; hut the king would not stiSvr Ijind 
N<»rth to imchf writing that there could not he *' a luau either 
Id or oud onongh to prcunmc to trout for tl^ motlior coun* 

oa t boeU of indcpcndoncu ; '* aometiinoe appeaJiBg to die 
^mjnigter's " pcraonckl affoction for hLm and acoBo of honor i" 
andf in tijo ovont of a wir with France, engp^ndirj^ tliat •' it 
miglit bd wiee to dr&w tho troope from the revolted provinoe^ 
ftod to ttukv wnr on tlio Frvui-b uuJ SjJiuual; iAlmidjt." To 
Lioi Ctiathfun might Iw offerpd ajiyl.hing bnt suWAntial 
r, for "1it8 luLifiA, wbli;h voa ulwa^ htn ^rvnti^ht ni^nt^ 
hurt Ijord KockinghamV party" And at ctjurt tJio 
kiog tarbiicd civillti« on ^oimg Gcorgo tircnrillc and othcn 
wbo vere cODnectdd with Lord rhnthaiu, 

ThoM who were ik^ilt Lord X<jrth in hin old ago ncxct 
iieard him mttnnar at hie bflviDg bocomo Vlind ; tnt hie wife 
ii tbo witDOM tJitt "in thotolitado of HW]i1ii«fi nights he would 

letimos fall int^ ^ory low iEpirit« nnd diiojilj- rvpnmidi biin- 
lU for having, at the earnest dealre of the ^Tig, tvniainivl in 
^adoilDUtniiJoii aft4*r ha tbmi|fht tlml pmtw ou^ht to Iulto botti 

b with Amecrica.*' * 



* A MnntRktiIon rrciaUiedftugburor harntPfonh, who repcWcd ibswordi 
rDfbvBcdvn 



296 JkUERICA nr ALLlAlfOB VIXU FBA^'CB. U',it.;ch.xil 



CHAPTEH Xn. 
TSE Afirnrr of coKvct^stAi. xirvon: 

TvK United &Utc< needed an nllj in France*, Imt tho miiu»' 
tow of that kinp:dom woro ijiiwillitig lo risk « wiif with Greiat 
Britain L'xccpt witb the <«ruiut^ of iho aGqiUeweoce of contt 
nents.t KuTO|K>; tho iiit&iry of tbo next yeui of tbo Uoitwl 
St&iee cannot be iitidpirtood inthrmt n knowlrdgv of the difl- 
potJtLon of ilm Aerera! jiovv^ra of Etirojio towanl tliem. 

Fnuco v;n» nurc: of tlic ffrlicanuicc of AtivtriAr for Auedfai 
had choMD the BoTirbciD powers for tU alHcA. 

In Italj, which hy hdag broken into fragments wii reft<^ 
itB utrongtb though not of it« bouttji tho Unit«d Sutca runlj 
hqiod to find eupport from tho micir of norcn«e. of who«6 
hunuuko code the world bad boen fuU of pr&ue. Tlic king of 
Nftptei, oi <mM of thu Spaniih Boni-bomt. confonned hia pciioy 
totlukt of Spun. Bnt th? g<<intiiH of iho ItilliiiB hu nJw&jv 
revered tho Htmggles uf pti'luiUm ; AtA»^ mw in Anwric* 
tim prophot of Italian niiity; and Fil&n^eri was preparing 
the work, in which, with the applaoAc uf the bast inmiU, lie 
cUitncd for rcnson its riglita in die ^Tcmmcnt of men. I\)r- 
tnga] irritntcd the United States by cloeinj; its porU igklnst 
thoij ships ; hot vras ecaroeljr heard of agidu during the w&r, 

11:0 Turkic empire slfMted the ootine of AmcricAn ftSuis 
duniig tho vr^ And nt tis doso. Tlio embroilmeot of the ^wH- 
om matitlme kingdoms sosnaod to Isftve Ha border ptorinoft 
at thu mercy of thdr neighbors ; sjtd there w^ra stBtosmeo In 
GngUnd who wiihpd pr»^ ttuit thrir mantry might spesk 
with «uthoritj on the Bosphonia &nd the Eimnc^ 



I 



IIT^ITSI. TtTE ASPECT Of COXTIKETTAL SPHOPE. 



237 



Of Koaeia, Great Britflin witL coa^^lees impi>rtniuty eonglit 
tho ftlUftlice; liUt its empn^s put awiiiu t-wry ^jvt-rturt-, mill re- 
peatedly aflvtNtxI Lliu cijnccfisiou at i[iJrjH'ni1ri»^R tii tbu [Tnifod 
SUtes. Slie wnfidfiDtiuJly asAurcd tbe Dourbon fjiuiily Uiitt 
■be would not interfere m tbcir cjuom;!, ajiJ would evun bv 
pUiMd to fco thcnt throw off the yoke of EiiglEmd. Her 
bout woe all in the Orient. She lon^d to cstablieh a ClirLstiaa 
tsipii^ uQ tho Bo^pliorue, and wood^r^d vby Cbridtiatift of tbc 
VW ibould prefer to muntida Munmlmiuiji at ConAtAQtiiiopIo. 
Of England, nhe v^tiemted tbe people ; bnt sh© bad contempt 
for ltd kiii^, iud fLirytt>lJ ib^ fiilltLre of bi* Tiiinlstrj'. Ou tlnj 
Otlkrr luutd, wliili- £be did not love tbe FnrDcb nAti'>Ti, eho 
?m(d Vci'^^iinef a^ a wise and able ftaU^maii. 

lu Guhtivua 111. of Swtiden, tlic riepliew of FretJt;ric of 
Pniiek, Fnnce migbt expect a friend, tar the revolutioa of 
1771 in favor of tho royaJ prerogative bad been aided by 
French mbtfidicA oitd tlio cunua^b of Torgcuni^ who wm at 
tho time tlio French minUter at StockliolnL Tho oldest colo- 
Di£en of the Bekvare were Swedes, and a natural aSectloa 
botud thuLT dMCendoiitc C^ \h\> iit*:itbur o^mrtry. T\w Swed«ij 
» bmlden and owners of sbip<^ favored the lai^^>est it^terpr^ca^ 
tioQ uf tbe uiurilbiie rigbtv of neuLnilb ; uinl Llii'Ir l(bi^, w^ny 
hkd iln^hitig eonntgc, tbciu^b not penwvonujcc, vni« now aad 
tbeo tbe boldect champion of the liberty of th« »ca& 

I>6nm&rk, tho remaining nortliom kin^cm, wu it*df a 
eotonia] poivcr, ponconng small \S^e«t India ialfisda lad a foot- 
hold in tbo Eaat. lU kiofr* » duko of Hoktciiif had & voice 
b tho Gonnou dit^'t tit RaUiiboiu It» poople vore of a noUo 
TMO ; It i« the Injtd whieb, fint of Europeui states, forbade the 
f lavO'Cnide, and which, before the €nd of the oentnryj abollahod 
Ihe mmaiiu of ivrfdoin, But itK hnlf-viritdn] Icttig lend for Lik 
ffllniflter of foreign alTafra Connt Demflorf, a Uanoverian hy 
hirih, who profoMciI Ut lii^IiriTd thnt a pi%^p1e can nerer be 
JQftilicd in rcnoitncicg obedience to ita bwfnl govcn^ment 
He would not snSti tbe Daniali ^venunent to fovor^ or even 
seem to favor, the Americaiu. Danish sabjucta were fort^d* 
den to aend, even to Danish West India iel^di^ nnuutiou of 
war,lcetthoyihonldflnd th^ way to thu Unit4Ml Statee. The 
Daatd and Norwegian port£ wore closed aguiirt priaM 



aa» AMEBICA IN ALUANCE WITH FRAKCB- w,iT,;ai,XTi. 



Iiy AmeHcan privateera. Tel^ from its commerdal IntaresU, 
Denmark ww forced to oWrvo And to doitn ttu nglito of a 
neutiuL 

Of tho tvro Earopeon rtpubltcd of thd bat century, the ono 
bid crtcblishcd Tt«eLf among tho ho>d<iprisgii of tlic Khin«» tbe 
other at it« month. The united cant^icis of SvilxeHind, oon- 
taut Trithic themaelrea, o^mtitnted a lepabHo, vrWitk Hvollod 
ID ag« tho oldot monnrcLiOAf and, hy it« i^ood ord^r ftod indcie- 
ti^^, morale sind Inws, proved t}ie compntfbility of ext^na^ro 
oonfi^denteleii witli mojerti nvilkation. Tho TJaital Stiita 
gntcftilly vx^Dcmtcd tliuir fcnt^niuaer, liit nought from it no 
aa»»t&nc6. 

TJie deepest &nd tljc saddc«t intcroct bovcn orertho TO|mb- 
Ec of tho KethcrlandB, for the ir»r bctireon Kngknd and the 
Unitod SinU^a i>roporvd itci p^TO. Of aU the linocheA of the 
Ofirmonic family, tltat natiom trhioh for tU fthodo rcecvicd 
irom tho c1i()l:<sd and ahillowed et^ tho iiriflflblo »:It kud nndA 
bronglitdown ly the Tihinef has endured the mmtaudvroujfht 
the mofll in favor of liberty of ecwHciviieo, eomuieree, and the 
states Thn a-iiublic which it foondod vu Uie child of the 
leCormatioa. For three ^nerations tho heat iiitcreAt« of mao- 
Idnd vcK Abftndonod to itn kcq^ing ; oiid, to upliold th« high- 
est cbjocts of fipLritnAl life, it« iucrch&Eit«, Initdbcldort, and 
tnden 00 abounded in herooe and martyre that ther tinxi out 
bnte forco Euid lynuiny and death itsvlf, and from war 
cdnoad lifo and bopo for coming of;^ Thoir oxictecoo vaa 
an Qnoeaflbig etm^^le with the ocean which bi?at agaiciat their 
diVoK ; viih tho rivers which cut awny tlu-Jr noil < udth net^i- 
hon that coveted their territory ; vitb England, their 1mgene^ 
oiu rival III tnuln. lu pruportiim to nurubeni, they vere ihe 
6ni in agricatturc and in oommorcc, fint in cetAbliAhing end* 
H by punctuality and probi^^ first in «ccang clcorl/ that fpeM 
matcnal iutesrcate are fodlcrcd be«t by liberty. Tbmr land to- 
nuiiuod tho atorobonee of renovating poUtkai idoaa forKuropOt 
oad the sivyliun of all who were peiMmit«d for thdr thooghti. 
In frdodom of eonadence they were tho l^ght of the world. 
Out of thr Ix'-art of a tadtnin^ phltrguiatic, aiTioiiii people^ !n< 
cliniHl t/> Mtlilijde and rafl«ction, rose the tnm who coTigtnicted 
the code of intemationu] law in tho spirit of jn^tioo. 



m^\l9l. THE ASPECT OP OONTLVENTaL LXjUOPIL, 2S^ 



I 

I 

r 



la l<l74ieiter England for about a qtuirtor of a cantaij 
hod umed hy actc oi k^Ution and b; vara to rain tho oavi- 
f*ation of tho KctLc-rlucdi, th& two powen oouaoliditod poac9 
by a treaty of ccuntnirite, in w>jich tin? nghtft of neatralfl were 
giurariteed In tajkgna^ tlie most preci^B and dear. Not onlj 
VB.H tho prindplo rr<:iigiLUH^l that (rvG dirpci tn^u fruB good^ 
but, both pceitiTelj md iK^tirol/, filiip-timbcr and otbcr naval 
atores vere <jdoded from dio liat of ccntnibaDiL 

Id 16S^ Ec^loiiid oonitnictod to the NctLcrlrm<La tlto bigheat 
d«bt that one nation cod owo to anotber, Koreclf not toiow- 
ing bow to recover ber UborttM, thay were reetcred by moa of 
tUi TTnttcd Provinces ; auit Lcclc^ brongbt bui^k from bi£ <ixi]« 
in that conntry tbe tlwory on govcmmrnf. whuJi liad beea 
formed hy tbe Caliinista of tbe contiDeiit, and wb]{?b niado 
hiH chief polidcnl work the tejct-bcx^lc of the fncujdp of fruo 
ioBtttudona for a ccntnry. 

Ihiring tb« Lon^ wars for tbe 8e«iinty of the new Eng;liali 
dynasty, and for tlic Spu^iub »Ttcc4^»ion, in jiU which tlio re- 
public bad bttlo intcrcBt of itaown^it rcnuunod tbo faithful 
ully of Grcxt Britafo. Gibraltar wita taken by ^p* and troofia 
of tho Dnicb not lw« thxn by tlitwo of England ; yet its appro- 
priatton by the stronger etat^ brought tbeiu do oorreaponding 
■dvautagi* ; on tho contmty, tbviir uxliauxlixl Aiuuiemi and dl»* 
proportionate public dt^bt cnpplcd then- power of Milf^o* 
fene«. 

For ihcut tD^xaInJ^k'd and nnroqmtcd icrvicca tiie rqmb- 
Ik might cjqioct to find in England a v&ll of protoction. Bat 
during the Mron years* war, in diigtgaM of treaty obli^*tLtioDa, 
Its ifaipa votD iwi2od on the groond that ihoy had brfikon the 
ariutnry Bntisli ruloa of oontnbond and blockado. In tlio 
jnr ] 108 the loaiM of Fta mercboiita on ihoae pretencea vers 
oitimiifd at nkoro than twelve million afuibU^n. In ITd2, 
four of Jta ehipF^ oonvoyed hy a frl^te^ were t^kcn, aft«r an 
enp^ecuenl; and, thongb tlir fngiUt; waa relcuiied, fltrorgo 
OrcDTiDo, then Mcrctary of &tat«, annonncod by letter to ita 
enToy that the ri^ht of etoppbg Dutch ^pa witii naval atores 
tanat bo and would he enatained. Bat thi^ was not tho wont: 
Eagkod took gJvijitAgo of tbo impcrfcctionf in tbo conAtJCn* 
tion of the Ketberlande to divide thdr govomment, and by 



230 AMERICA la ALLIAXOE WlTB FBA:fCH. tP, tr. 



iaducnco and comiption to win tho ptuty of tho etadhotd^ to 
her own uwA 

Tliu rxfpublio vraa la nujiy vuy^ ^loor to tlie United Ststei^ 
It haiJ giviin a rMting^plMcn lo tJieir iiQUiigmnt pilgritni, and 
diwiuka^i t^i&m to Ihe New World willi lettona of rvligioas 
tolrrntion. It htd iilmUxl the vallejr of d^« Hurlaon ; axuI m 
Nov York and New Jcr^y il« ftoiu «tilL clicmbcd tlie Uo- 
giUfd, ciiurch rule, and ciutomfi of their parent na^OD. Tht 
Datoh aaw in Uio Auiorioan atroRjrlo a rei>elitii>Q of Uwiir own 
lustorj^ ; Mid the Amencouf found in tliom tlio ovidcnce 
that a Binall bnt rewhite siatir can tritimph over the utmost 
eETorta of the mTgbtiett and w4?a1thJeet empire. 

Tlw piT»[i1i7 wliit dwr.1t 1>«lwi*i?t] Uii: Alp)h lutd tliQ northom 
aail^ between France and the Slaves, foondcd no coloni^a lit 
America; but they 6av in the ruing people of tho Nov 
World tnanj wlio tmccd their lineage baek to tho aame anoee- 
tr; with ih«mflclvcfit and they claimed a foUow»hip with tho 
youthful natioD vhieh was atru;^ling for froodom of nuod 
and froo iiuftitittioiii^ Thair grtmi philotopboTr Immanael 
Kant, tlie contcmpoj-ary of the American revolation, tho maa 
who bIodo of Gormana can with Ldibuiti take a plaoo by tho 
sido of PIjilo imd Arintolloj rpformod pliTIosopby a£ Lnthier 
had reformed the dmpolij on the prUietpIe of the lelfHACtivl^ 
ol the individual inliid. IXia inetltrtd wnjt that of the omploy- 
mcnt of mind in it^ freedom ; and \m iidolity to human frM- 
dona has never been qneetionod and nerer can bcb Ho 
acceptoL tlio world aa it i^ only with tho obligaticm that U b 
to ho mado Utter. Ili^ political philowphy enjoina a con- 
itant tftro^le to hft eociety out of iti actual un]>orfeel states 
vhiob ia ita PHtnral eondition, into a lugher and bettor CflM^ 
by dedt^ng every queetlon, aa it ariaesf In favor of rofbrm 
and prc^Tou, an<S ki^-ping open tlie way fcr the dimiiutioB 
of Jill rcinaiuing evil. IIocondotDned slavery, tod be bnnded 
the bar^^umg away of troops by one tiaUi to anotbv wM^ 
out a oomtDon caoao. ''Tho n^ta of man.** he caid, ^ero 
dear Ui God, aro tho appb of tho oyo of God oo oarth;" 
and he wished an hoiir each day lot amdo for all ohUdrea 
to learn them and tako them to heart He wai ono of ibe 
Sret, porhap« the ray lint, of tho Qenoan natioa to «p- 



.1781- TBE ASPECT OF CONTISKXTAL KtmoPE. 



S81 



hold, vTOTi at t)w risk of his Cricodfiliipfi, the caofie of tlM 
VjilU^ Stat€«. 

T*»«[ug 4H>nl«ijijibUKl the edufiiit-wm of }iw ni£f! nR rarnrd 
fonfl-Aid hy one contioaed rcvcUtiQD of truth. tLi^ tliou^Ut« 
of God. prosit io muu creating bormony and uiiitj, tind 
loftdiog towurd Iiiglier culture. In liia vit;w, tlic dafs of 
noblfii "vm booomo iuperflaou^: ih^^ li^ts of the world word 
tboy who f^nv^ tho olcuvst uttf»niTVc9 to tbo dirino idooa^ 
lie held it a folly for Tnpn of h republic to wJiih for a aion- 
mnjljy : tlifl diief of u iTommrjuwrmltir, gijvorning a fr^e peo- 
ple hy tlicir fr&o cliotorj^ hr\» a lmti> tlirit nover aurroundad it 
kioj^. Thon^kowos iu tho ouiploy of Lhu duko uf Brunif 
wick^ ho loathed frctti hi« icmotft auiiI the cngngcmcnt of 
troope in & foreign war, cither us voluntccre or aa oold by 
tboir p^n<^o* ** How cniuo Othollo/' bo oaka, " iuto tho 
•orvioo of Tctiicol Had tLo Moor oo country t Why did 
bo let out his itrm and blood to a foroi^ etAtoT' And 
lie pnblialied to the Oonnan notioo this leesDo : '*Tho Amert- 
conM EUD hiiilding iu tJiti Kuw Wurld the lodg^i of hLiirmiiity/* 

At Wci[uar» iu I779f Hordcr, tho fij*t whj vindicalod for 
the iOD^ of tli« peoplo their plai^o in thu uurtalfl of Imniiui 
cnltori^ pttblij^icd thc^te ^-ordd: '^The hoIdc«t, moit godlike 
tlioa^htA of tho hiiiikBii mind, tho moet bcantifal and groateat 
workd^ hftre beoo porfoctcd in ropoblios; not oolj in anti<piit/, 
but in mcdiiDviU and moro modern tiinoe, tliG best bietory, tho 
beat pliilo^phy of humanity and goTomment^ ia a]w&j« repuV 
Been; and iberepnbllo Qx^rts lu Influonoef not bydiroct in* 
terrcottion, but m*<liat^!y by iU mwv exi^ienco." Tlio United 
6tat^ wiik lU iDonntaln raDges, rivera, and ohains of \akm In 
Ihn teinjKn&to i^tim, tMMtE»e<! tu Liui aliapod by ^latiirv fur a Ubw 
dTiEcaitioii. 

Of the poetd of Germany, the receoran Elopstodt behold In 
tho American war Iho io^mtion of humanity and the dawn 
of an appTMohing groat day. Ho iovod the tcmbto epinb 
wUdh ttnbddcaia tbo j^coptee to grew oonsciona of tbvir power. 
With proud joy lie «n1U to mind thnt, among tho eitbene ofi 
the young republiCf xhtnB were many Gennani who f^mionaly 
fuUUIcd ibvir daljr in tlie war of freedom. ** By tlie riven tst 
Amerioa l^bt bctunn fortli to thd iiailoiiM, and in port from 



238 AUERIC^ IX ALLIAHCE TITH FRAKOE. tp. rr.; m. xtl 

GamuA^" So ho wroto, ombalming tlio TnaTtjrdom of Hcrid- 
mor ft&d his Gcnmm compflnionA. 

1..4W vuiliuflla^tie, but not Iffla eonBistent^ waa Oo«die, Oi 
plobeiAT) cliwrutit, hy }urtJi n nT|iuMi(T]in, iKfnt Ukc Tjiflinr in 
the Iie&rt of Oernti||^ edncAted like Leibnitx in the oentral 
nnivcndt^ «f Rci:touy, wL«a Mvon yea» old he and hk ^tLer't 
hoiiBo were piutiMii* of l''rcdcric> and rcj<'icc<I in bit Tiictori<tf 
00 th€ victories of the Gcnrnxa nation. In carJr yonth ii«, lihe 
thou trmuid hiuiT wa8 iQt«re«tcd m the Btnij£y;lee of Omuaa ; 
jouiftd in titc cry of " Loug live Paoli : ^' and gnro hi* bout; 
iympatbj (o thr pnirKit in oril*. Idotu of popular liberty led 
blm. In hia twentf-swond j^csr or soon after, to select the 
themr fi>r lii)^ first tragTMlj fmiti tliu kiiidnal cp»KT] in thvi Liii- 
tory cf the Netherlands But the int«rc«t of the circle in 
which ht moved bccamo far mono lively when, in a remot« 
port cif the world, ft whole ptjopio ^lOwul id^iA ttiat it would 
mdkc iteolf free lie cld^eed th^ Uoeton toft-pftrty of 177$ 
omoaijE: tlio prodif^toua «vontt whioli otampod theiD»lvco mort 
deeply on hix mind in childhood. lib* cvory body a^nnd hioK 
bo wished thd AmeHcAHfl euecMi, and " the najnee of FnuikUn 
and Waatilngton shone and Ap&rlded in his hoaron cf politiei 
and war" Wliim In nil thLi wiw added reform in France, h« 
and the youth of l^^nnany pronused theinBelveaaiul all tlieir 
fellciw-mcn a heauLiful and evcrii a gli:irion« fotank Tho 
thought of enij^ftting to An^cric^ pfw^d placidly over hi« 
fnu^natioi^ leaving no more marlc than the shadow of a flying 
cloud na it awcopa over a gaidon of tlowvn. 

Tho £alo of lIoniflA eotdiei9 for forei^ money oalied irom 
bim words of diBdain ; but hiA reproof cf lb« young Oomaiyi 
wlio Toluntoerud to ^ht for thu American canao and then 
from fBiTit'lienrtedncwt drew hack, did not go beyond a uoile 
at the contra^ l>etween ch^Ira^ and their deediL Hooon* 
gntaljitod Anivrini th^t it ww not forced to boar np tlM tra» 
ditioQA of feudalifuii ; and, writing or Di>u\tiniuig, lued none 
bat friendly worda of tho U&it«d Stato^ a> " a noUc coimtiy." 
I>aring all hie lifo coaung in contact with et«nla t2iat wen 
diaaging tho world, he piubtod thorn co hia mind In tlieir ctdor 
and eoBnecstioa. Twenty joars boforo tho movemonta of 1^48 
bo forotold with paadonkoi mrocuty that, m cortunly aa the 



r&-l«l. TUB ASPECT OP CONTIXK^TTAL EUROPE, 



233 



would corno to a bTvarJi in Gcrrnsuiy lict'^ccn princcvt and 

And JQWl 1iefcir« the Fmudi n?vi>luLum of 1830 ht? imblinlied 
InM opininij t}uLt tlio iWn; fiir ftTlf-gorcrntnvnt^wlxidi htui »ao- 
oaeded n> well in tho colonics of North America, was BUstaiJl- 
bg the bottto in Europe witliout ti^uA of weariuudd. 

ftshUkr woA a imtivx; ai Wurtcmburg, the pnrt of (Germany 
EQOSt inditud to ide&lijim ; in tnt^disVRl dajg the stroDglioId of 
Oevmftn libwty ■ nnowaed for m iiumer»!u iroe cuticfi, tJie wido 
duttri1>iifioQ pf Inuit aini>ii^ Aiiidl frtM^liolticnt, tbu totiil aWnco 
of gtval' Undwl prnprivlflriert^ tli« (rnrnpamtu*" f^ttinctioJi of the 
old iioUUt^. Eijijjdljr iu bE» lKn:i* of ruilecUoii aud iii lit* 
booiv of IrucpirmtHJn, LufiHTitLlnientfi w^^ro «ijch uji Ixx^iki tho 
poet ctf tho ticnmin nAticn invigorated bjr the idc^ of Kant, 
The Tictoij irMob liia couutryioeu von ogidnirt the V&ti(<an 
mA ogdjiAt orror for the freedom of rcoeon v-npi, as he \m>tOi 
arieiorrfoT a)l nftriona and for endloaa tiiue. Ho vaa over 
readjtocLup tho mill ion i: of hi« follovrmon in hi« ombntoOi 
to ^re ft lalntatioD tj th9 wliole world ; and, f^lowin^ with In- 
dlfputEon hi prinecd ^rho mot t)iO ecponiCA of ipnAiffXij hj 
wMng thi.tir eubjec^n to war ngninst the rij^te c^ manVind, n 
fffW jean Liter be hnniglit their orime upoD the tfla^. 

I7iid<^ fJic Ornnari iinglirigEit, U^o nmiw cf the nJitioii cinjld 
not evpTME it«elf freely, bat Gorman political intei'wl centred 
in AiDorifta. TMulatiouA of lintinh pamphleta on tho w, 
incindinff ** Price upon Libert/" wore printed in Bninewiek, 
It ia nlatod hf Xiebuhr tliat tho politiofld ideaa which in lus 
youth mott <wajed thd mind of Oormanj ^;rGw ont of iia fe^ 
lov-foftliD^ with the UcLted &tat«« in ^idr strugglo for Is* 
dependence 

Wldlo the tni««( mid bt«t ropn»*?otntiv«a of German inteU 
cuippboiliM AmoHcaDAaB the foundorFiif a nrpiiblic^ the 
of the Gcnaan|>rbia«ia]>pmvi?4! Uielrriaingiitaniiaa^Qet 
« Mrref«£gti who attcniptcd to strip them of their righta. l}^e 
biMfft of fitxonj. coltiTfttcd hy travel in Holland* England, 
tad Fn»oe^ mkd hla pnnoipdlitv of Saxo-Qotha and Alteo- 
batg vritli wiadocn and jtwtiee. Bv frugality and auiLplicity 
bi hia conrt, be reatony] the diflordered iinanooa of the dndijj 






234 AMKFimA IN ALLIANCE VFTn FRAKOR. ep et.; ca.in. 

and providofj for great public Tvorka nnrl for fcionc*. Thonj^ 
Uu^ Ltiig uf EDgland was bb oeBr TtfUtioii, he put uida the 
often i»r tsuirniouii HiilRiiilirM for triHirjw tc> bt; iTiiiplojw] in 
America. ^V1aeD» ten ycon Ut«r^ bo wu ready to risk hie life 
«nd icdepAndeiico in the defence of ihd imity aud tho litMrtiei 
of GcmuLiij, tiicdi3 are tbc vorda in wliii^h Lc oliecrDd on lus 
dnrcit friend to bid in f^tirbing the mobitioD of Aiutm : "^ All 
hope for GOT fi^edom und the pree^rvstioQ of the connitutiou 
ii not lost Kip;ljt and equity are en our «ide ; oiid the vim 
Providcfnci*, act't^rvliTig t<> my idoa of it, wnncjt ajiproYe^ euniot 
tfuppurt, [wrJLtrj' ^nd tUe eupprewIoD of all ngliU of dtiseiie 
and of Mtittii^ Of iIjm jjniii^ipln tlic t^xaiiipli: of Atrn^ricji in 
the doquont proof, Etigknd met with her dcwr{«. It wu 
Decenary that her pride ehonld be bowed, ^nd ilmt opprceeud 
iBQoecBce ahould GajrT7 o<l! the victoi^-. Tune oviuot oatJtw 
the rights of mankind.*' 

The friend to whom tt«ee WOTda w<^pe addreseed was the 
bnvo, wAnivhmrUrd CliArlei Auguatiu of Saxe-^Vetinar, who, 
m filGy being then of onlj nineteen jeAn, refniicd a rcquMt 
for k-dve Uiopeu recruiting offloea&t Ilmenau and Jeu& for 
tbif KngliiJ) »prvjoi% ihongh lie nuim^iid^] Ui tite didiveiy of 
vagabonds and oonTiete. Whcnt m the Iwt da^ of Novem- 
ber 1777, the prince of Schaombur^-Lippe, aa Uie go-bctweeti 
of the Britij^h ministry, made uuIimittMl otien for aome of luA 
bfttlallon^ the patriot prince eallod his nunietors to a conto- 
eDCOi $ndy supported bj ^o uaaniinoiid adTico of iboAo proeoDt, 
on the third of Deooniber he uutwcRxI : ** Th<jro ato, in gen- 
eral, many veightj leasons why 1 euiDot y]M my ooueoC to 
delinr troopa Euto foreign service and pay ; " und It ia nUnuled 
on thedr^ft tW " BvnTiiitvitniw luiicmU IjhiIc rliArgv of pfwUng 
tlis lelterr 

Then^atnreof Gortlie, tliejreimge'l iiiinivler of Wchiuir, 
la wanting lo the dnifi:, for he was absent on a wintor trip 
to the Ilarts Mountains; hut that hU heart was with bifl 
coDeagnce appears from Ida writing nmoJtoneomilj from Gee- 
lor : '* How am 1 a^in brought to love that clai* of men 
wfaioh ia enllod the lower elaaa, bat which aararedly for Ood 
IB t^ highest! Ia them modemtion, eontaotmaD^ stmigltior- 
wardn«e», padence, endntnueer ^ the virtnci^ meet tcfiether." 



L 



m£-iT9i. rii£ Asracf op oosmmosTAL eubope. 



m^ 



Did tho futaro bring honor to tbi^ lioiMoi of tbo prinow 
who refused to fif^ht aj^nst Americ^il or to those who aold 
thoir rabjeeta to destroy the freedom of the 2Cew World t 
Every fijniABf^ wliirh riimfulii-d ttiKii* bt Knghttu] liiut rt^nMHl 
to n-i^D, exot^pt oQ&y wliidi \u\s iiow for It^ HoTe rcfin^MenUUT'e 
jLci ngi>1 and cLtldJuM luaiL On tJie other hjiad, thb three 
Baion &milioE rcm&ia ; and in tJicir »t«tcs locad aeif-gOTOl^ 
moat had continnaUj iacrGeflod, ond tho medom and the will 
of theudxabttiLnU harebMn coueultedandreepceted. In S^x^ 
Weimar the ccUidon botwooa moimrdhy uid popular fro?- 
dom, preileted for G^many by Goethe^ ww avoided bj the 
irfadom of it« odmluJatratSoiL 

Hot h thifl tttlTrrrnt. fntu of tin; pruitriw tu 1h? aHnliiitod to 
icdddDt. The same iuGdolity to dnty, vrhltih InductHl Bome 
of Uienj U> support thuir vicea by tntfHo in tbeir subject^ 
colored their can^:], oiLd brought tbcm in odoflict with die 
Uvs of the eternal FroTideoce. 

Xlie prince who, DOzt to Jo»c|»h oi AosttlA, goveraed at 
that timo ibo largget Dumber of men hiivinj^ tlio <^fcrTnfin 
for tbeir mother tonffoe^ ^raa Frederio of Friiflaa, ihoa the 
only king in Gimoany. He vnm ft priDce trained alike in tlie 
ftTU of WAT sjid ftdmiuiHtrAtiouL, in philoeopliy und lott^nt. It 
Bliould 1h? incredible, and yet U ia true tlut, at the nuHnent of 
the alli&nca of tKo CaIIioIj^i powun* against Protolnntwm, 
KDj^uid» nodar Uio eccond George and a frivolous mmister, 
vnA fttteicptioff by large salMldica to eet the foroe of KuaBia 
ftgaioflt tlic moft coiuidoniblo Protcrtont poorer in Germany. 
lu ihc attempt, Eaf^Luid ahot eo wildly fr>m it« dpbcro that 
Nevcjutio wiut forced to bond to Willmm Fitt; and tlien 
Ea^^and and Pnisaa^ And tlie ombryon Unitod State* — Pitt, 
FredeHc. and ^raat^nfrton — worked together for bumen fn^ 
dom, Tli^jtovmi yi^anr* warextendMl iha EitgHiJi eofon!«tt to 
tho Thiiwimippi nnd gaTeCaaada to Enj^Und. ^'Wp conqncn^d 
America in Cli^nuaiiy,** tmd the elder I^ll^ aficribinj; tti Fred- 
one n aliart ta the e^ctcDidoii of tiio Gennuitc mcc in the other 
hcanifphere ; and Frederic, in hi< hietorice, treats the Engiiah 
movccnctit la America and hta ow& atmgglea in Europe ftll as 
Qoc. ao long A« Pitt was at the helm. 

To irbat end irould oveata baTe been ah&pod if Pitt'a min- 



L 



SB6 AMEMCA JS AFXIAXCE TTTIT FRASCE_ ep, it. ; cm. T*t, 

ietry bud ooDtinu^, and tbo bondji betii'eea Englnnd and 
Piuswa IlicI liocn rivutol hy u tommou jiiiiuie? Hut lien*, tv* 
er^rywbei^ It is libelees to aak wbat would Imvu lid^ipHnid tf 
t)M itt'ntul PnTvidtm{.<ti bod for tbe moiueiit aoBpeiLded its 
rule. TIki AmcncAJin ^vrre at T&riinice vitb Lbe aaiae cUs& of 
3titieh mioialcn wbicb bad wronged Frederic in 17C2. Witb 
irbicb bnncb of tbo Teutonic funily would bo tho eyinpadiy 
of Gcmuuij t Whcjv utood iu ono fauomparftbto kingt 

He wa» old and brokon ; bj« frioDdi lud fallon nov him la 
Wt]i>. Tl)o diougbt of bifl etmp^n^ g&ve lilin do pkamrOf 
tb«itr mnrvclEomtlj triumphuit molt no pndi^ : he LooWl bftob 
to them with awe, and even witb horror ; like one who boB ft8Jt«d 
ibrciQgb » rtfWtleKi wliirlwjui) tu uiid-oceaitf and freen but jiut 
Hivod from krnmlcinng. No one of tlie pinr^n vf Kuhj^w wm 
beartily bi« allj, Bofi^ia will soon leavio bim for Austria 
H]» great ddcda become to Mm ao many anziedoe ; bli Bjttan 
mcot6 with poruAtont ud dcadlj oniBUy, Ho acoka rort ; and 
atroni- fuid tinaroidabld aDta^;^iBme allow hia waetod tticngth 
no r^piHo. Ha la cbiidJcu and aJon^; his nepbdw, who w^ 
bo bin ttuQctimjT, noglocta bim, aiul follows otb^r oounub; hia 
own brother hopes and prays to be^TBTi that thf^ bin^'a days 
niaj i^ol Lb pri]lougi*d, Wuni by utijuirmlloti^ lidn*r ami 
jcan, bu i^kw ngaifint obBtaeTc^ on all »idc« aa bo sce^ to 
giTO asuroIlCe to bU kiogdoin; ard prudence teacbea bim 
tItAt hf \iix:at stOl darr and mxScx and go on. Ih iimst nuilK 
tain I'rotentnntiam and (jctman liberty a^in^t Austria, wbioh 
uaoe tbo impeml crown only for ita advantage as a foreign 
power, and rolontlonly niroa at tbo dottmetion of bu rrftlou 

Tbo moAt porfoot ^vonunc&t ho bold to be that of a weU> 
admlnlatorad monarcJiy. **Biit then," be added, " kingdomi 
an eubJQCted to the cnprice of n Einglo tnao whoa* suooaaKua 
will haTO no ooniTiion tbanw^ter. A gtxxl-far^notbbig prinoe 
aiJOiWodA an nmbitlons onti; tlu^n follnwa a drvotflr:; tlwa a 
warrior; then a scholar; tbciu it may be, a voluptuary; and 
tiie gvoiua of the nation, diverted by tbo variety of objcctflt 
aaamnos no fixed character. Bat lepubLics fnllil inor^ prompt* 
ly tho doeign of thoir mstitiitioiit and hold oat better ; for ^tkhI 
Icinga die, but vrbo Uwa are Immortab There U nnity in tko 
end wbicb ropablica propoa^ end in tbo mcuu wbicb thaj CD^ 



ITO-ITSI. THE ASPECT OF OOSTTSEJITAL EDftOrX, SST 

ploj ; Jinil tlicj' tltcnsforc iJnKNct ticrpr mm Uicir aim." The 
republic wLich aro&e in America cucouatcred no uuidVAnUlo 
prejudice in Lia luiad. VClih the »euicc vtiidi protected tto 
Usitod titAtM ho hu<l a common fvcling. LilicrAl Kn^Uah 
stateemoD commAndcd bb g^iod-wiU ; bnt he dotcetod the ]>oli' 
sf of Bute and of North : «o that for Mm oiid for AmDria& 
tbon lATore In Erii^limd tho kujqq friend* niid the Gfuoe eDetnioe. 

In Nowmlwr 1T74 Iw ujq>n»wd tho opinioQ that the Brit- 
ish eo1oiii«A would ratber bo bari^l lutder the ruins of tltetr sut- 
tlnocfliU tlian Mihmit to tfio yiika ot tlio itivt^u^r country, lie 
WM flftonifibod at tlic apnthjr and gloomy mlcuce of the DriLbh 
nation on vndcrtakiD|; a ^or allko abfiurd and fr^n^bt Tvith 
hnzaxd. ** Tlia troatrncut of the coloaic«.,^' be vrroto in Scptem- 
borl776,^i]ppoar0 tomoto bo thofiretAtoptownnldcepotlani," 

In October of the Bune year dio Britiali minUtixr at Berlin 
reported : * HU ill state of health rhreatem bhn with a *pooc]j 
diMoliition." WImt ilioiigbh* fillwl bU iiiitii) vrbilp^tbere be- 
IiL'Ved him djing, w© kiiow from hiniaelf : '^Piiring my ill- 
QOif in wbUrb I hnxe piumnl ninti/ momuntM domg nothing, 
thaae sre the ideaa that occnpicd niy mind ; It «eeuie to lue 
very bud to procbtim a^ rehcla free Bubjoct» wbo only defend 
thciT privileges iigTun^t tho dojpotinn of A foinUtrj." Thlfl 
be aaid at the proclamation of (reor^ Ui-, which had de- 
tionnccd tlio Anuiricon inirurgcnt^ u tiulton. "The more I 
rodect on tho niciSwnrcN of tljc Britiih govcinmcrnt, the more 
they tppear to me arbitrary and deepotio^ Tbo British oonAl- 
Ctttion £Ui>]f iu>L*iuft tf> authomH! r««I»iaiU3e. That the court hoe 
prorokod tt« oolonies to wilb^t^nd it» tn<.<«surMT nobody oao 
doubt Ir in\eaU ue^l' taxF^ ; It wiabi« by il^ own autliority 
to nnpoM tbcm on iU colonics in numfcrt hroach of their 
pririlogn : the coloniea do not refopo their former tasa^ and 
decnand only with regard to new onci to be placed ooa tho moo 
footing with England ; bat the goTornmoDt vill not accord to 
them the right to tax thenuelvee. This ie tbe wliolo Llatory 
of tLcMT dietarboiioM''^ 

^ If I had a ruAm in die Britiih cahinet, I abouM take 
advaotago of the gix>d diipoaltlou of Uxo. eolonlea to reconcile 
myaelf wiih thwn," " In orilpr to iittprcwt the nation in this 
mTftbo Briliah court will offer condillonaof mouuoiliatiau ; 



23S USEmCX IN AUJANOE WITQ FRA?f011 wr.itr^en.rfU 



but it will nuke tlicm vo 1>urdon»cme that tlie coIonJoswill 
never bo nbJo to accept thom." ^' Xho leeuo oi tLi« conMt 
GUmol fall to mftke an epoch in BritiBh annals." **Tho gr^t 
quOitioR u dv^ftv^ wh<!tbcr the eolaniot will not lied mean* to 
separato ectirelj from tb« mother country and form a frea 
repuhUe. The exatii|ilt« cjf the KatbErUnds and of Svntfep- 
\am\ tnuVi^ ni<T u^t, bsut jrnviinir tbut lbi« tA u(>L impociiliila. 
Neirlj- all Eoropo takes the part of tlio coloQics and defends 
thwr cansCf while that of iho court finda neither favor nor aid," 

Ho princcJ could he birtbcr than Friykric from rom^Jilic 
attcmpU to roBcuc from opprcwicn foroign colomcA tbot were 
heyo&d bie reaoh. In a oon^ful eeaidi thron^h tia cabinet 
papviv forcevanl ^eam, I havo found no luttcr or pott df t 
letter in vhieh ho loured the interwt of hifi Icinf^om to soSor 
fnmk penonal pique or djnaadc InflnencoL HU oara ■!« fbr 
thiT f*»itiilr^ wbmb ]m ralbiT wnn* ihiiii ndnc Htt »<tmnd 
cJQictIv mcKurcB its wc&kncfiS aa veil as it6 strength, and 
gatliera ercf^ one of iU diacoDnected parta under hta vrinf^. 

AVbcn, in Jiay ITT^, a pkn for n direct comraoroo vrith 
America waa iniggc»tcd, Frederic unawcrcd; "The plan ap- 
peals to me very problomatioal ; without a fleet, how cotild I 
ctiuae «uob a eomniepcu to bo n^poeti^ t ^ 

In ^i<pt4an1)or ho rcxwivfid from his mini^r in london a 
Frenob version of the Arneriean declaration uf tndependeooe ; 
aiul, VA tlie Ih-itlnh Wl nut hwl fleciaavi? Kit{<<<a?« in ;LniiK, It via» 
to him a clear iTidicatioD that the coloniofi could not be Eubju- 
lEttted. He had heurd oi the death-be^l remark of Hume, th^t 
th& fUOCCM of tlie court would bring to England the loeacf bor 
libcftio«. 

HVith a coDimcToial a^^nt, acnt in the following Xovemher 
by 8iha Deano, ho doelined to trvat for a diroct eomDuroo be* 
tv«en iho United Stoteeand PruBda; bniheconMnted to an 
exchange oS their comroodtlica through th« porta of BHttanj. 

111:11 Frairw nnd S]iaJa worild be dnwn into the war, he 
&om the ijrat furet4>ld ; jet for Franco ha *a;d : "In tJie niin- 
otu condition of its financei^ a war wiU oertainlj bring bonk- 
roptcj in ita train," 

Meantime tho libcrtaea of Gcnmnj ircni endaDgand; and 
tiio poli^col question of the daj aGeomed the krgeet pnpor^ 



ms-nei. tus astect of oosriyKsrAL EOfiorE. s$o 



doit» by A ^nr>iit]<)]<vi; daini on die pan of Josepli of Austria 
to a oontingeDt rig^lit of iiLbiwiUno.- U> a larg*i jittrt of Bivmri. 
To proi-eiit HO ffttol ti mcnirttrr, tlxc king of rniuia^ in the h^ 
monthd of ITTf>, begun to draw near to ^'rwoG^ wjiicli woa one 
of tho f^rontccfl of the peace of WtdtphoUo. 

la January 17TT, ho initrucUd liia muii^Ujr at V^m^Uos to 
mj : " Sbould Fnnco bo^n w^r, she maj be sure thut I will 
do ©Twything in the voild to predt^rvo ^aao " on the ^onti- 
ndnC ** I guanLDl^e to you nwlprocitjr on llio piirt cf his moet 
ClunKtlAii majwty/^ wsw tho iin*wor of Maunepad. 

On the fourteenth of Feliruary 1777, the AnitM-tcvm imrn> 
mlawontrH at Paric* truumittcd to Frederic a copy of the dco- 
Jantion L>f itLdopcixdcncc and of the articles of Amoncan 
confederation, with the formal cxprcaiion of the oanictft dcnitr 
of tho Unitud SlatCA to ol>t&tn htM friondiihip, and to oitablmh 
t mntnaUy bouuficial free comm^reo botween their dUtant 
coimtriea. The great Idng reoelved ftxim Fruikliii, with ud- 
uiingliHl Mittjcfjuition, the tiiuiifi**to of t)i€ ropulilic and its fir^ 
enay at a constltndon. TIio vlclorlm of HTH^ibt^ou at Trail- 
ton nnil Priniwt<in pri>vi«d Ut him ihiLt Hm calanu^ vrnn\ Ijo- 
eonie a nation, lie snpjxirted the Hghta of Deutjula m their 
fullent extent; hnl, tt-t to a direct oopimcrcc. hn could only an- 
ivcr a£ before : ^ I am without a navy ; having no armed 
ehipfl to protect tradt;, the dirod cocnnerce could ho oonductod 
only under the Dag of tho ^'cthcrlard?, and England rcepcctfi 
that flau no lon;^. Stv Eu^tatiuB U watched by at l^aat ninety 
£nglii4i cruitenL Vndf^r moro fitvorable circiuUtttaaet^^ our 
line&« of Sitoeia, our wooUohb find othor mannfaetunM, iniglit 
find a nev market/* But, vliilo he postponed negotiations, 
]ir, u'lui traji iMv-ni^omrr] U> uttitr hiA rjimmaiuiH tf-TwIy and Dot 
to repeat liia words, diarg^ liia iniDieter thnru over in the 
eamA rescript to aiy and <h notliing that could offend or ipound 
die American pooplcv Ln the romiiniBgyearv of the war aonic 
ono of the Am«ncim agcnt« woold ever and anon renew the 
flame propodtioa ; but ho always in gontlo words turned aeide 
dio Tcquoet whkh intcrfcriMi wiih his Doanr duty to Pnuwi^ 

Ai^inet the advloe of Fnnklui and a seaaooable hint from 
tho Pnuaiau minister Schnlcnlxu^ that the vtdl would be 
pramatarvj Artlinr Lee ivent by way of Vienna to Bcrtiu. At 



MO AlfERICA Ur ALLLUIOE WITH fR&KOE. tf^tr.; 



TleCAft be was kept aloof by K&tmitx, soculbr and from tlio 
foraigD office. In Berlin bo, &» a tmTOllor, irae ftfirarod of 
protfictiom yredenc, though ho refund to aee him, promiBOd 
lil« iiiflu«Qoo to proront new trvaticA by EngUnd for Oornun 
troop«r nnd to tnx>p< dfnttnod for Am«ncA forbade tbo tmult 
through art^ part of hw doniiiilonH. 

KIlloU, tliL'u n^itlflh mmiater in Bi^lui, for a tliimsand gjiiii- 
ca« induced a burgl&rto vtcAl tbc papcifi of Arthur L^ but, 
CD tbo ^ompUint of Arthur Ice to tljo police, Mot tltom back 
otter roading thtta, and ir^iiritcd tho thief out of the kin^otOki 
AgtJnit tho rulM of tho cotirtjio homed t^Potedam: the king 
refund to sm liim ; smd a cabiuet ordor, in his own handvrrit- 
Ing, itlU pTQ«erve« hJs judjpiiii-Qi xiyi^n Elliott: " It U a cufiti 
of ])uIjKc fttfalluf^ and he nhould le forbiddrJi t)io court ; bat 
I vill ool pusli mattois with rigor." And to Lib miniatar [d 
LoDdon he wrote: "OIx, t!ie worthy jnijiilof Dutel In tmth, 
tlie Engliah <raglit to bliuh toniiamo at aciuiiiig auch mitu^- 
Um lo foreign owirt*." 

The people of Engkcd dicniJi^d the fame of tbo 
king Ofl tn •omo iDOomro thdr own* tvnd unuiunoudy dcsLi 
die rvnewa] of hi£ alliano. The toiiugtrj aougbt to open 
vmy tor it t}m)i:gli liU envoy Id Loodoo. Frederie rapUftdt 
** Ko m«n is fiurthcr nunovod than inTielf frcmi bavuig coimoo- 
dou with EugUnd." <* * A aca]d«d cal lean eold water,' ny*< 
llw prnvrih. If that c-rnrii wikiM givir me all the inillioni 
potdble, I would not (unuah it tiro amall £lc< of mj tnwpa 
to awTe agvoet ibo edonlea." 

^NeTcrinpMtagof^"hecoDtiaDod,»eineweclu later, "W 
Uie AtnatioQ of EogUnd been 00 criticnL Ilor miniMry m 
vithont men ol takoc." ■■A ^anoe at the dtiuifton thowi, 
tint, if fbe oontinnM to ttnploy tha aaaao genoralit four 
palgna vfll hardly be tooogfa to cnbjngtto bar oolooiM.* 
** AU good jndgea ngwe witK me that, Lf the ooloaiea 
nnltcd, die modMr conntry wiU jmjwr mbjngate tlnmi.' 

*Uy marine la nothfa^ bel a nerontUe voame, oCwbkl 
Iknow tba ItButa too wrll togobeycod thietn.** ''If tbeec^ 
niaa dkl anatdn thcdr indepeDdGnce, a diivcl coounaroo wUli 
tfacni win fi>Dow, of oonraa.** 

Qavii^ taken hit poattioa tovaid &iglaDd, be 



JTTO-L78U THS ASPECT OF 00?rTlSK:n'AL EUROPE- a*! 



to gain the aid of Franco as well sa of Bd8bU against the fto- 
iiexatiQii of BnvnnA to tlio AiwtriAii U-uninSoiw; and In tite 
t>raftlt of the aged Maiirepa^, whow? oxjwriencB in a^uv pnv 
eedei) tlif? wrMTti yiyirs' w^ir, tlmrn rvjiiaiuijd ciiua^li of the ear- 
lier French tfrtdiiione to n:r:der him ^JcJiltmrt «f nui-h uti aggran* 
ducnieDt of Uieoldnva] ofliifl conutrr. The vitfti tmportADc« 
of thu f]iJtiftti{>n wa« usdoretood at Fotedam ilqcI at Vienna 
KanuttE, ^ho miido it tJio cardumi poiut vi Aiit^triari poUoy to 
onotlirow the kinf^om of Prnafiia, lookcnj up<:<ii Uio ac-quid- 
tioQ of BiLvaria as the har1>iuj>&r of eucceaa. "Whon Jiitwph ro- 
pAJred to Pu'iJt to win Fmuou for Hi duKi^^rt Uiroiigli ihv uijIli* 
eoce of his aster, Mario AiitoitJctty, tint PniM*iiiTi tiiiviiy wa* 
fHmiiiiaiiilml tii Eje wiLti^Iifiil, Irul to hu hIIi^iiK No cof'Qfir Lad 
t.liL' 0TuiH.^na rutlrt^cl timti FukIoHc, IctU'wJtig tluit ^[aiire|va« hA 
raiibted the induence of the qaeoxi, rcnowcd Iiifi c^orto ; and, 
tliroDgh a confidiMitJal French a^^^iit w^nt to hini imdex the pro- 
text of nttcnding the ini<bnmmcr military rcviowa nt Ua^do- 
bnr^, tJio tvro kiujjcdome adjusted tUcir foreign policjf of wbidl 
tho cicntral points laj* in thu IlTiitcJ Stato* and in. 0«nuuiy. 

Kranofl, if ^be would vonture on vewt witli Er^^Und, noedod 
»ecuri£y and encoorflgement from Fred<3ric on ihc' eide of Qer* 
n(»]j, ni^<l hi* Eiid to litop tlui unlv* of Girnnan troojH. He met 
Hit 4^v*irtiire wir.li joy, and nsar tJia <Mid of July wrote with Ua 
own liftiid : '^ No ; CGrbiiiily wc luvc no jtnloitsy of the M^gnoh 
diastiment of France : we oven put up ])iaj t-re for her proepori- 
ty* pn>vided her aruucd are not found ncai AVifM^I or Haib«> 
fltadt," " Vou Oftn MBuro de Matitvpu/* so he continued in 
Anjcpiat and September, " that 1 have no connoction whatever 
wit^ England, nor do I ^rrudge to Fnuico uny advanijj;*e« falie 
may giun by tho w%r vnth the coloaiM." " Her tr*i interest 
nqtiiros tbe enfeeblemetit of Gr^t Britain, anJ the way to 
tbii i> lo Ruke It Icoe ita eoLoulcN in Aiuerieji. Tlje preaent 
opportunity Ig more favorable tlian ever before existed, aad 
more favorable than ia likely to rei^ur iu three ccntarict.'' 
'' Tbo isdcfwndoDCc of the coloaSofl wOl be worth to Fnmce all 
which the war irill cost" 

To pru«crru hiH ovrn kiTi^lom aiid the libcrtiee of Germinj, 
be prc«cd npc>n the French council an aJianec of Firtnce, Pnia- 
^ and Rnada. ^ Italy and Bavaria,*^ he raid, '^woold follow^ 



^2 AUrRlCA IX ALUANOS VITII FRANCE. M9.iv.icti.XVL 

and DO alli&noe vrould bc^ left 1o Anetrii except that wftli Eng* 
iMat], Tf it 4)ues not take pliu^e^ ti>>Lib1eH aro &t hand to be de* 
cii^vT nrtl^- hx Clie dworft," Id liw IciSnn old a^^ bt? ftilt bite oven 
lioyiVTfi utterly Qnc^^ual to the roneinO of such a convict; and 
he paw m> liope for lumself, aa king of i*ni£6ia, io rescue Bavariii 
and with it Ciennany from flbftorption hy Aodtna, except in tlio 
good-will cf [-'mni^c ftnd Kunntft. 

Wbilu Fredtirio was encouraging France to atrike a dcdn^o 
blow in foivor of tbe tJulted Suttee, their caoBd found &n effi- 
cient advocate in Man? Antnlnette, 8be placed in the bajidi 
of )i<*r liLubuud A meinoir wluoh bad bei^n pne^iared hy Cunat 
do Mnilb'}ri>rii and Counli d'EHl^iiig, aiid wbudi i^l-jikhiviI tbo 
timid |MrllL-y of bifl mimBtciu Tbo etatcs of Eoropo, It was 
Kud, wdiitd judge tbe reign tif Loaia XVL hy tbc Dunncr in 
wbicb tliat prince vill know bow to amil liiiiucJf of the occa- 
rion to lower tbe prido and pionuDptiOQ of a mal po^-«r. Tbe 
French council, ncvcnbcloia, put off tlio day of dccisioD, 
Even BO Ute ae tbc twonty-tliird of Novotubor 1777, every one 
of tbum, except the minister of the marine and y^trgmom^ 
Mfiurepas abord all, dwirvd to nvold a conltict. F^^deiiOf all 
die more oonttnued hla admonitions, thiongb bis minister at 
Puru, tliJit Fnnc.'i* bml nnw an opjwrtiinity wliicJi inu»t be 
ivganled as un[f|iie; tbat England could from no quarter ot)- 
taiii tbe troojia wbicb iJie uec<1cd; tbat Denmark would bo 
flolidtcd in raiD to fumuh diipA-of-wnr and mannr:^ ; that be 
LiiDflelf, by reftmni^ puea^ tbreugb any pan of bid dondn- 
loCA lo the rccruild levied in Germany, had given publieevi* 
deneo of bi« sympathy with tbe Ajnericana ; that FraneO) if 
fibe aboiitd go to war wltb E&gbmd, roAg^t be free from appre- 
benition alike on ibe dde of RiiiKia and of Pratwa. 

So wbetk the nava of the sorrendf^r of tiorgoyiu/^ army 
wiia i«celved at Pftria, and every face^ even that ii the FtencJi 
king, ffhowed ngna of jny, Mnnntpoa propi&rvd to yiiJd ; bttt 
first wiabed tbe great warrkor, wbo Iroew eo well tbe reUtlve 
foicea of the booAe of Bcnrlon and England, to expraa bia 
judgment on tbo probable iwnce of a war. Frcdcnc^ renew- 
ioi7 aaenraueed of bja own fro<>d-will and tbe non-intea^eranoe 
of Ruttia, replied : " Tlie chuncce are one hnndrcd te one tbat 
the celoEUQG will auatain their indepsBdence.** 



mft-ir«l, TCE ASPECT OP OOSTINEKTAt EDftOra. $43 



GaJAndikg tlic ilMU(t4:r> of Dorgo^e with tlio «-iicc€hk« cf 
Howe, bo wroto; "Thtto triumpliaof Ufyere axe cpheuienJ. 
The miniBtrr may get funda, 1>ut vp-hcns wUl they get twenty* 
thouaofid men f 1 «c« no gnto at whirh they CAn knock for 
anxUiarm'' ^^ Engtftud mado ori^&alljr on awkwiird mistake 
in going to woi v^ith its colonloe ; tbonfoQawed tlic illuuon at 
b«ing ftblo to subjugate them by a eorpt of wv^ tbousAnd 
men ; next, the ecnttonng itfi diiTprunt corpa wliicli hna i*3ased 
the failure of all lis enterpirtMe. I aru of Clialharu'M opinion, 
that >t« ill AtcceH* b due to tire i^ncruncc, riMluuH, and iiica- 
padty of tU minuby. Even ftbould there be a diange In the 
miTiiitnT, tlie lonee would etlll retaia the aacendency." " The 
primU Kmreo of the dco^ of Britain id to be sought in the do^ 
partoTd <^ its proeent goTenuncnt in a ftOTorei^n^ do^irroo &oiq 
the priikolplca of Dritlih Iditoij. AU the eilom of Kia Britan^ 
QIC majtttj toaid to de«poti«in. It in only to Uie principle* of 
the torlEfi that the present w&r with the colonies U to be attrib- 
nted. Thtf refnforeemeEita wlildi tlieoe same ndnlBtera desigo 
to eend to Amoricn will not change the face of afTiiirH; m\<\ in* 
d^peudeuot; will alivays lie the iiudiflpeDuble coudltlon of aB 
aooonunodati on. " 

At the sMi^c time, rnoderie corpneficd more freely his rrm- 
patLy vritb the Ut^tted Sl&tea. The port of Embdon coiili not 
roecive tboir cnu«oi«, for tlie wiuit of a fh^ or n fort to d*;- 
feud thom from infiidt ; but ho bade them welcome at Dantxie. 
He forbada the mbaldiuiy tioopii, both from Anspadi tnd 
EflfBO, to paaa tlirough hi« dorDinioriB, The prohibition r«- 
aonnded throughout Eempe^ and he annoiuwed to the Amcn< 
can* that it wiw pvMi "to ti^^fy hiK gi>4H!-wiU for tbeiu" 
Kveiy facility vaa afforded tliem to &hip anna from PnuBfa. 
Before t^ic eijd of 1T77 he pn^mincd not to be the la^t to rec- 
ogmao the independence of tho Umtod State* ; and, in Janu- 
ary 177^ hie tnifUAter, Schnlenburfr. wrote officially to one of 
Uidr eoauQiaaiODcn in Par»; ''The king deeiiea that your 
goocDOue efforu may be crowned with eompleta meoeiL Be 
wfll HOC bodtate to reeo||dM your indepeadence) whoti Pmnoe, 
which ia Enoro tlirrctly intom^sted in the exetit of this contest, 
aball have givea the exampfe/' 



344 A31BRICA IN ALUAXCE WITH FRAXCE, ».IT,;«CXTU. 



OHAPTER XVII. 



DiPCifUDRiL liT7-Ai'iuL 177& 

TriB ncc*Mitw of Biirgoyne'i mirrender, whioh wm broHftT^t 
to France by a Mwift-4AJ1iTi^ Khip froin Do«Uiu, tbri;w Turcot 
ntiil nil Parle into tran^porU of jcy. "Sone doubted the ability 
of tli« ntnlud Ui iiuiIiitEiia tlmir i[jdepeQdeiii^t\ On tlm twtlfdi 
of Doeombor their com tuition crs bad on iiitcrrtcw vith A'c^ 
geimeti. *^ Nothing " eaid he, •■ has itnti^k ino eo mticli aa <i«n- 
cm) WnjihtngCoTi'd attaokin^ and givic]^ Iwttle to G^dcrJ 
Hovrc*8 army. To bring troop* miftcd within tho ycair to thi#, 
jHrdniiMfl oTOiythini;. The oouTt of Fr&nceT in the tronty vhich 
w to ho entj^red lau>^ Intond to take no n<lnuilflg« of your prvtt- 
6nt ^tnatlon. Onc^ iDAdo,U should be dnrahle; and there- 
fore It iliouhl (wnt^n no oujidltloD of whieh iha Anienrukiift 
may aft':r«-ufil n^iurit, but «nt'b onTy ni; will last wi lon^ as 
hmruui ImtitutionA £hall endure, no that mutual Atniiy iiuy 
auMtit forever. KtitcHng into a tmty irlll he on avowal oi 
yoxa iDdcpendoDCC* Spain miut be conaulteii, and S^iain nill 
not be satisfied with an nndetemiincd Wnndaij on tl>c wosE. 
Homo of tlko atiitoa arc ntppowd to run to tbo South Sea, 
which mij^ht intcrforo with hor chiim to Caltfonua.'^ It iraA 
juiKweTied that the laat treaty of j)t>aco ftdoptod the Munimppi 
a» a boundary. " And what diaiv An yon intend to f^ve ufi hi 
the flfiherieeV " aekcd Vergennee ; for in the oH^nid draft of 
a tn«ty thi- ITnitj<d StaliH hiu] projin^tril to take to themaelvee 
Cape BrctoD and the whole of tlie iatand of Newfonndkmd. 
E!j[]>1)inalionii wijt m^do by llir Amrriraa coiTLniiA^loDera that 
their lat«r inetractiona removed all cluuoes of dUM^remiicEiil on 
that enbjcct. 



inr-lTTe. FRASCB ASB the UKITED 3T-iT£S, 



TIk rottirti of tLa connor to Spnin woi ucit vr&iW for. 
On the sercnteenlb, Qervd, one of tlie ficcreterlcQ of V'cr- 
geniivA, informed TnLiiJclin vid Dcrin<; tbat tlie kirif^ iii council 
had dctcnnitKxl not caly lo acknowledge the L'lutccl titato«, 
but to euppcit tholrcaubc ; &ud ux case England ahouM doclafo 
wiir agaiiut Fmnco ou cccouut of cliiK ivtscigLitiou, Lu would 
not ui8i«t that the Americaju slioiild not inAlc« ti wpanXQ 
p^ace, bnt only tliat they ohould maintain their indep«ii»)eticei. 
This Ammemi etmurdiaiuinurA anHu'ered : "W« perceive &nd 
adiniro tLo kln^t m&gnaumiity and v-L<Hl'>im IIo uUI find ii« 
faithful and tirai allies. We witAi vilih his luajeety tliat iJie 
nmitj between Ujc two CAtUinA muj bat forever;" and butii 
parties a^rcxl that good relations ccnid continue botwocn a 
luoiiarchy and a republic 

Tito French hmg protnivcd^ in Joimiiry ITTS, three milliisnc 
of lirrctf ; u much moroj it waa eatd, wonlU bo remitt^Kl by 
SpAin from Havaiuu But tbe SpanLih ^ oreiiuueiit) vhik It 
TFBfi d0Tot^ to tbe onion betwcciL tho cruwoM of Fninuo aiul 
Spiln, adhered aa yet to Uie poltc^y of avoiding a rupture vntli 
EfiglAnd. To Count Montmonn, tlu-u Frvin'h am Wojuhu' at 
Uadrid, Fkinda Ulauca Hud, with warmth: ''Vour court ie 
di^oted to tr^At with tlic Ainc-iicajia; wu* will result from it, 
ftncl tlie war will have neither an object for iti bcgioiiiug nor 
It pljin for it* end" * 

Correct reports from Vomillot rcadtcMl Lco^whl of Tu*- 
cany ftnd Jodepb of Austria, '* Tho women and tho «nChafliafiia 
of tho naomcnt,'' eo prodietod tlio latter to Ida brother before 
the«nd of Jantiarv, ^putdnp; tho minUtcrn in frjtr *.*( liKtirig 
thtir placvCr will d^rtennine them to mike war on the Kn^lWi ; 
and they ocnld commit iw gn^aUrr fiJIw." While "Uiu two 
grvitcNt coiintrim in EimJjw were fairly Yniming a race for 
the favor of the Americsus," the ^i^e^tion of a Kivnch oUiflnoe 
with dmm vw iiiat^nm^d by Vergennc* witli the MarqniB 
d'Owmi, tlio kle French oiDhoaiador in liodrid, aa the bo«i 
adviior with r^ard to Bpain, and tbo plan of action was 
formod. Then thc9o two met tke tdog at tho npartmcnt of 
Maiirepafl, vrhere tho phin, aftor debate, wna flnidly eettled. 
Uaurcpam at heart eppoaod to the war, loved eo** and popular 
«Cc<uitKMinatfaloV«rtvDm,l£«]rM,aJuiiur;ma. US. 



L 



)6 AMEErCA IK ALUAltCE WITR FRANCE xr. it. ; ok/ 

iij too welt to <u4capo thv cvnqr of extcninl opubn ; And Louis 
XVI. AaL-H£c«d h^ own iitcliimtioii and lu« own fcclipg of 
jii0tice to polii^ of state and tlic opinion of hu uimcrev So, 
on tho flixtL of FclTimry, a treuly of tamiy and copimcrco 
ftnd nn «vciit;m1 dcfcnnivv trvuly of dHanoo iwro oond\idc<l 
between the bln^ of I'ninoc and tijo Unlt«<d States on pnu* 
ciplcid of tMjudity and reciprocity, and for the moat p^rl In 
conformity u> tbn pmjvwiili^ nf triitigrcw. Tu r^nmnicric^ i^cicli 
partj^ wa8 to be plared on the footing of tlio most favored na* 
don. The king uf FnuK^ protuiwd hh good offices vritli tlio 
princes and powcn^ of Iforborjr. As to the fi«hcriGS, oidi par^ 
rtaerved to iteclf the cxclnaiTo poflsoEfiioo of its own. Accept- 
lug tlio FroTLcU btoqiH'tation of tho trVEitica nf Utrt^cht and 
of F^4, tbo United Stat<w acknowloJg^d ttio right of »oiiGh 
flubjccts io fich on tho banks of Newfotindland, and their ex- 
oIusIto right to half the coufit of that liland for drjii^pbeos^ 
On tho (^ivitiini (if owtK^iip hi tliA rvinjt of tlic conqncAt of 
Newfoundland iha treaty was fllleiit. Tlie Americsn propon], 
that frvi} tfhiji* give frrcdom to gotnlii niid tr> prnum^ vxcepi to 
ioldicrs in acCaai service of au enemy, waa adopted. Careful 
liftts were mnde out of oontiuband mcrcJuLndisea. The aW>1nt« 
and umlimitcd inJcpcndoDCC of the United States wn« dcecribcd 
aa tho e^et^Dtial end of tho dcfoiaaTG alliance ; aud tho two par- 
U«* mntuailj (jngiig**d not to lay down thoir arms tmtil it 
Bbonld be a£snrod by t}ie treaties Terminating; the war. Tklony 
over, the United States guaranteed to France the poiUQuionfl 
then hpld by France in America^ u well as thorn which it 
might acquliv by a future trvaty of peace ; and, in like man' 
mT, tlie king of Fnmn* giunutti^d to t!ir> TTnilt*<) Rlati» tlmir 
prosent poMCffiioDf and acquiadonB during tlio war from the 
doniimoiiBi of Qnuii Bntaiu la Nortli America. A wporato 
and soerct 04:% rmcired to the king of Spain the power of 
aooeding to the treaUtei Within forty-two houre of the *ijjnv 
tur>a of thofc treaties of conunorec and ailionco the BntJAh 
minlKiy recetred the news by a speda] m^seoj^ from thoir 
apy In Puds, bat ii wns not divulged, 

Oit the elevoQtli, IlilUhoningh ssknd of tho ditko of Tttcli- 
mond^ 'Hn what manner he meant th&t England elionld onnnch 
to the vI|M*ni nnii nolxi^U In AiniTnr!U } By giving up the mcnxl 



iTia 



PBANCE AM) THE ir^lTED ST1TE& 



ur 



right of lojtAtion i or kr jicMiiig to licr nbrnrd pretomioiu about 
hor chartci« T or by doclaring tLo thirtoeD provincoe indopon- 
doQtt*' Ri^thxDond ftUBwered : ** I ncr^^r liked ttio docknitory 
act ; I ri>tu<l for it with rogrot U> uLtuiu tho nT|H:jLl of t1i(> 
stunp-fict; I witii we could have done ^tLout it; I looked 
upou It aft u [)IiH.na of waste papt^r tliat no mltiii^^r would isviir 
}uvvii t}iii mailtuiiw lii rrvivr; T will, wUli pUtiuitin*, Ik- thi: l^ivt 
to ropcal it or to give it up." In thi* mood UieUtuond Hju^ht 
li&ni}OQy with CbatlutuL On ttit! saiue day, in tlia lioiino uf 
comnioiui, Ocorg<i (irtnTillo ^ttnckcd tho admiiiuitnition in tlio 
h&rehcet terras, nnd pointc^d out Lord Chatbom o^ tho proper 
pereoQ to treat wiUi Amorioa. Th« vory aincen^ and glowing 
vordN of eulogy •jrakon 1^ tkv won of tliQ sutln^r of U;u Ktunp. 
ttu iruro pleiuing to Lord Cliatbftm in tlicsd lus bst d.t}'>i. 

While the Brliiali govenmieiit atmnljJed In the dark, Fmafe- 
liii plac(-d tliK publio (ipitiiiiri nf plLiiwopbit^iil Fruii(*<f rntispit^ii- 
oufiljr oa iLo sido of America, No luan of Umi ouulury bo 
imbodied tbo idea of toleration an Vi^biSre ; for fjuuc lio h-oh 
une^uoUod oiaopg li^'irg men of letters ; for great age he was 
vi^orablo ; he, more than Louk XVI^ or the cabinet of tho 
tcing] rapreecnted Franco of that day ; and be -vaa como up to 
Paria, l>ont with ytnm, to rvccjvo bi^foro hi^ dc^th tbo bonia|i;o 
of its poopld. Wide indeed wais the diSerenoa betvrwn liim and 
America. Bat for tlie moment Uiey won? in harmony ; and, 
litrfom III? ]»ul \'tH'.n a w<^^1c in Parifi, Fmnklin Hjiiirifxl leave to 
wait upou him. We have Voluure^fi u^ouat ef th^ iut<*rvxF>v. 
I'Vanklm l>ade Ids grandson demand tlie beni-dictiou of tikc 
more than octpgcnarian, and, in the prv«cnc<i of tn^cn^ persoofl^ 
he gavo It IB thceo worda : ** Qod jlxd LtDi:itrr ! " Erervwhero 
Yoltalre apiy«n:-d « tbo fiiond of Amcricit Being in com- 
panj whoro the wife of Lafajotte wiu proeeoti ho a^kod that 
she ndglit be bronf^t to him, Idaaed her hand, and epoka U> 
hor tbo pndK* of li«r huabcutd and of thta caiue in which he 
oerved. 

Alnuwt nnn]1tafii?oii»1j, TjotiI Nurtli, L»n tli« (onreutei-jitli of 
Pvbruai^t made known to the boiiso of commons thu extent of 
hia conciliiUorj propo^tioua. f)f the two hilla, one doclannl 
the intentioH of the parliamerLt of GreiLt Itritain net to exercise 
the right ^f inipociiig taxoa witlun tbo colonica of i^'oxth 



218 A3IERI0A m ALUAXOE Wmi IKAXCE. v. ir. ; go. sto. 

Ainnloi, tite other authorTxetl coninLlfi^on^re to hd MUt to rlie 
United StAtui. In n iijH=tH:Ii uf Inxj lioura, Ixird Xortlt avowixl 
that ho had ucv«r hnd « ]>oVkj oi h\n own. Uv bad Dcrer pro* 
poaod BDj tax on America ; he had fotmd the toa-tax impOtt«1» 
iDd, w1ii]e lio hod not inovod its ivpeiiL, be nerer derbcd ncaiu 
toonforoo it; tiio csrniiniiuioni^rA wi>iitd hnro pow<tr to ti<eat 
wkb oon^^reee, vritb provinoul Ofi^niMiea, or with Wa«hliig- 
Xoit ; to ordor a truco ; to aiupond dl tuv'« ; to gmit pordoiu 
and mw4Lrdt; to rwUrrv tin? ccnutititUon ua it »tood before 
l3iie tronblet. "A dull, mekncholv eifenea forurme timeu^ 
coodrvl tn tliR A[>ft.-('b. It hiu] ltti<-ri bi^rd witb [imfotitid ^Hmi- 
tioiii but without a single mark of approbation to anj* port of 
it from any prtrty or man b\ the liouae. AstOQulunent, dejco- 
lion, mid fcor ovorcbwdcKJ tiic iii*einbly.-' Aftor the bouM of 
oomiuooa kkd ^von leave to bring in tho bilb, Ilnrtlov, actjo^ 
on on ttnder^tandiu^ wiih Lord North, enoloccd oopioe of tbont 
to rnnkliii, Fnuiklin^ witb tho knowledge of YovT^ciuiQfl^ 
■JWwcrod: *^ If peace, by tL tnraly with America, apon equal 
trrnif^ U Timidly i\t.vlrv*l, yowr eoiimiERsLOiit.irs newl iiut |ji> tb<Tu 
for i1- If Vp'Imi nnd bocH^wt im*n^ &ur!i iu» Sir Orju-gn 8nTilb*, 
ibfi l>i/*bojj of St Asapb, and ^urwlf, were to come over btrre 
imiticdintrjy v'iih pnwer« to treaty jon migbt not onlj^ c>1>taiii 
peaoe witb An^cricn, but prevent a war witb Franco." 

The eonciUutciT bilb, whieh with eli(:ht modificatioDe ti6- 
eomo il9itatC0 hy noorlj' ununiTUouB oonacnt^ oonfirmod tbo min* 
ietry in power, Tho kin^ of France, from rogard to hu di^ty, 
made a formal declamtion to Greai liritain of Lia tpcities with 
the Uilted SlMti"«. Britifch uhlju^if-war h;ul r-Jiiifurwl inanjr 
French fcliips^ Imt tbe tniiJislry Imrl rii.-ijlKii" <'4»imiirncatw) tho 
m»trui*tiiiii!* iiTidttr which tJit^Ir (rlflctiiA ar?b*d, niir gireu lie«d to 
tho rcclantations of the French govcninmnt Tlio rwiCTript, 
which on tbt; tbirltx^nth of M&rob wafl left hy tho French 
tmbitMador witb the Bnti,^h mcrvtatj of ftutc, announced that 
" tho l< nttcd SVAtc? of ^'orth America are in full poaacenon 
of iiidi-iv^inlonoo, which they had doclarod on die fourth «f Jnty 
1776; ihat, to ^jriMilidattf tho eonnoclion hotwc<]n the two no- 
tlow^ tlicir re^^iGctivo plenipctCTiitl.u-ii:^ hadngned a treaty of 
fH^ndaliijb EUid commeree, but without any axcliBlT<e advaatagca 
ill fav4>r of th^T French iintifjn. The king iit dHifruiinrd to pro 



Trta 



ttSITEtl fiTATEP- 



1^ 




tcct t}iD lairfu) commerce of hifi rabj^cU, Rod for tltat purpoeo 
ba« Ul:i-:i luirOidurei fn vvnoert wHb tlie United SUtoaof Nuith 
Americn,^' 

TbiA declAr!b(]on e8ta,ljlzfibHd aetalaof warbctwoom Engfand 
tMd VrsuKji^ The Bntirth EUDlmiMftdcTvuuiiiiUNliAtel^' n^l^d, 
And tile recjUl notified to the FrcDch amboMactor. l^rcl Nurtli 
bccune dea|M>iideDt, and profoesed & d««iro to luakc way for 
Lcird Chiitham. TIig king on tho fiftccnUi anaworcd ; *' Oa a 
cktir cxplnoatton that LordCbatham kto ctcpfartb to ^njiport 
you, I vill roGuivG him wltli opoa aniu. I will only add, to 
pnt boforo jonr cy^-^ my nio*t inmotft tbooghts, that no ad< 
vtuitage to my country nor person^ tinngrr ti" niysi-lf i-jin mnko 
ino adtb^«* Kiy«*lf U> Loitl Ciialb^mi, or to any otlior brancb of 
oppoutioiL I wOTild ratbor loso t1i« crown I now weuj, than. 
h«ttr the ipioniiEy of poaseaang it nodcr tiieiT sbookloA. Ton 
ItATo now full power to act, but 1 don*t expect X^rd Chotliam 
And hifl crew will como fco your ftuiatottco." Fox would bavo 
couacnted to a ooolitioD^ had it boon agrooablo to \m friomU. 
Sb^lbortio Answered inflantly : " Lovtl Oj&ihnin miut bo tho 
dictator. T know that Lord Chatham thinks any chan^^ in- 
■affldont which doos noc compr^end a great Uw cirrtngL-inont 
sind unnlhlbttt^ uvery purly in thi' kingdom-'* Tlio Icirg, wlicn 
Llkitj reply wa;; roportcd U> liiin, broke out with \'io1en(^e : ^'^ T^>n) 
Clmbam. thai jJurfidiotiH rrmzi, JwdirtAlDrt N^^itlting Klmll liring 
mo to treat pcrwnally with Lord Cbtatham, ExpericQco makes 
me twoIto to run any peraoiul mk ratbcr than submit to a 
set of men who cortainly irould mako mo a slave for the r^ 
mandcr of my daya." 

After a ni^t^a rvat, tbo king wroto witli atOl moro coerpiy : 
■^ No ooiuidantion in lifo ^hall mAkonwctooptooppotitioD. I 
will rather ri*t my crown than do what I think per»ooallj 
dlngratr^fid. if Uie lutsoi) vrlll m^t lUuid by me, th«y aliaU 
hnvonnotkr^r king; for InovpruTtl put iny hand towhnt wili 
make aiD miserable to tho last di^ of my life," 

On tho aeventoeotb tho king oommunic^t^ to parliament 
tho rcscHpt of tho Fraivch ombsMador. In the commoos Con- 
way taid; ^What hovo wo to do but, with ibXnu^s and man- 
IJncaSt to tako up tlut idea that Franklin boa throvn out?^ 
Among iba lordj^ Rockiugham adviaod to brook tho allianM 



^^ AMERICA I2f ALUAKOE WHO FCAKC£. Br.it.; on. xvn, 

between Fmncc and the tlnitwl Sutr* l»jr ftcktUKwlcdging 
Amenc&D icdcpciKlciicci Itichmocii still hoped to avoid a 
war. ]^nl SholbuTDe dwelt on the ^p^jfttntua of du; aJtrout 
cffdrcd hy Fnuico ftnd tlio impcwibility of not rcsiitiiin^ it^ 
jet ho would not lUton to a private ovgrturo from the [iuiu**j 
IcnL " Without lord Chaituun,*' be Bwd, ^uny new 
mODt would bv inelHcienr ^ with Lord ClautLftm, notldiig could 
bo d<>nc but byuti pnlitT iirw c-Abin^ ant] a oliange in the chief 
departments of tbe law>" On the report of ilm laii^uge, (lie 
king wnjto bin bwt nonl to I»rd Xorlb: ^Rstbor tban be 
fib&cklfid b^ tLcfto dcspcrato Eiec, I will mo any form of ^v« 
eninieat introduced iuto UiU Ubod^ aud lu«d my crovo 
th&D wvoi it tut A disgiuoo,'' 

The twentieth of March wb£ the dfiy appointed for the pKfr, 
^taticm of tbo Amijri^an coriuiuuiouert to iLo kingof Frtni 
in ibe jtahcQ built by Immj^ XIV. at YenBilIos. The wotli 
tJioiigbt only of Franklin ; but he was aocornpan]^ hy hit twcP 
GoUongiiM nod by the unrocvtvcd niiniMtc*rit to Fnuatfa and Tus- 
cany. ThcsB four gltllered in lao-o and powder ; the patriarch 
w^n?i diTfau'd in tliif jiluln ^^a. cvtrit at MunK'hvj'U'.T w-lvtrt wliii*ii 
lie had u^ed at Lbe 1eri« of Geor^ IXL — tiic Eniuc which, <k>* 
cording to the cuc^tiiin of that a^, kc lud ii'om, ^ It pro^ 
for tlio btfit time in Enp^land, when u n^^i of 
hd had appiMirod bufcrc tlio pHvy eonncdl — mth whjt« 
ingt, spectocloA on his noeo, a round wlute lint nndcr bin ana» 
and bifl thin gny hiur In ita natcml state. The tsravrd tbnmgitj 
tvhich they pacved recoivifd tl^em with lon^-oontinoed 
Thekinfif, iritLoTit anynnneual courtesy, KSiid to thum: **Iwwli 
congreu to be Ajuitred of my frlcndaliip," After the oenwiony^ 
thi^y pnid n riwit to llm wifn nt Tjifnytftic, and clit^nl witli 
edcretary of foretgn afTalra. Two daj's Uter they were intro- 
dncod to the aIeII y^^nthftil ^xrlo AntoJiKrltr, whit yielded wUl* 
ingljrto ^nerouf impul^GB in behalf of reptiblicana, and by 
her aympAUij mado tlio npport cf Amcrim a faAhiovi at tho 
Fh)nch conrt. T'ho Idn^ felt all the while aa if bo w«re wrODgf^ 
ing tho cnn» of monardiy itacU by hu ndcnowtodsBMQt 
rebel republieanA, and cu^^nged in the AinoHoui revotutlon 
figainat hia own will, only bacftn» nwmbere of bia oftbtn^t i&-j 
ifiitMl that it waa liis dnty to Framoe to take levonge on Ei 



!SD THE TTSTTED STATES- 



SI 



Und. Personally ho wba iiritatodf uid did Dot dl^gulc^ liid 
vex&tloiL. Tlie ]jrLUfl«A lavIaLed4>u Fr&ukliu l>y Uio*o arotmd 
t.Jin qui*ni] fnTtfid hUn in |jr('Ti>JitJr»», hi«1 !j(i mocked wlittt 
aeeTTkcd to him tlte pretendous enthublssm of die CcutiU'-ac 
Dimia de Polignaa 

The pii[ao of the long wob in no dcj^rcc due to anj defect 
ia ^>aukIiiL He waj & moxi of the a&andtiAl ondcntAuding. 
nu\'cr disturbed \iy reooUootions or foEtra, by ^apndoQfi ^nxid- 
tiof, or tlio ffi:jfoq>til)ilitic« of bcIMoto. Fr^ from tlio illo- 
eions of po>=>tt<! natur^ he loved trntli for itt own uako &nd uw 
things ai they were. Aa a ccnsequcn^eT )io Imd na ^loqnonco 
but thut uf 4'lmni<^K(a^ Uo Vuuw f.hii rmiml world to be sub- 
jected to lavs like die ii&tur&i world; in eotiduufjiig kilnin 
hi; nrnicnilitred the ucceesAty rebition of oaum^ to clTL-ct^ uim* 
in^ only fit what wa« possible; and with a tranquil miiid 1i<i 
mgDcil tilt! troaty witti FVancc, jiuft as wOk cnlm cbfcrvatioD 
he had cont^implatcd tho dangers of his country. In ti^rd io 
money ho was fru^'al, that ho might he iadopvndcnt and that 
bo m^ht bo pciLi-tMUx, IIo owod good lioalth to liia exom- 
phiy t9CDponaic«. lUbitnnlly ^y, omfTo}'ment was his r» 
sonroe against veoriTiGs and »rrow; and contontiount came 
frana his ftipc'riiirity ia urnbitLon, iiilviwt^ or vsjitty. There 
m Bboat bin: mora of moral grostoefis than appeArL«i) on tlio 
snrCina; aiid, whiln ha madonoboast of iiiuplfiAh 1>r<mvciWm, 
ho wonid have enrcty mot m&rtyrdom luid duty demuuded iL 

Tlie official eooduct of Franklin and hi» hit^rcrfuru? with 
pcraons of highc«t rank were marked by the mort delicate pro- 
priety afl ircQ aa by solf-reapeet. Hid oharm waa mmplidty^ 
vhich g«To gitoo to his style and cam to hit nunnoi^ Mo 
life-Ioij; courtier eonld bare bean more free horn vnlf^arity ; 
no diplomotiitt mOTO true to his po&ltJon as ministorof a rapnb- 
Iks; DC Iftboror dioto conAict'*iit wrtli hU formnr lifo iw il work- 
fngman ; and thn» he won niKpert !md fAVor from all WhiOi 
a fliT|t<bnil4<<l (■mm- vaji to Iw bt:«rd bnf^iro thi? |i«r1i:iiiieiit of 
Paris, the throng which GUM tbo hooee and it« ApproBchra 
opened a way on his appMranee, and Lo paoMd to thv M^t ro- 
serred foe him amid ^ic Mclamaliooe of tfao people. At the 
open, at the the«cr(«, rimilnr bonori wore paid him. It ia 
John Adams who said : ** Not LeEbadlB or Nowt<Wt not Fre^ 



253 AHEBrOA IN AUUKO£ TITQ FBAKCE. wt-rw.;tx,\ 



one or VolUire, fa&d ft mora nniverea] r^pnUtion ; jtod liii 
character vm* m<^re beloTcd and «itc«n]ed than tL&t of Uwot 
ftlL'* TiiroQgbont Europe thoro woe ftoorccJj & citucD or a pcM^ 
&ut of any cultoro who vas not familiar with his iiaaid, and wbo 
diJ not uOTuricler him oa a friend to all mem At Uu» ncAdomy, 
Alemhert addroseecl him aa one who had wrenched the thi 
dcrbolt trom the clond, the sceptre from tyranU; and boili 
three ikliHM wure (if n tmture tu jvi^ euellv inUi thri rvimmon 
mind. From the pnxl trliicJi ht; had Ulcr=n in tlic pn^ancipa- 
tton of Auivnca, imaginatioD tiMUofignred hiin a^ Hit iiuui who 
had scpATLtcd Uio coloiue« fn^iii Qieat Britoiit, hid fnLmc4 
thdr heat condtitntions of goventmcat, and by counsel and 
example would ahcw bow to aholi^b all pohtical evil through* 
oat tho world. Malc«l^ei-bc« spoVo of the exoellenoo of tlit 
iostitntionA tbat permitted a printer, tlie »on of a tnllow-diABd- 
ler, to act a gr^at part In pubhe afTaiis; ard^ if Mal^iaherh^ 
rsM'ini^l tu>, huw tiiiu'Ji itkih? t]iu w»rkiut-u of P^im ;ujd llia 
people. Thoa Franklin ww the veiiumblo iiiipen^Hinntura of 
demooncy, ao calml/ decorous bo free from a dUj^o^ition to 
quaiTcl vith the ooimctionn of otht-ra, that, while he Wii« th« 
dolifcht of frco-thinkiBg philoeophorai he escaped the hatred 
of the d*^Tf^\ and hia proeouce excited no jealeuj in the old 
nobility* He roinarkcij to Ujc«e in Paru who Icamod of liim 
the teicret of etatc^mnnfthip; **Iid who shall introduce Into 
public affaire the prlnclplcfl of primitive Chriiilanity will 
clmngTi t!ie fnrn of thr wiirld ; ^ and we know frum Condoncisi 
that he f^atd in a puhlie company : ** Yon perceive tiherly e^ 
Uhliflli hcrwlf uid di^iinnli [diiioHt under yonr eyex; I dxrt tfti 
predict tbat by and by you TiU be anxiotu to taste hot hiitmr] 
inga." In tljid way he conoiUatod the moM oppouto nal 
yet not for himself. AVliatei'cr favor he met in «ocic1y, wbafr»s 
ever honor bo received from the &eademy, whatever osthori^ 
he |-iiinod aa a man of aeioDee, wliatet^r diatinction cftino to 
lum tltrcu|^h the j^ood will of the people, wliatever fame 
acqidr^ ihron^bont Europe, be turned to oocoiuit for the goot] 
of Idn cuiMxtry. Surronndcd hy eollsiigiie«,ionne of whom 
j<atotvi nf hii- ftuijeriority, and far no service wJialevtr were 
grcody of the public mnuey, be Llm^w their an^iy demands 
into the fijv, Azthnr Leo intdgacd totfuj^^laot iimi, Luird uior 



im. 



flUNOE AKD TttE TJSHED STATC& 



£53 



ligned him with flio fbwigvncM of paMJoiiAtc frciiK}' ; \mi 1i€ 
met dioir hoetOi^ by patient iadiffei'onoe- Novcr dotroctic^ 
from tho ment cf any oDO, be did oot disdain gloryf ani }iQ 
know how tc purdon onvy. Gr«at iw wore tlii* iojurlea which 
he rec^^'ed m Cnglaiid, ho iiM^'d toii'ard tluit puvrcr mulc^'lot- 
£ng fraakntas aod fdriLoss. 

In Eiigl^itil, T^idcjoghain, Hldunond, Biirke, Fox, and Co[> 
way dcairod to moot the gScv^ of Fmnklin. &>, too, did Loid 
North, though he was too selii&h to bo tnio to his convictioiia 
On the other eido ttocd tho king; but, for n^flaona which vrcro 
hateful to tlic king, Chatliain arrayed ^I'^ry^f with tntlcxi- 
fcUi^ a^inEt Amencan iDd£i[}^ndonce, KiclimoudT ae a friend 
lo liWly, inade advaoeea lo Chatham^ aandliLg bira the draft 
of an addrv«a wbicb ho wiut to luovu hi thi^ lioudui of lurdiL, 
and ontmatiLg of him mtitnal confidsnce and sup[>ort. Chut- 
huTti riTJrisliMl Una nvtrturt?, hxhI aviiwed the |>ur|Hrfie cf oi** 
poking the motiou. Accordingly, on the m:vontJi of AprU^ 
u^Lijf^t edrcittt i«4UCdUf Lord Uhathain, wrapped ap in flannel 
to the kncoA, pAlc and wa'itod iLwoy^ hia cycA ntiU ntainuig 
their dra, came into tho house of lorde, IdLuiog upon hiB eon 
WQliam Pitt and bin non in-law Lord Mahon. The peers stood 
up ont cf roepoct ae he hobbled to hie bench. Tho duko of 
Kichinond propoied and spoke ^borataly in favor of aa 
luMrtwft ui tlin king, wbidi in Mulvfanoo roooiaintDdad th* 
recognieitin of the indcpeaclent vw&T^ignty of the thirteen 
n^vultiH) jrriiviiici» hiid ^ lOiciri^ uf tulmtikiHtmtioii. CliEhthain, 
who nloDc of Pritifth «UtcKnK-n had a rij^ht to invito America 
to reanmo her old eonnectioa, rooe f rotn hiA aeat with alownoas 
and diiKculty, leaidii£ on hi* crutches and »ii]>por1cd under 
each arm by u friend, lie Ec«mod a being ^pcrior to thoio 
around hiru, Raigiu^ ono hand from hia cruicb, and ca^dnji; 
hia oyce toyrord hoivun, bo noid : " I thnnk God iiiai, old and 
infirm, and wicb more than one foot in the ft^ve, I have been 
abld to eooae thia day to atand «p in the caiuo of my country, 
perhaps never a^ain to enter the walh of tins bctiMi.^ Still- 
noM prtfvallvil. H!a volee, at fint low and feeble, race and 
bntBUi hannmiona; bat liia qieech falter^], hU HmU-noca 
were broken, hie worda were no more than ihudiea thronjrh 
darkuew, aUroda of anblime but unceouMtcted eleqnuiice. He 



254 A31£RrCA ly ALLU:iC£ Vn^ FRAJiTCE. v.tT.t«ff,xw. 



recalled his propheoiea oi the crvUs which were to follow 
Arooricui moA«uro« u Ltd been adopted, iddinjit ut the cud of' 
eooh: "and to it prorwL'' Ho wuld not uet with Lord Eock- 
Sngluun and hid friends, becniiM th«7 persistf>d in unretracted' 
arroT. Hu kiiglitHJ U> iH^uni tlieldeaof uu invii^Iunof EiigUnd 
1^ Spain or by France or by both, "If jmmco cannot be pr^ 
rti*rveil witli UoEicr, wlij- lAnotwat de^Ui'ed without Ut^itatiuni 
Thu kiLtgdum has rtill rcAcntrcM to tnoinUin it« jii«t ri^ta 
Any Btate u better than despair. My lordfi, 1 rejoico that thfi 
gnvo luA not cloaed upon mc, that 1 am still ullvo to lift up 
my voico agnin«t ibo <Li«ntcinbomioQt of thu luicfcnt and moet 
noblo monarchy-^^ Tbo duke of KicImiDnd answored with ro- 
ftpuct for tho namo of Clmtham. so dear to EngUshm^B, bttt h4 
raflDlut«ly mfiinUinc^l tlio wi«dom of avoiding a war >a wludi 
Frant^e and Spain would have America for tlieir ally^ Lord 
Ob^Ulimii wmild hivv. n'^tlmX; Imt, uftnr twii ur tJiriii iniicrio- 
cffiBftil ojlorto to nsCf he fcU backward and Eccmed in the 
a^niufi of death. Every one of the peere preoecd round loin, 
save MniiJ^licld, who tiat unmorcd- Tlio aeiLaolcn an^Fcror was 
borne ftxtm the bonse with tcndor eolidtudo to the bed front 
vtiich ho never wae to rise. 

The king wroto at onoo to Lord Nortli: "Mny not the 
political t^:iit of Lord Chatham inoltno you to conauQe at the 
h«dult of my a£&iimV" Tho world wnv mddcnud by the lom of 
90 great a man. The elder Pitt never PPPm^^d more thorough- 
ly tlir! H^xikiwmxix iif Uiif pvfojijia uf Kiiglaud than in tint hut 
mmithfi of hifi career. Tlo cam« to paxli-uncnt with an all-un- 
paanoned love of liljerty, the prondeat aentunent of nationals 
i^, hia old acom for the honm) of Bouibon, and a burning 
paedon for reoovcnng the American colonics by reviving and 
eatabli»!iing tJicir rights. Hia eloquence in the early part of 
the flOflfiion eeomod to «ome of his hcaron to anrpaiu all that 
tbey had heard of the oratora of reeoe or Itom^ In hia hist 
day* he wnfl i^fll hoping for a free England and a hou»e of 
commons truly reprctfcmtmg thu Bnttfih peap)i\ With a 
tmughtiTieiu all Uie mora niarvelloiia from bis age^ deereplCud^ 
and inmladoi), ho confronted ali^xie all branches of the nobllityj, 
who had loHt a cootinenl in the vain hope of saving ihemaehn 
a ahilling in tlie pQCiad of thu Und*tax, and declared that 



177B- 



FH.\KCfc AND TUS PSTTEO STATES. 



S35 



conld bo no pood government, but nnikr an idimiuAtiution tlmt 
tJiould crufih to atgrm all parties of die amtocnujy, ftnd inier- 
pnst lnw In favor of liberty- He died Jite a hero struck dawo 
on the field uf battle tthryr thi^ dny wiw Icu&l, ; iit ln-jirl, riicrn? Uiiin 
ev&ty tTie great commouer. WJtL t<>^(ta] ccnftifetoiDcj'f the hi>iu« 
of lotdn irfiiMxi to attodd liin faiLCriL 

My tkie timo the orws of the Frcncli allianco ynih tbc 
United StaUa had sproad throu^li Europe, It wa^ ixceivtxi at 
St Fctorstnirg witli lively aatia&KTtioiL Iti England^ the l<ua|^] 
the tninifitry, parliainoiitf th» British imtir^n, nil vroro nnvilliiig 
toepoftlcthewordindep^idetioe, wifihinf-atleaat toreui&eome 
pa*fureuou ty compAoc. Cuttcm, munud eonfidenee^ tameami 
(if Itiri^ifl^ ium! iif cjvil TziWj th« ]i:d>It of umu^ Eu^^IihIi umim- 
f.tcliia's, (iK'ir fiii.^|>iKTMi nid iiH-ril, of thrnuwlro* upcurod lo 
i^n^land Almost a monopoly of AmcricAa commorco for & g^m- 
eration, and jet Ahfi fttiold«l for the fomi&l oonce^on of spe^ 
cml comiucToial advaatAgca Dei;idc<l by the Long uen^ of 
monopoly, she would not aoo that i^iiiality waa a}l oho ii9od<Ht, 
Onoa more H&rtJoy, ju aii ifif^nniit nf'ciit fn^m Lord Xorth, 
rapaind to Pnris to c«e1c of Fr:i;i!din An off^rr of K>Tno alli&tioe, 
or at leeaC of aomie favor In mA&, FranldlQ aiuwcrod Mm as 
ho aimv/t^ivd (jUut vaiiMuiriiH, tliiil tlic* Amttnciutjt onjnyod indo 
pendence alntady ; iU acknoviedgment would secure Ut Britain 
e<|ual hot not »u|>«Hor aiivuiitTi^:^^ m cxminirTcc Fox wait 
Batufi<^ with tljiA offer, and on the tenth, when h yna mov^ 
is the hoQBo of commonfl to onJar^ th& powers of tli« com* 
mitfioaenH he held up to rievr that greater bcnetits to trade 
would foHow from fricnrlJy rolntiona with indopoBdoot Amer- 
ica than from nonunal dependence 

Fox was in the right, but was not heeded. Jadcaon^ tiio 
fortpor foitlirul Mgi'iif. of ronTit^'tiniit, tln» fi"Uow-li!x>rer Willi 
FraiiLklin for tfie rights of ihe eoloiiieB, ever cvti^titaEU wtUi 
himaelf, eran wli&o his liK-ante ^eereUry of OnrnTillc, mfniaiv^ 
to be of ihc cotnaiif«ion for pe^cc, l)ccatu*G he flaw tliat it waa 
a dduaioD accordi>d by the king to quiet Lord Nooth aud to 
tmite the nation. Lon^ before the conuniMuoacn arriTod^ the 
United StAtaa had taken its part On the twcoty-fii^ of April, 
Wmhingt^Q gave h!a opinion to a momW of eongr^m : '* Noth- 
ing idtoH of independurice can poadb^ do. A p«aoe on any 



£56 AII&BICA VX ALLIANCE TJTQ FRA5CE. Kr.n-.; olztu, 

tttker tonaa irouU l>o it pcMO cf war. Tlie injurici wo h^n 
reoeEt«d &oia ^ IkitiaL nftticm WDTD to Quprovoksd, aiid ha?a 
bocn so great And to many, timt tbc^ can iiorer bo fov^^Ueo. 
Our iidciity c^ n people, our cJuintetur ba mon, uv opposed to 
A c^uditiuu witii thom ae fiubjctjte." Tho twcntywoood Wtt ft 
day of gtdioiul puVlfo fasting md hmnillatioD, with pm^un to 
Almighty God to vtroogtliaii uid purpvtTuto tliu union* A^ 
ftein1>ied on xh^ tiny in abaiue for piiblic wor&hip, coc^rttS 
rvRolviHl ** tu }vj\d no coufereiiee or Irtiatj' witli any cutiitiiMigB* 
ere on tJio jwrl of Qtxat Britnlii. iink^tv tlicy mIjaII, m u prvlinii- 
Tinjy tlierotOf cdthor withdraw tLeir ticotfl aud &rmie^ or m |Ktt- 
tiTo «Lnd cxpro«A ttiima ftcknowledfp^ tlie independence of tho 
states-" '^ Lord ^ortlx ia t^^ year* too lato wi^ hia political 
mjinnDuvre," roaponded (joorj^o Clinton^ llion (^orcruor of >'ev 
York. Jjiy niut not a ^ngk Am«r]o«n " wilUng to accept pcAco 
under Lord Kortir«tcrm*u" *' 'S^cKivn,'^ wroto Kobert Hottu, 
"ought totiAire ali^aring of o]ionioiD«nt,auIe^ preceded by Rl^ 
knowlcilgtiiuut of UTir iiulepeiiddici^ bouziuM? wv can nuvvr bo a 
bappy people uiLdcrtJuiirdoiDlnatioii. Groat Bnt&jD woitldftlll 
enjoy Uit? (greatest Ah&ra and meet va]nal>l0 jNula of wr tnui&'^ 

6iac« Britain would grant no potico, on the tenth tbo French 
king deepatcbcd from Toidon a tioot, boanag Gerard aa hia uiA- 
iatee to tho oongreifl of tha United Statcf^ tiiat tho alliance be- 
tween Franco and Amcnca might bo rirotod. On tho twen^- 
nintb, wbcD, in the preoacoe of Franklin and bid mwtj anivod 
colleogutf Jolai AdtkMi», Yoltaife waa solemnly roceiTotl by the 
Franch aoademy, philosophic Ftwico g^vo the right band of 
fidh>wahip to AiTierif^a w lla diild hy lulopEiuu. Thu niimuroui 
aawnnhly ilpnuvinlnl a vlR]ljl<t ni^ of thU nnlon ; and, in tho 
prtiAtiiiO! (if nil tlint waa uiufit dii^tingoiahed In IlHU'-tv aiul plii* 
loaophy, Franklin and Yoltairo ktved c*r}i otlicrj in recognition 
that tho war for American independoncc waa a war for free- 
dom of mind. 

Many cauAca combined to procnro the alliance of EVaoce 
and tho Amenoon r^pubUo ; bnt the force vrhtch hronght all 
inflnencei harmoniotialy together, orormling tlie tiroorona Iot* 
Ity of Uanrcpcis and the dnll reluctance of Lotua XVL, irac 
the movement of inicllecEual freedom. 

The Bjiirit uf inx ijicpiiry ]icm!tjalud the Catliulio world a* 



ma 



FRANCE AND THE USITEU STATKlx 



SU7 



it pcDOtT&tcd tbo ProteetftDt vorlJ. £A«h of thoir m^oda 
of refbna reco^uiwd Uiat every roan shar^ in tbe etcmftl tch- 
eoD. Lutbur, as Lu dimbcd od liii knee* the marbl<i «topfl of 
a chorch at Rom*?, b«ird a voicm willim Ijim rry oni: "Jiiad- 
ficfttloQ ifi bj fddi alooe ;" acd ha vinditated man's i»div)4& 
ali^ fiom tlu; paint of vievr of religion. D«tfciut4^ ninlitatijig 
on a Norcmticr night on the h«nk« of tlic DEiDubo, eoniDQoued 
each mdivldaal luiad, m tbo condciousDces of tta frciKloni, to 
bring to judgment all tradition and all roocivcd opinioa, and 
to proTt> all thirgf, that it maj htM fast only that xrbic^ ap* 
proved iteelf to be true. 

A practical dlffercnee Euarlced the kindred ajstomfl: the 
one wa« Um mctiind at cintinnitv kticI grmltiul rrfomi : the 
otlier of an initanunejous, cojiipkl^ and tlwjroti^hly ruiHc^l 
roToluUoo. The principle of the reformation wnktml tip n eri' 
peratitiouB ^orld, '' ajilcop in lap of Ic^cndA old/' bnl did not 
renocince all external authority; and m> U escaped prcniaturo 
con^cta. Uy the prlncipJo of Dcdcartoa, the indiTidoal maa 
&t occ<? and altogether atood aloof frcio kinp, chnivii, nnjvoni- 
tioii, piiULo o|>lnloin, tradidonal Bdence^ all external autliority 
and all other bdi]j|;p<T and, turning cvtay intnidor ant of the 
han«r toxnple of the mind, k^ijit }^ard at its portal to bar the 
entry to uvi-ry belief tJuit liad not tint obtained a pnitt])on froca 
his owD rauoQ, Ko one evnr appliud the tlieorj of Dcecartee 
with ri^d iiifli^-xil^ilitj ; a man can as little move vrithout the 
wdght of the sapcrincumbcnt atmo«p]ien;, a» ^i^^apc ahogcthcr 
the opLaionftof the age in which ho aces the light ; bnt the theory 
wu dicTG, anil it rescued philosophy from bondage to mookiah 
theology, forbade to the church aU in(|ui«ition into privato 
opinion, und garo to rooeon, and not to dril mafpArates, the 
mamtenanco of tmth. The nations that It^arned their h>aaoiu 
of Ubeity from Lnther and Calvin weoit fr>rward in tlieir nato- 
nl dovelopmentf and thviir inatittiUoiu grew end shaped them* 
eelvm according to the incmnng piblic intt-nigiTniTia. Tlio 
natloDs that li^anicil tlneir lenona of liberty irom Docartce 
wuTG led to qtmtion everything, and to attempt the rtoewal 
of society thnnigb the destmetion of the past Tlio prognsi 
of liberty in aQ Prot43«tant countnee vas inariied bt moden- 
tioa. The OenoAn Locsing, tl>c antitv|>e of Lnther, said to Ida 



TCL T. — n 



S5S AiiBftlOA. IN ALUAKOi: WITH PitA^CI^ B^iT.ia^mL 

coitntrToicQ : "DonH put ont tbe candles UIl dd^ brenks.^ 
Amoncft oonductod a revt>Iiitioa on tho lugbort priaciploi of 
freedom with such ciPouinfipeotion tliai it soemod to bo onlj a 
war nguin^t {nnovntioti. Ou th& othuT liand, 6vo tboiigbt in 
France, as ptuv" in if* source aafpeeiWiglit in Amenca, boenmo 
q^ecnladve arn\ tikv^rptif^al and liiipiMloDed. As it bniko [Is 
clidlua, it Htarti^I 141 with n nr-iilinit-iiL uf revtruge agaioit tbe 
tenorism md opprcwion, which for oonttmcs had fcqoortcrod 
iho rights of QULcl and asAiuTied (o rule th« world. Inqniry took 
up vidi seal cvcrj ^ucftioo in Micncc, politrcf, und moraU 
Free thought paid hrjmagc to tbc " majcely of nature;" mvo- 
tigntcd thit cngb of apociea ; cumlyEod the cdr we broathe ; pur- 
sjied tho diflcovorie* of Coluinbni and Oopomiecia ; ir.ippvd tbo 
skiee ; explored ocoana and naeasond tho oartfa ; renv^ an- 
oient learning; revellod In tfie [i^otopbv of Greece, which 
WTifi nntrnTnTTiflltiil by TiiitLttfi^il flirii!ngy ; nurw^l tfm rvpiiUican 
acntiiuent hy study of the history of Atlieitfl aud Rome; 
apokc worda for liberty cn\ tho »t3ge; and [irhL]>£cd the ro&iid 
of learning to the common iindcrvtAnding. Hqw it translated 
and scattered abroad tho new Amoncon const! tutiona, and the 
proud intellect of Franco wu tn a nuuso ; Turgot and Condoir 
Oot mcltod with wlmimlion and *ytnp«tl>y as they road tho iJT- 
ganio lawe, in which the unpretending law^lvcre of a now COB- 
tlti«Qt had iiiFrodncL^d htto tho woHi! of rcid lifo tho fdoaa that 
for tlimti dwrlt only ir hop^- AU injlnencea that favonjd 
frvediMii of miiul euiixpinHl ttigetJirT. Anti-pmlatiewl Piirilitn- 
i*in wft* ombnuxd by iinii-pn.^laticAl skcpticimD. Tho eidlod C^- 
riuwaBwebomedbomoasbe retaroed by wny of Now Englaod 
and tho atatca where Hugnenota snd Prabytoriona prcTulod 
Ono great oarrent of vigoroiu liring opinion, which thcro wa^ 
no power in Franco capable of r«uettQ^, swept through aod- 
oty, driving all tho clondA in tho pkf in ono dirootion. Mij^ 
iflton and kio;; and nation wore hurriod alon^ toother. 

Tbe ware of free thought brol:o aa it r^od agflinat tbo 
PymucwL Tho Btnifbon of IVanoe waa compelled by the 
pablio opinion of France hito an alliance witli America; In 
Bpafai no intvllccttial actlrity oxirtod that otmhl diiro tho 
Bourbon of SpoJn beyond tho narrow range of thought in 
polacce. The Spiniflli people did not ahare the p«sion of 



im. 



FRATICE A!n> THE nHTED STATES, 



9S» 



the French, fi>r tLejr bad not had tho trainicg of the Frenclu 
In FruiQCt there iru no inquinition ; in Spain, tlio king wouM 
bavo eubmittcd hia ovn eon to iU tribunaL UcscartoS) tho 
fMloaophidn^ eoldiar of Franco, emancipate tbonght ; I^yoK 
tli<j contcmpUtivt ftoldicr of Spiuin, or^iizod roproisioD; fo7 
the proud C<*rneiDef so full of ivptjblioan fire, 6pda had th« 
monklah Cnlderon, In Spdn no poet like Moli^re nnf jvwked 
hypom*^'. N"i)t imlv lnul »1ij* rin Oftlvin, tiu Voluirc, nn Roua- 
seaii; the liad no Pa*cal to mock a(. casiiislrjr; no prelate lo 
instruct her priniOM in the tighte of the people liku F^Lelon, 
or defend her elitinJi Agninitt E^ome, or tc»oh the e^noli^of all 
men before Orod like Ji<M3Uct; no controrcretca tbrongb the 
prcea like thoBO with the Huj^cnote; no edJet of tokratioa 
like tliat of KiLTitiA A nehl/ endowed church al^p^nyir loona 
to Arminiaiii^m and jtutidcAtion hj \rorkB; it wu so la 
SpftSn, where the Bpirltan] insllnctB of man, which are the life 
of fmedonn, hatl Ih^tii trmUhin undnr fooE, -.uvl %\mt^^vhig to 
profbfiaed aiendicaDtA uEnri>e'l l.ho p1nce of clioHtv. ?faturu1 
eeienee in its progreea gently tilripe froia raligion the follict of 
enperetition, and pnnfic« and iipintitaLixc«f(Jtik; in Spain !t 
waa dreaded aa of icin to the Uhm ; and, ae Che nuilenal world 
waa exdoded from i(» rightful pljiee among the ohjccta of atndyr 
it uTenged itself bj overlaying religion. The idea u'as loot in 
tho ajmbol : to tho wooden or motid cro» wis impntod the 
worth of inward piety ; foligious fading waa chemhed by mag* 
□ifiocoit eoremoiuea to delight the mtvw; p<.vniteQco in this 
worid made atonement b; imng the hair filurt, the &Gourgei 
and maceration ; the Immortal notil va« thought to lie purged 
Ivy mnbirial flaineii; hy tlje coiifc^'niiil cho inrn<iT(fw irirpiiiit- 
tion kept spies over ophium m everj^ hi>utu> and quelled free 
tliought 1'^' tile dungcpn, thu tmiiirc, Aud tJit^ riukc. Nutlt* 
ing nis left in bp&in that ccnld tolerate l^testantiam, least 
of all the fitem FrotetitautiBin of America; notidng conge- 
nial to free tliotiglit, Icoet of oil to free thcoglit as it was in 

TWiee WQS allre with the rectless tpdHt ef tnquErjr; tho 
eonntry beyond the Pyrvncca was still bvmunbed bj sapenti- 
tioo, prieatcmJt, and tyranny over mind, And the ehnrch 
threu^ tU oT^nxtiKitloa nuiutaiuod a stuguant calm, Astbi-re 



850 ABiCBICA IN ALLIANCE THTH FEAKCEL iT-TT.t cb^xtb. 



irae no nmoii bettvuen the F^neli miiid und tho Spooieb 
mind, botw9«ii i\vd FroiicJ] poop!o nnd tlie Spflnich p60]>]e, 
tL« union of tlie governments was dimply the re^t of tlie 
fHinilj compact l>etwiwu tU kiitgK, wliich tlw aigtt^ment 
between France and ttjo TTnited States withoijt the aafieut of 
82>Qtu yioLiteJ fiud annulled. The self-love of tlic Oiitliolic 
long WQB toQchod, tlut \a5 nqihcw «hoi]ld baro fonned a treaty 
viti America ^rithout WMting for his adrice. Tte indc- 
pviidcnco of colouioa was mi cjcample tliiit might divest lus 
ci^wn of itc poesesdons in botli puts of Amorioa; tnd he 
diwded the oatablishmeiLt of npabCcanism on tlto border of 
tde tranBRttitutie provioect, %m moro nirely fntnl tban all the 
power of Great Bntjun. 

The king uf Ftanoe, while he dttfilai-ed Ida wSaTi Ifl mnVe no 
conquest whal".»vpr hi tlir. wnr^ vainly hold oiit to tlie king of 
Spain, with the consent of tbe United Stataa, ilitt HL-rjuiHition 
of rioridfl ; but that province haJ not power to allure Cliaries 
III. or hiB niinutrr, which vfma a truly i^pcmiab miiufltiy tnd 
wuhed to pursue a truly Spaniab policy, Thttn irai indeed 
one won! wljicli, if pronounced, would bo potent enough to 
filter tliQtr deetiion. That word was Gtbrahir ; bnt, u it wu 
not tpolcoii, tlto king of Spain declared that he would net enter 
into the quarrel of Francs and England; tlut h(? wi^Tted to 
close his lifu Ell ininquiUlty, and valued peace loo hi^^y to 
RimJieo it til tlic ititnrmtji ar upmif>n« at anotber. 

So the dAg« of France and the Un>h?d Kutcv went together 
into tb» field d^futt Oreat Drluin, unsupported hy any othor 
goremmecit* The benefit then conferred en the United fitotce 
vaa prioekBA; tn rttnra the rerolatien in America breti|:ht ta 
Fnmco now life and hope. 



I 



1778. TU£ BBItian ABANDON r£SNSYLVA^£A. 



Ml 



CHAPTER XVIIL 

Mat-Juitb iTTa 

Tint tlliimc^ of France -srith the Umtcd StaU» vn>k&\ in 
the hi«rt of Eorcpo the hci|>o of tho ovorthro^ of tho old 
coloniaJ mteru of commercial mODopoly. Amencim iudepeii- 
d6no6 wnii wod not by arms olcue, buc Iii juri by tho sympa* 
tbioi of Dentrel priTices aud nnltori^. 

BoUi tbfi great belltger«nl8 were involved in (!ontrai]icdQa]S 
lU hotiuf- Till! gDventini*iil ut Kngluiii], in M^slcuig io »i]pi>t«Ha 
in her df pendcacite EngUflb nghte b/ Epgli'J* aims, mftdo "war 
oil the life of her onu life. Iru^emuA u tlio i*J^j of freodom 
and jtuUoCr which u indocd ctio for aU mankind, vna at Ic^ 
teen to bo odo and tho eame for tho wfaold English race, it 
ftppoorod mora and moro idoarty thnt tbo total Bubjugation of 
America vronJd bo tho prgltulo to the represaion of ^but}' >□ 
tJie Brldflh ul«fl. 

T}iu ci>untry, tr^tieli iii the fteven Tean^ warliad been im* 
pelled by ilw pMot Hit lo mighty deeds, fomd in the mtntfrtry 
ua rvpnn^utuUva Publii: apirll had buou <|ittTllHl, and per- 
KOQit inkm^iU pa^vjiIW over Hm goatsnl good. Even impend* 
iDg fordgix wir could not huah the tvirbulEince of partinnic 
The admirugtr&tion> hft\-ing no guiding {niiicijiUi, held ita 
majontjr in tho hoiuo of commone only bj tfn^cranco uid the 
control of patronai-e. Inn;bordinatioD ^ovcd tCseU in tlio 
fleet ond tn tho arrov, and ta^jft axaang tho offieort. England 
had not known co bad a j^venimont dnco the reif^ of Jajtiet 
IL II wts neither beloved nor iwpeeted, and tmly Btoiid 
nvithL^ for tliu potjpir iiar fur any bnmcli i>f tlit^ ari^locTUCji ; 



L 



nciltor for the spirit of the time, nor for tlic port Bg^ nor for 
tUat whicli vr^ coiuiog. It wad a <-^ng1oiiienta of inferior 
■nd hetoro^neoTu matcnala, totally ODllt to govern a great 
and frftr* eitiplre. 

Tliu pei'iod in British LiBtciry wax dl^Hiiguiehecl Id pbilofio- 
pbj bj Ilume and Reld and Pni^ aud Adain SmEtti ; id pauxt- 
iDg b^ lieynoHa ; in poctij Aiid varioun Iciniiiig bj Gmy and 
Goldamitb, Johnson and Cowiwr; in Icgi^lativo cloqucnoe hy 
Chatliam, Borkc, and Fox; in hiatory hv Gibbon, m vcUl u 
by Hume uml Rc^bcrfj^^n ; in Urn useful arti^ bj Brindloy, Watt, 
and Arlcwri^bt. That tb^ nation, in a state of high and ad- 
vancing culture, «bould have been ruled by a sordid miins- 
trVj so inferior tn ibu'lf tw tJi.tt of Lord ?forthj wn* not dtiti to 
the corruption of pai'liainent alone ; for tlicro viaA idwaya fu 
the houBe t>i coitimoiid an independent fraction. It cannot \m 
fully explained without conndcring the chaotic flatc of poUti- 
ca] parlieia. 

The conflict iKtwiK'D England and her American colonics 
sptBiif: noccvarily out of tho development of Brillah InatitU' 
tiona. The Haprcmc right of porilainont a» the roprc«cAl»tiv% 
of Engliah nationality and bciuid to roejgt and overthrow the 
pttioual ^vt^rnintrnt of tlio Stnoru, vriu the ^vauhvLU^l of 
thft rvTolutioii of IGSS, which had boen dear to America aa 
the death-blow to monarcMcU abaolutUm titron^kout Che Eng> 
ItfJi doniTiioiiis and w tbr lmHii:igr-r of f^iiniitltiitiiinKl liberty 
for the civilized warfd. Parlianieut a^ain averted ita j^ira- 
mount aiitlu)rity over the cn^wn, whtn hy Ita own eimctttirnt 
it tianafcntd the euccceeion to the honso of Hanover. TbttO 
roTolntJoiia wero aohlered tlirough a categorical principle that 
vould endure no qucntioniag of ita ri^tfdnem. Buch a prin- 
ciple could not eubmit te modiScatioos imti) it had ac«oin- 
pliahed ita work ; and, ae it was embedded with the love of 
liberty in the niaai of tlio English nation, it hnd moved and 
aet«d with tb^ atr^n^Ti and majesty of a national convfcdon. 

To the prtmeen uf veum thii aMvrtjen uf tlitt »njinmio ptfwer 
of parliaincnt anumed on exaggerated fotTD* and waa daimed 
to extend without limit orer beJaod and orer the oolninieci; 
CO that the theory whidi bad fint been tmd to racnc aikd 
socon tbo liborUo* ' ' ^'udc on IcetnunGiit of dctpo- 



IT78. THE 3niTf8a A0AKDOK PEySSTLVASlA. 



2^ 



tiffQ, Both Ijimnclies of pnrlijtment vera but reprf^entatiire* 
of the aam^ farored cla^ ; &nd the tdr^pt aw;\keTi<Kl no iHiiititfrr- 
YOtslng acatlxnvmt of lojaJlj fo loqg u tho honffc of Ilazioverj 
tho orcckturo of porliaraoiit, was repr^^cntod by prioDCAof for- 
cij^ birth, ij^norruit of tlio kwa asd lau^;uago of tbo luid. 

In tUU manaor the govommoat won conducted for a tialf 
«iiitury hy tbc viittocnicy, whicb^ koi^pin^ in memory tho 
dftya of the commonwealth and the da^a of Jflme^ IT^ axtotq led 
[fjto the penwutitMn tluit thd cotubtitiition vrajt not aafo exo{>pt 
in tlio diHlody of tho aristocracy, that the party of Uljorty, to 
uae the worcLt of I^Mskiikghjuii, wu* iUttt whnrh " fonght nf 
aguiniit tite king and agaiciBt tbo pooplo.^* 

JJiit b* the eidc of tho thooiy of abaolnto poiret concen- 
tred in parliamocLt which had t\rioo boeD tho ahoscb-nnciior of 
the English oomtitntion, tlidro cxi«tod tbo oldor reject for 
the righta of tho indiTidtiAl artd the libortiee of organized com- 
mnnitiB& Thoae two elements of Brftbh political life wore 
hn>Qg1it into colltaiGD by die American revtjiatfon, which liod 
iU provacution in tlm theory of thu otnnipotvnco of pirliumi^ti 
and its juatiticniion in the cyea of Engiiahnjcn in the prtaci^ild 
of vit&l liberty di^naod through all tho parta of tliti conunoa^ 
voalth, Tito two idouA Htrug^lM for the necondcncy in tho 
mind of tho Britifih cation and in its lof^latorc. They both 
are 80 embalmed in the undying eloquence of Burke a^ to havn 
led to the moM Qppo»t« iwtimnica of hU politica] chamct^r, 
Thry both appear in startling disdnctneaa in the speechea anil 
conduct of Pox, who put all at haxard on Uic omnipotvnco of 
pELrlLunciit, Biid yet cxwlled in tlw clear atatomont and defence 
of the attitude of America- Both lay En Ureconc^rlrd wou- 
fuuon in tlur politica of Rockingfaoin, whom idminirtnLtioa 
ffi|pah£0il it«clf by enacting the rigbt of tho kicic» lords, and 
ooHunoo* of BriliiiQ to biad America in all caaea whatsoo'cr, 
Bkd yet in pnietico hnmaaoly roftuod to cnforcii the pix'tcn- 
fiioo. The analocratio party oi tiborty, crf^niaod on the prin< 
eipleof the abiolnte i>uwvrot parlivnent in order to defeat 
•flactBally and for all timo tlw dexign* of tho king agaioat 
parliarneiitftry naagn and rights, liiid dene ite work and oat- 
livial ju uMrfuliw'JK. In i)]i[H«iliiiri U> the coatlmiiHl ruin of aii 
ariatocracy, viilx tho dcTico of onmipotcDCc over king and 



tU AMEBICA IN AIllANOK Tirn PRANCE, v-.tT.;c«. vmL^ 



|)Cople, t]i«rc rtMT up aroiin<l tlie retLeratrle fonii of Qiat&un 
a ncvr libcrnl party, wiUing to nvo tlio prcrogntivo of the king 
to itLcrea^ the wci^^ht of the commoDS. 

T!ic new jJiuty aimed at a double modificfttion of iLe no- 
roetrictod (lo^Trci^ty of pariinnaonU Tlio elder Pitt ovor 
inabted, andliifl friends oontiniied to msm tain, that the com- 
mam of Great Britain Imd do rigbi to Impose tutce on niv 
roprtwrtril <^nl(inin;. TIiIh vm tin? firnt nhrp In tlic n?(HivaLum 
of English liberty. Th^ next wa8 to nwo^ise that parliament, 
ui tlj«ii compofled, did not adeqnatety repnweut the Dation; 
Dtrd tbe connection of RockitLgtmm rcm«t«d both thcne cap- 
dinal priociploa of rcfona. Thia nnjiclding division araong 
tbc oppoDcnta of Lord Xorth proloagod his gdipipiatratioo, 

t^cndcA, many mon of honeet intentions, neither wi«liing 
to E«o Ktkf^ligb libertiea [mpaired, nor y^t to c^onsont to tl» 
Independence of Urn eoloni*"*, k*^pi tLcir mmdi In a itate of 
mi^nwr; and thin rplnctance to deouiB led th**ni to U«r a 
Uttle longer tJie nilnlslry wbtcb alone professed ability to sTip- 
^Tc^ iLc iuKurmcUoii : for b^'tt(*r mrn wntiUI not ct^nMuit b> 
take their places coupled with the condition of continuing 
their policy. Once, in a moment of petukncc. Lord George 
G^muun resigned ; and tlio kiu^ ^idiod to bo rid of him ; 
tint ho WW from ncoo^eity oontnnncd in hie office, booauiBV no 
one else ooiUd b© found willing to aecept it 

In the grcut kingijom on tlie otlior dde of tlio channel 
antAgoni^tic forrw worv Hke-wisd in ac^tion. Ae tlip n*pro- 
Bentadve of popular power, Franee bad In i^serve one gn»t 
Rdrmtage over Kngland In her ntnnemuft indciixiitlriit p<4K- 
nntry. Brou/!:bt up in i^orance and Becbision, they knew no* 
how to qnc4rtion anii'tlnng tHat wan taught hy Uie chim^b or 
commanded by fho monarch; but, however they might for 
Ihc prcAcnt inScr from gricTons and unredroased opprewion, 
they cen«titntod tbc mfcguard of ord<Tr as well aa of nationality. 

Id the capital and amon^:; the cnltivnted cUgsof of society, 
Ui colfee-houfti* and Aoloona, the ory row for refonn or revoln- 
tioa Tlie Fn<neh king ww abccilnto; jvi tlte feaebingfl of 
Monte«c[i]i(>u and the example of England rallied in men of 
geuedJUb iiatEiie^ an niitviitnilhtblr deiin? U>r free Instita- 
tiona ; whil^ npuci^btivo fault^findcra^ knomng uothing of the 



ITTd. TilE BRtriSU A&ANDOS FEKHSYIVAVIA, 



2^ 



self*reetrunt whidi It t&ugbt b/ r«6]>onQbility in tlio exerdw 
of office, indnlgcil in ideal vxtkipattotia wbieb wi>ro colored bjr 
fin oaaepcmting rcmcmbranoe of griefs and wrongs. Fnmoa 
iraa tho oldost dAu^btor oC tho Komaa ohurcb, with ft king 
wko %rae D. aiuecn) thoogh not a tiigoted Roman CntLotic; 
ftnd iU philosoplMra carried th^r itnpaMionrd war ngaingt tlio 
church to the utmost verge of ekepticiem ard imbolief, while 
SRfiqiiviiin tlmt fumm of mtigiim wtrn? ueeil hm a riicin? biKtm* 
ment of govdniinent be^^ to arjw in tliu labonng c1ufic« of 
tlic (titictt. Uuly ap^rt from all inferior in^acnce», the power 
of gCQcraliiatiOti, in whicb t^ Fr&ndi nation excob all vtbcn, 
imports from timo to ihno m idcalii;tic cbnnict<:7 to ita pol- 
ic}'- The Pamiatu foil tho revereee of the Americans ub if 
they bnd bocn their owd; and, io Koveml^er 177S^ an op- 
proa^hii)^ ruptuie with Ect^knd wn« th€ Hnbject of all coO' 
versQtiom. 

Tho AmprWn iitniggh^ wns aviiwrvlly a wur m Jpfiifiroof 
the common rights of nk^utkiiid. The Prince de ^oDtbarey^ 
who ow«d hiji place iw iTiinift4?r of u"nr to tlw favor of Miiun>- 
pu and female tiifluence, aud who cherished the prejudices of 
Ua Older without Wing iiwarc of hh w-vn medicrCntj, profoM^d 
to doBpuo tho people of tho I'nitcd iStoto u fonnod from 
cmifiTBAts for ^e most pin withoat ohafsctcr and withont 
fortune, ambitions and fimaticalj and likely to attract to their 
aup{)ort "all the roguea and tlie wcnhleis from the four parts 
of tbr gh>bu/' III.' Tiad wami.'il T-afayirtta Againxt having hi*i 
wife and wa^ng hia fortune to pUy tbo part of Don Quixote 
in then' lichhlf. Ami had raijivd hi tlie ct'iuntitl Iuk fcchk Tuicie 
against the allianco of Fi^dcc with the innirgcntSn He ro- 
garded a rictorj over England as of no adrantAfp^ commen- 
■untc with the dnngorouH examplo of aualaining a reroU 
Afaiiut ^tahli^hed authorilv. lj«dde£, war would accninnlato 
ditovdcf in the publio fioancca, retard useful works for tbo 
btppfDatfi of FruncOy and jri-tify rapriula hv Great Bntain c«i 
the colonies of the Uourbon prin^^s. 

It wajt tigaiiuit iho inlerfor «tiiiihnieiit of i]j« Icing and tlie 
dotibti of llaarcpnH, that the lingering nLflnenc^^ of tlio poltcj 
of Uie tfilance of powe.r, the mercauliie asplfat^om of Fnoioe^ 
itB ^rit of pluloaopbic freedom, and It« traditional antii^ 



a^e AM£RJCA IN ALLLATCCE TnTH FRANCE. W. IT, i ctt, JTOL 

niem to Kngland ae tbe moop^li^t of commi^rGo nnd tbo nkr 
of die eaw, foreod tlwj Fri'iit-Ji alliiuice wiiU A-inwioii. 

Jiwt thirty-Hght jrjm Imrmv., MHun-jmH^ in ttw vigor of 
itu»i1hknI, [lud lieeu fjutitid for Iiifi avoraion to Engload, uid 
for tlic dteire to fouiul liiti g]i>rj uii thu fv«toratioa of t}ie 
Frooclk navy. Of tlio niombcra of Uio ftdtuinutntioD of 
Cardinal Flcmy, he ^as tliought to havo bad the mind of 
the wid<«t nngc ; imd it v/u prodiotdd of huu Uiat Frtnee 
ITOUld flCCompliMh ^nxLt rcMutU if liu should over l>ccomo Cho 
dlMOCor of its p:»verniiient. At Itrn^h he was tJvc first ntinu- 
tCff of A Vln^ will) IixjIcihI up lu liJiii «}tli (leforvuec Mid iiii* 
pljctt tniHL Tlic tone of hta ihniigliljt \v>u iiii<4i!YngT^ ; but he 
y/d£ so cofceblod by long cicltL.^Ioji froiQ public o&irt, and by 
y^^int Aud iidnmtit«, that uu licmic cntotprisB oouM Itira him 
from tho love of quiet By hakit ho pot aridc all barincw 
wIiicL admitted of delay. ^Vf jcd tho qncriicoi of the ftUianc^ 
witit Amonoa tH^oauto ur^it, ho ^imuk from propodofc bOw 
tasQS vrltich tlio lately restored parliamcntc nii^ht rofoeo tc 
tie^btcr ; £.nd be pladly accepted tho giuront^ of Neoker that 
all vnx tJipuiidJLiuvfi oi^uld ho mat hy iho uno nf f^rodltf finui* 
dal opamtjcn«, and reforms. It wm uiily after tho a^^iitHOce 
of a iit>nii!tci)t BLEippIy of rnuiiey frciui ludiitt^ iVilI Le no lurif^er 
attempted to sttTiu f.ho opiniim of Pari» In f.ivor of America. 

The strength of the ca^et laj in yotgc[Uic& lie aecorcd 
ih^ unfuling good-wtll of hia corcrd^ by reoogniaisg no 
authority of cithor clergy, or Dobilit^, or tiiird estate, but onJy 
of tho moTtarch, whom ^ tho throo wcro to obey. Nor did he 
for a xnomcnt forgot tho tw pool duo to Matiropas aa hia mpd' 
nor, BO that he nevor excited a jealoiuy of rivalehip. lie had 
no projndico about calling repnblkii into being, irhether in 
Eiuopo or boyond the Atlantle, ii tba wtUmv of FniiK-^ KKoacd 
to r«f{nSro !t ; ho condnned to believe that from the family alli- 
viGc 8p«jn would follow FV«no« into the vrnr wittt England; 
and In \ua i^ym the tnterefta of that liniiKrh of tie Loum of 
Botirbon took proccdcncc oTcr thoM of t]i« United istatos. 

He head of an cjoctitivc department vae primarilj ahoarty 
friend to the new republic: Kockor^Tored noutn^^i and, 
though ho vos a Swi« by htrth, hla liberaliam did not go h^ 
jond admiitdon of the firitiab oonAitutioii of that day. 



ITTS. 



Til£ BRITISH JkBJ^S30yi PCHNdYLVANLL 



SOT 



The eutcfiuiea of Ulo ntdon had net jet deduced from cx- 
ponvnc^o ojid the iattutioiut of roucon a system of civil liberty 
to su5>4jr»oib vroni-out troditioad fonae ; and, jueE before dio 
AUianee between Frvioa and tbe Untted St&lee, th& lighter Ut- 
wataro of tliu hoiiJ% alcL-ptical nr^Ucr llioii Wjxtful, mockod at 
tlic contiBdiction betwoen ii»titationa and rights, utd a^ked it 
vhUsthe mutiuoua AiuerJcana, "witliout iUi^ and withimt 
qneeiui, bcaided tho vLoIe world aii<l •wcvciro^'^ Europcahonld 
■till bo onuhcd hy iocsorable tjmcny. Mirabcau wrote a ficrj 
jnvootiTe against dospotifini irom a priaoa of vMdi hiu po^ 
aionate pray^ for leave to eori'e in Amerioa oould not opou 
tkadoon. 

Unti] chastened bj sfBicHon, Marie Antoiuetle wanted ear- 
nciiLDi^iit of chaxwter, uiul BufTered li«n*lf to be Kwayod by 
gOTicroii« cupncun, or family ticflp or tlio v(.?1ti«b solicilatiGoa of 
her leuiale coiupamoua* Bheliad au a^aiuduocj^cvcr llatkin^f 
aiid c^d net aiwaja conceal her contctiipt for hU andor- 
ttanding, but never atpircd to control hie fon^ign policy, ex* 
cept in roktioD t^ Auetna. It was only in the punuit of 
bouufitt) for her fncnds that she would luJScr do doniaL 6bc 
did not eparo words of petulance toamioisiorwhodared to 
thwart her requeeta ; and Neoker n>ialaed her favor by nm^cr 
refujting thtJitL Her eiitlmsinEia for thti new republic w&b 
only 6Lip«rIlclal and o<M;aaioaiLl, and could form no rapport for 
a etr^jr (■ondiit'l uf Uit? war. 

The king felt for the Amcricams neitlier a« ineoi^f^te 
against wron^ nor as a self-goTermng people ; and never un* 
dentood Low it o&me about that, cuntroiy to his own fnith in 
monarchjcal pownr ncd in the Catholic cbnich, hia Idngdom 
bad plunged into a war to introduce unong tiie potentates of 
thib civilbced world a rovolotionary Pvotoitant republic?. 

tVanoe was rich in reeonreea; but iia flnaneee bad not ny 
covered fnMn tlictr cxhaoiction in tbe seven jeua* war. Their 
restoration bccmne hopeIc«E, vhen Ni?crker promised to employ 
tbe faute of hk tcivervr adniuiinlmlitHi uidy Ut inuTt»uw Ouj 
public debt, which was alniady too hcnvy to be bom& Tbo 
kini: of Pniaua, whote |>orertj made him a ^larp observer 
of Uic rorcnucc of wealthier powers, repcetodly foretold the 
bankruptcy of ynmoo if its king ahooJd break the peace. 



205 AMERICA Hf ALUANCE THH FRANCE, bt. it. i oil xttiL 



All tb^ while Parifi vm the centre of the ^y eocietj 4ad 
intelligenco ol Koropc Tho bcdt artieta of the daj and tiio 
iuA}lc9H of the nvid agIiooIb of mufiio crowded rotiud the coitrt. 
Tho ^Icndor of iho Bourbon monarchy wu kept wp at the 
Tuil'^ee and VeKaiUee ^th prodigal inagniiioeTioe^ aod in- 
Tention wns <?T«r devidiig uew reflii^iuenU lii social BDjrtymu&L 
The <\ns\^n vtoa hiippy m the lU^zliug bcei:c« oF which »iho wafi 
the lifu ; lli« ^tn^, a young man of four-and-twemty, whom 
hifl AuGtriim brother-in-law dcficiihed as a child, vttui plcnitud 
with tbe nbeoltite power which he held it hU right to cxcrasa. 
To IVaace, tlie ycara which followed are among the nioet glo- 
ricufl in Iicr hirrtory, for they were tho«o in whieh aho pr^ 
pared iho way for tho ovwthrow of feudalism and her own 
regeneration ; boc Louid XVL and Mane Antotn^^ when 
thry omborkcd for tlieliTx^ratinn uf AmeHr^i, pV-aHure ou the 
prow and tho tuicertajn li*nd of youth at, tJi*i hrlni, might 
hiLw uritui imt to the ottw mpubltc wlach they fostered ; *' Mo- 
ritim tc MilittAnIt" "The doomed to die ettlot^ thuc." 

Tho rcecript of France^ which announced to the Britxah 
ministry hot acknowledgment of Ajuorioan indepeudctict^ 
luvnmcd a« a prindpto of public law that a nationality inaj, 
by ite own dtx^laratien^ fpeak it»olf into boinf-. Tho eld ayt- 
t«infi of ibe two goveramenta wero reversed. The BritiJ^h 
monarchy put forth it» ntrength in Ix'lialf of unjust authority, 
whilo France bewiine the foateT^mofher of republicanism. In 
viui nacjirc't Fnuu?<? wait niiina itiltcd tluin Britiiin to huid the 
peopltw of Europe in tlie road to freedom. On the relt'ese of 
ber rural popuhiU<rn from aerf Jom, a largo port of iLem n> 
tainud their rights to the «oil; and, thougit bowed down under 
l^ieroofl burdens and evil Jawa, they hod a home And acree 
from which ttiey Could not ba oncted. tu Engluid and Sool 
hnd and Ireland ^the property by feudal law vroA atrictiy in 
tLie letiantf" but the feudal chiof^ had taken to thcintiidvtt in 
abMluCo ownership nearly all tlio gronnd. 

On the fourth of Hay the treatiea of oonimeroe and aHJ* 
ance wfth Loni* XV I> were unanimously nitifieil hy ecingrcsCf 
wilh gruteful acknowledgment of hia magnanimoua end 
iti^t&d coud Eiet, and Out *^ wiAh that the frieudihip ao lu^ipOf^ 
oojnmenccd between Fninec uid tlie United State might be 



1778. TEE BRtnaD ABANDON PCSN^VLVANIA. 



a6fr 



porpotiiat<Mlp'' The nrnlricd of coatarioe, in which tho Am^ri- 
eace had been inrolved only from their depeudenc^ on Eng- 
Und, were e^oced iorerer ; FroneUm^n bccumc tlieir frioodfi^ 
ml tlift king of Fmnot? wm pmcliiimml " tlivi protiK^r of the 
righta of muikind.** 

LAfftjtflte vnuled aa, tu 'Wa^bingloQ^a campi, he rend thnt 
Ui govern TQcnt dated tho independence of Amc^ca from the 
oiomoiit of ite own deciustion, and md prophoticaUy : *^ There- 
In liee a principle of natioiml sovereignty which en« day wiU 
bo iDCfillfid to thuin at home." On the d^cth the alUarif^ w^ 
oetdbratod ftt Yalley terge. After & s^littd of thirteen cannon 
iehI a nmnlng tm of all the muaketry, ihe army, drawn up ia 
two line*, nhoTitecJ; ''Long Lvo tlm l^irig "F rrannn!" nnd 
again: ** r>jng Ike the friendly Eurojjean powerel" and tha 
Gi^remomes wen cloecd by^ * huzza for the Ainencan etatett. 

In ui addrwe to the inhat>it4nto of the United Stiktc«p cod* 
grees afflnmod that independence wa^ secured; and they pro- 
cUimed the ezietence of a new people^ though they oould not 
hide its wutit cf & gOTonunent Thoy rightly rfipro»oiited its 
ten^teiy S3 a oontinental one and moat bleaeed in tls cUmato 
and pnxhetiooia ; tlicfy oiffiied it« Aoandal «mbaiTunnenta, be- 
oaiw no taxea had b«ca liu'd to e^irry vt\ tliv vrur ; and tltfv 
tnvltei] tlieir coantrymen to ^' bring fort!i their arinii^ into tho 
fidd/^ wliiJc inen of leinnre were eiicoimgod to collect inouays 
for tho pDblic funda. Id return for nil levoctft they protniAed 
^tbe 0wcetd of & free comoiorco with erory part of the earth/* 

On tho eighteenth of May a fetf^tiral waa given to Q^Dcral 
thirty of hia oitiecr^ iDO«t of them mMnben of his 
" The uuniorouB eeuipany dt&barked on the Uelawar^ 
abovo the town, and, to tho nmdo of ono hundn>d and eight 
baotboy^ ro^ed two milea down the strevn in ^Ilir}-! lutd 
boatR gUttiTriiig wilJi c^lont and jrtreainera, Tliey passed two 
hundred transport Tewcla tricked out in bi^vcfrr one] erowdod 
with lookt?nt-nTi ; and, funding U> iJio ttinu of *' God eaTo tho 
King *' nndor salute* &om two dc>corat<fd «diipd-of-war» they 
marched twtwe«n lines of cavalry and infantry acd all tho 
■UDdard* of the army to a Uwn, where, in prccenoo of their 
elioMn Iadic« raised on thrones odBccr^, fantakically dnesed as 
bughta and sqiiiree, engagifd in a tournament. After thU, 



S70 AICERICA IN ALI.IAKCE WITO FRAXCE. wf,n,',nxnm. 

they pn>ooodlc<l under on omamcntcd nrch to a ifpJcftdiclJjr fur- 
nished lioaao, whore dancing 1x^^ ; and a f-aming toblo w&a 
opened vitb a buik of two thooMu^d gtiinoai; Tbo tkkett of 
odmlsaioD <I««CT]bed the gnofit cf tho night ns tho rur^ g^i^ 
doijru la Lrightndis to rutr In greater ^\*>Ty ; and Qre^orkB In 
dnszling Ifittirn prciDiiml him iimm^rtiil Irnirttlx. At miilnight 
a Bupper of four himdrod and thirtj covdB wa^ served imder 
title light of tirc;lv« hundred wax candles^ and iraa enlivendd bj 
an oTchcstntof more than one htitidr<ed in«tmiiie»la^ Dancing 
Odadttned till tho eon woa niotv thai nn hour high. Never 
Ittd BubonUoatcs given a more brilUant f&reweU to a depart 
iDg gononl; and it witf doitbly dear to their comnundcr, for 
Jc expresBed their belief that thp mifiietry hnd irrcnigwl ?am, 
and Omt hU merit jH>]ntMl hiui out fur aiWaneemeiit. 

T}»G festival Kiu littiiliy over wlicn Howe n-ap Litfrrrmcd 
thut Lafayetto> with twentr-iive hundred men find eight can- 
non« bad cro»ft.si the Schuj-lhitl and, twelve mitee froan Valley 
Fotge> had takon a poet of obaervution on tho range of Barren 
Hilh Flofihed with the hope of endicg his AniGn-Mn carcTT 
with luatra, he rotolvcd hy a ftwlft movement to eaptnro tho 
party. At ten on ihvi Ttincitppnth h(* wmt Grant, at the Ii^ad of 
Afty'tlireu hundred choeen men, with l)t(< ht^t gntdc^Mj to gafn 
hy rcriindaltout waj^B the rear of Livfnycttc Thvy %rcro fol- 
lowed tiic next morning hyfiftyscTon hundred B^eclcd troope^ 
commandod by Rowc himaclf, afaistod by Clinton and Knrp* 
haiiscn, with Lord Hciw^j to witncM the diFcomfituro of ttio 
yonthftd geoenl, whom he wa£ to chip to Knf*]and. At ChcfiC- 
nnt Hill They were to receive the American pirtyn* pro»oneit; 
hnt ihcy liiilerktd in vaiti ftir tlie sound of cartnon, and at noon 
Grant raine in Bight with only hia own detjit^hiciL'tit. F^fAvetta 
Imd Ticni mijyriBt^j and hin direct ocmninnication with Vallny 
Yar^ cnt oS; hnt a lower foivl called MatMu\ whi<-h was 
nearer to tirant than to hhn, remained unoccupcd. Sending 
Bnudl partius into tlie woodn, to prof«nt thcmsclvc* ne the head< 
of attacking eoltunns, ho deceived Ida antagoruBt and croewd 
the ford whila Qrant was preparing to giv« battJc. 

Howe, n.'tuniUig<-niifitralUTa to tha dty, on the twenty-fonith 
gavw tip til Sir TT^itiry Clinton the command of the army. Offi- 
cers who attended him to the phu-u uf innlTfirkatiun tJiod toaia 



wra. 



TEt: BlUrrsn ADANDOH PEKKSTLVAKtA. 



^1 



at tbe partiiig; tmil KiiypluaMnit fr<?in dtxi^ rmotiaii, could 
not flm«h tlio oddrcea which, m tlioir lumOf lio began to read. 

Bnre and au adept in nuHUrj Mience, Howe Imd fdltil ia 
tliG conduct oi the vmr from wiuit cf MfuCKt cotorprUo. On 
Uoding near Bunker Hill, lio ha^l nitliciont troops to faftre 
tujBcd the poaidoQ of the Amorio^ng \ but he delayed jiut 
toog oumgli for t!icm to prcparv f^^r hl» attudc lie wu drivca 
out of Boston from his neglect to ocmipj riorch««t«T Uelgbla, 
vhleb oTerlook the town. He Utdk liis troo|w in inidwiriler lo 
the bleak, remote, and Uicn ncJtrocljr inlinbitod Tt&Iifax, intUwd 
of ttlHug to aom9 coTLTenicnt nook on Long Ifiland witliiu the 
khxikI, iriierc be would Lure found a milder clin^iile, gnxder 
rceourcce, fu>d ncunow to tbo accoe of hu next campaign. 

Ho paeaed tbo yrintcr in rhi]<u]c<1phi& vithout aticmptiDg; 
to brook up tbo Ajmsricaa gotq p at Valley Forge. Tbo munwr 
ID vbicb ho throw up his conuDind vw n dufianc* of bi« gor- 
Gmment and an open iDtJmadop to Europe and to Amevic* 
Dmt the fttttnnjit of Kufi'lanil t<i reduce ila eoloaJe* would fail 
Notlilng fiavad bjm froiu rc-pmbation but tliut Low! George 
Germun hiu\ niAilo niii'talciw urill grnvr.^r f.hfin biM owil 

Meantime. Lord llowo and Sir Henr^ CUntou, each Kting 
onder apodal lasimctionft, separately corrununiaitecl tlie three 
GoneUiitorr acta of parlUtncnt to eongrc^^ yrho received them 
on the eijrtb of Jona, and on tlic amie day nnflw^rrtd : " Tbty 
hflTO in April Imit cxprtsaeed tbcir acotimenta upon bill« not 
essentially <U£er«nt Wbon the ^s^ of Gr^aOt Bribin shall 
be serionatj dlepoeed to end the w\ provoked war waged igidiiA 
tboae UnitiM^ Bt«tM* tlit-y will n^Hy attend ta mioii tt-rrna of 
peace a« may corset with the bmior of ludcpendpiil lULtiona 
and the Mwre<I rt?gnrd (Im/ iucau U* pay U) Ireatlttt,'* 

. On llio dny t>f tliia icoond rejection of T»rd Nortir* offer* 
tbo throe BritiAb ccmsmuaonere arrived in l^adelphio. In 
ouling np the Dckwaire they bad seen caiough " to regrtlt t«Q 
tbownd timc« that tbdr rokn. nutead of a toru* throngb tiw 
worn-out ciTUGtrii:^ of Europey had not finiebed tb«r education 
with a vitfit round tbo ooMta and riven of ihiji beautiful and 
bovindlow oontipent" The Eugliiib rivers shrtink for tbam 
Into rilla; they predteted that in a f«w yean Philadelphia 
would iNMOiue a Dttgn&fieent tneCxupolU. TLrar maaifioa waa * 



272 AMERICA lEf AIXIANCR wmi FRANCE, kp. tv.^cv.xvm. 



meiv device to air] LortI Nrrtli in govinning i\\v. Ikkm; uf uiim- 
li]0[U^ftD<l to *^ reC(iiiLj]« ihe |it«uj>Iv of Kn^lAiid to a coiitiiiu* 
auod of tliG war/' Cpi^li^I^ l!ic ilni conuniauoner, Lad in (h« 
house of lords " «pokon with wanQth upooi Uw ioflokaioc of the 
rebelB" hi reftidin^ to Ucfrt ui-itli tbo Bowed, and Btigmatittd 
tiicm otf '' bmpo and tinnaturnl duJdroa " of Eit^Iuod. Tlut koo- 
ond QOQimifiAioQer urae an tmderaeoretary, wboec diief, in tbe 
HiniG ttSMTiubl.v, bad ecotfed ftt Congreu u a ^' body of TftgnuiW 
Tho third wiM JohmtoiK^ who hnd lutclj In puHUmimt ji:^- 
Se<1 ihQ ArnvTic^na ^nd charged the ^ing with hypocrby. 

In the ccrtdiuly th^t the couiniuwoii vtou]d not ho received, 
Clinton WAV infttmcted to Abandon Pbilodclphia ; to hold Kcw 
York and Kbodc Inland ; to cat-tall tbc boundaries of the Udi^ 
toon fitatoAon the uortli-t^iist tuul on the aonth; Eo b}* wjuilc Vir- 
giitia by moans of sbip&of-wftr ; uic] to att&clc Prondcnccs Boe- 
ton, and all acceadble portB bctwoen Xow York and Xova £ca- 
till, dvittroj iiij^ vcssebi, wIiuHm, Htorc«| Mid ituk-rialji fcr bbip- 
bollding; tL» Iiidiflns, from Detiviit to Florida, wero to be 
hounded on to spread diHiuay Jind dt^iith all aloug tlm Cnjulirnt. 
No actirc opcntiotu» at the North wt-rc cxjicctcd, TIjc king, 
under hU eigu tnannid, ordcrod Clinton to detach fire thoUBand 
men for tbc corKjua'^t of the French ULuid, St. Luck. 

A* the coimniesUmera etepjxxl ou riioro Uioy found, to their 
fiXtKme surprise and chagrii), that *>rd&T9 for the iuunedJato 
cviicuatSon of PlUadelphia had proeeded thorn. " U Philadd- 
phtH IK li.^ft fo the ivbt^ls^^ it vrnji mil, ^^ itidivpunileDce !s SO* 
knowledt^ and America loet*'^ About tWe tJioiuiiud of the 
inh&hitould wdTU emimrking in Bntinh phiiw. Tho»o who re* 
tolvod to frtaj rou»cd from a dclujfivc conlidctico in Britieb ptx>- 
toction to rcBtloea anxiety. In thia stwt, the ivprcsenlutii-oa 
cf Britain, In a oommunicatiou t^ eon^frvtu Mrtilti^ with the 
ima^ of fl fond mothur ciiroAung lior children, rt^oogniaed tho 
coiietitiiETicy of congress as ^^ttatas," and preased ibeu to aeoopt 
^erftsut freedom irf It^^inlutiuu anil of hilfiniid gcivr-ntiiUTDly rcp- 
twoitalion ia jiiirliikiijtfnt, mid &xi cxcuiptton froiu tlie preeenoe 
of military forcoif oxoept with thoir own penniMion ; in ahorl, 
the gratiSoation of ''ercty wiflb that America had txpttm&d/' 
And they inunujitod th^t Franco v^aa tbc common uicmy. 
These offere vrare mode without authority, and woro thcrcfoanc 



ITTK 



THE BEITLSn ABANDON PESSSTLTA5IA, 



^n 



frandulect ; mad, Leforo im answer could bo reoelvod, t1i«y had 
eaili^ down tli(t I^cUvrjiro- 

Con^jres* rosented tlie lettOT of tbe oomraisuionor* a» an 
nfTt-iii-B l<> iliT-ir i*wji }umor and to tlnnr iillv. Tbau" wins with 
Franuc baJ liceu Imt n coiwijijiirn^^Q of tlwjir connect it? n witi* 
Eogiftxid ; independence woa peace, and, by a nsammoua Toto^ 
Ukoy on tJie sereiitccntb made JuiAWcr sia before : ^' Tbo idea of 
dependence h umdmiaeiblo. Congnss will be roiid; to enter 
upoE a treaty of pcoco and commoroo whoa tbo king of Grool 
Britain abnll dtimoiutrmto a nnccrro dUpovitiou for tbat piiq}0«e 
by on explicit aclcnowIodgmGnt of tlio iiidvpviidvnc;:^* uf tbaM 
atat«Sf or wttbdmwing bU fleets and armlet-'* T1i« AmeHcan 
officv^rn wen; (if tbr ^imi? mind, rxi-rpt T^^n Vfhtt was falM.', aiiO 
Oat^te, wboi, in tbe l-ulief tbat sverjrtbing conlvndin] i<tr wm 
granted, wished & cunforencd with tbe committicaGrk To 
Jobnatone Waftlungiton wroto : '^ Tbc voice of congnea la tho 
Toice of tbe peopla^* 

Tbe conroDtion of Saratoga hid been broleefi by tbo BH^ 
uh, at tbo nmo of tbe s^rronder, by tbo conooaliaent of pub- 
Uo property. In K^^vembor 1777, Bui^ycA bad made a for* 
mnl but groiindlcBS complaint of ixg violation by tbe Ameri- 
confi, and nJaed tbo Implieation tbat tbe pretended breacb migbt 
be naed to dUengnga biriuelf and bU got'emiiwnt from all tlio 
obligations wbicb it inipoaod. Moreover, congrees bad made a 
demand for MttA of all iJureons oomprebeitrlwl in tbi? jiiiriPiidrr, 
and a compliaucc with tbia proper and ovoi ncceaeory requisi- 
tion bod been rtfnaed. In January iHB, eongnta euepcoded 
tba caaborkalaoD of tbo army until the oonvontton abould be 
eonfinned by tlio bi|;bcot autlionty of Or<^at Bntmn. Befna- 
ing the intenrontion of the Bntieb eomtniasioDerB, from their 
want of powL^r, con^^reaa, en iha founb of Scptonter, wEtbout 
a difeKiiticiit voioe, eontinnod ih^lr r«^httion. 

On die nJgbt following ibe Mev^tei^tb of Jane, Sir Ueory 
CllntOD cvTMHsd duT Dtdtwarc witli irKin? ibaii »itT<9Tlii-^i tboii' 
Mndoffoctive men. Theloyallate tawm tboretreot a vioktian 
of tbe pligbted faith of tbo Britinb kin^:. Tbe H'utt4>r*A rereliy 
^t«aoT«r; bonon aiHl ofiicea tnnud enddfinly to bitt^vneca and 
aaboe ; papers of protection became only an opprobrium and a 
peril Orovda of wretched ref ugvcti, wttb M oC their poM^ 
veu v.— ]» 



274 AMERICA IS AUiAKOE WITH FRASCZ w, rv. i «u, xniL 

•ioGB wliicTi tJiey could tranaport, 3ed witli the army- Th6 
tky lijurlilu'l with etar* ; tlio :tir of tli« ftimutiLT iii^it wi* soft 
aai tmiiqiu1p lu the eiilesj liroWi in ftirfitnif ukI williout s 
<-nn?rr, wi-iil 111 ileapair from tlie otil^ t-it^- tliej coiild love, 

^^lilc 1Il(; American nnn^ wan jKiiiiig f nun Uio doliiu|iivacf 
of the ebtcA to meet th« rcqmntioiu of CoDgrc«t ^^i tboD 
second iti ctmuiiiuid, wm tTfiacheroiusly plottme ite ruiu. Ha 
load fnidt tiiuliitg woA TObakcd by Uio gdncnl far iU " \-cry 
iniediievooA " tondcncy. To focnro to thu Britkh a r«cn)4t 
*' on VGlvet,** Loe aafi^rted that tliey would move to tho Bouth. 
In a councQ on iha tavujiU^t^nih, hv givv oc hu tuJvico that it 
would not ba safo to attju-ik Uic Briti^b, ar»d rmried Acith Mm 
nil (liH offi^ierH except OrneDfi, T-afa/tiLte, Wwyius tmd CiuJ- 
valafk'r Unmoved by tlic njwitby of so cMHiy, Waaiiinjjton 
cn>vcd tbe Delaware eixteen miles abova Trentcai, and, d^ 
tudiing filnxwcU^a bng:adG of Tiino kiin<lreid to atsa^i & pwly of 
ft tbooBEuid Jcrecy miiitia in dcAtro^irtg the roods, uul Morgis 
with a oorpe of six hnndn^d Co h^ iipoa tho onciny^ ri|E^ 
ho mOTod with tbo moki army to HopowolL Thcr^, on dio 
t^^nty-f<jurthf I.co izuiFlcd in council tl;ftt tlio Amoricajit 
fbould ntthcr build a bridf^ for tbo ivtrcat of thoir «Qdmi«« 
than atl&ck bo vell-dUdpllDfid an army. Lafayette n]>Bed 
that it would liu fthameful to cTilTt^r tho British to crom Tfcvt 
Jersey with impunity ; that, williout extreme risk, it was poad- 
bio to tTMjfi^^ ilmr rear aiid Lilce ud^nnt?!^ iif imy fivnniblo 
Opportunity; etill Lord Stirlwg tmd moet of the brigadioii 
again ^ded frith Lm. 

From AUcoitown tho British ecncml, fearing danger is 
croMmg tho Itanton, docidcxi to majx^h by way of Uoomoutli 
to Sandy Hook; and Washinfrtcn follow^ him in a pardlol 
hii^, r^fidy to atrike hli foroo at right a&gloa. The paKioa In 
advancd, incrauod by Bcott witb fourtoon bnndred and forty 
men, and od the twenty-fifth by Wayne trilh a thoufaud mc^re, 
oomiiciNjd A lluid of tlio nnnyf and fannr'1 a fit erinnnnTid for 
the oldest major-general. But Lee rafoaed it, aayiug tbat the 
plan muataiircty fail Ujion t]ii« WnfJiingt^>n intnutod it to 
lA&ycltc, who Tnarchod toward tho eaaemy with filacri^. Loo 
DOW fretted at the wrong whiofa he pretended waa done to him- 
aotf and to Lord Stirling* Aa ^oiluiigton hoard him ttn- 



iTff: 



THE UBITISn ABANDON PE?TK9YLVA?ffU. 



275 



morod) bo "wnAo to I^f ayetto : ** Hy fortuno tmd my honor 
urc b yoitr lunda; jou aro too gon^rous to ruin the ODe or 
ilns oThor," And tiilB appeal racce^ed, 

Oti tho twia(ty-*iit!i, Lh? waa *ent fcjrwunl wit-h two hti' 
ga*les tocomTi»aiid (Iii; iuhiuiciT [>(irlv» wiMi {>rcTcivtoattiick 111© 
tsnmiiy'a re^. luUiiue heat imi hoary ntina held both aruiiue 
qmct on tKo twcnty-tiievcnth ; but^ jost after dood on that day, 
IVaahin^on, inmmoniog the gcnOT^ib to hcad-qoarters, ic- 
Btnictcd iheni to on^pii>o tho enemy on tho neatt taoming; and 
hi9 difttct^ Iaic to concert wltb lua f>fBcera Uiq niodo of attack. 
Bu^ vlieD Lafiiyettc, Wa^TKtp nDdJkraxvron at the appototad 
honr oamo to Loe, he refused to form a plim, bo Chat none wa> 
madu; iturdid lio attt?mpt tfj gain kriowlfxlge of the ground 
on whicl] Im vEvt onlercd to fight. In tho (^venin^ fie waa 
charged hy Waaliington to detach a party of tax or eighi, Imit- 
died ekiimiaboT^ to He very ucat the oiemy, and delay thom, 
il they attoald movo off at night or early in the moniin^. The 
order irna executed too tardily to have eHoct. 

Jnfomod at ^va in the momiag of the tvron^-cighthtthat 
tho Britifh liad bppun thoir march from Monmouth, Leo re 
maiiKTd inert, till WaJiinglon, who woj the fiwt to Iw in motion, 
sent him orders to attack tho BHtidi ixar^ nnlen there BbouM 
be veny poirarfn] roaaons to the CTintrary, promising to coma 
tip rapidly to hU tmpporL TIii (iTi[Tyt?il m fur as to rrtovo lan- 
^dly, hut H'itlionL a phm oi any concert trith hia j^enemK 
To a proponJ of iMtajt/ttOt Lee anavrered : " Yon don*t knour 
tho Bntiab soldiers: we csonot stand against tbom." Upon 
this, lafoyetto ient to Waahington that his prosonce on the 
field m iModcd ; and twi'oc were simibir mosao^^ Mat by 
lAEmuL Having ordere t» attack the enemy's left, Lafayette 
ivenTed eoviDter orders before ho hod f rec(.-c-ded ono quarlier 
oCAevaj. Wayno was on the pcdntof enga^g the ommj 
hi cttnest, wlWD ho waa onjolnod only to make a fdnt There 
was marehlng and eonntcr-majrhmg, cmwir^ am! rrcnwnng 
a hridgv-, mm} a 1i:i1t for Hn hour, Tti a FWnch officer who ex- 
pircwc<:l fUrjiriAej Leu raid : " T hire onTers froED eoognas and 
the commanderEn-ehief not ia en^ige ; '* yel^ to appear to do 
someduDg, he profcncd oa bLi object to ont off a small corcr- 
ingpoHy. 



gt6 AMERICA, ra ALLIATTCE WriE FBAKCX BP,TT,;ca. xvia 



TLua STr Henry Clin^jn gElnedUme for preparatfoi. HU 
Ini^Fgngi*, wliir'Ii ncT*ii])ir<l ft Vmn of dglit iuUm or morOr VM 
sent oiiwardf protcctod by a. strong force under Kn^hftuscn. 
Thfi diTOion of ConiwalHa and a brigade and & rogimcnit of 
diogooiu from Kn}^>haueefi's divl^oa remained behind. At 
about cif*ht in the morning Clinton eont agvxut Loo two r^i- 
mcnte of cavalry, vrith the grcna^iors, fi;nikrdfi> and Uif^hlAnder^ 
and "the Ilon-vr of the Amerieau infantry was pjmquiahod by 
their obedience tf> the commande of a ItrAdor who mwiitatad 
their diftgrace/' * As the ereii^y followed tljo Americaiw 
thniTigti u iiitrrcFW dcfil«, no onli-r win wrtit hy T-ea Uj any of 
the particf) to rally, and no vrovi of dl that liapponod officially 
communicated to the commandor-in-chiof. 

Wlien Wjuibin^on encountered tbo fii|;itiT<ii, ho, in a voioc 
of JDfit aii£*or, demanded of Loo: *'Wh&t ie tlio moaning of 
tliinl" AtoJiod and confasi>d, Lcc Btammorcd: "Sir^-dr;* 
and to tbo wnowod inquiry anflwcrod: "Ton know £)mt th« 
att^^ok waa eontriiry to my advioe und opinion/' Washin^Q 
rvjoined: "You should not Imvi* iitidortiUriai the command 
tnilmui yoa iiiti-nibvl Ici vtirry it thnjiigb," and at <mr^ arrc^xod 
fbe retrefttn A& die nairow road, through v^hldi tlin Iwwt trfMipii 
of tJio British army, It-d by ClLHton and OoniwalliB and num- 
benng from m to ci^ht thonJMnd, were now botly chaAtng an 
unroaifiting enemy, vo& bounded on oocb side by a moraat, be 
ewiftly fonned two of the retreating regtmonta of Wayn^ 
bHg&dOf commniid<Ml by Stewart and lUmfiay, in front of tbo 
-pormers and nnder tlieir fire ; and thn^ gahied time to plant tbo 
truripA that trim? iidranrfng with hhn npon good gronnd. This 
Wingdoiir^, be a^iii met Lee^ who waa doing notJilng, " Ulceons 
in a private CiL]>a(^itj ;'^ and, finding In bim tiikdlKiuiHition toro- 
triens Itis ebaractftr, tntiered ]iim to the rear. Kven Luirona 
hoped for no more Uuin an orderly retreat; and Hamilton*! 
Uiougtit waa io die on the «pot. But Waabin^ton'a ■ctE-potfoa- 
don, hifi inspiring mien, hi£ oxpoonre of biindcif to «Tef7 danger, 
and die obviona v.'iadom of hk ordtrA^ kimULHt tl>c cnthnaiosm of 
offioon and men; while Lc<f in tlie rcar» dtting idly on horeo- 
baolc, explained to byatanden that '' the attempt waa madnett 
and could not bo «ncec«ifti]." The Britiih cavalry were euily 
•Hunlkou-iWDrk^lUtM. 



I 




ITTS. 



TTTC BTirnsn abahdok pexsstlvasia. 



27T 



driroD bade and! d^iowod thnn«ol7«fl no moro. Tlio rrf:pn>eitc« 
of fool came up next ; but Uiey coalcl not turn the Ivf t dank, 
wboro 6tirljiig <!<ju]iiianded, without i^jcjHKUiig ilivlr own nglit 
to the AmcricATi itftiQcxy. The AttAck upon the right, vbere 
Greene cormnaiul^d, wae defeated bj hla hattery. Others en- 
ewiiiUirvii the fTcnadierg and (nu^rds till tbcj- tuni<,H] and tied ; 
tnd when thcj roUicd mid caiac beck tc> ^c chhrgo, Wayiio 
irith a body of in^tiy OBgftgod thdm fooe to faoe tin tiie; 
w«ro again repnlaed, lieatenant-Colonel KonohtoQ &Dii)g at 
thotr hwd. During tho ilii/ tliu heat raocbcd innt.^-idx de- 
gree In the shade; atul mjuiy on both ddes, struck by the 
•ui^ ffill dtaid witJjout a woiuuL 

The Briti»li rotired through iho j>aM by which tlioj hul 
adToticed, and occupied a pcMtion accuamble iit fn»it ouly bj 
tlio mLrrow roadt and protected on bctli lUnka bj woods and 
moraaM6 which ooiild not be tunod boforo night Two Ameri- 
can bngodcs hun^ on tlioir Hglit, a tliinl on thoir l<ift, while 
the rcet of the army pUntod thoir fltaadarda on the field of bat- 
tie, and lay on their artna to renew tho content at da/bteftk. 
I3ut Clinton, nljimdoninj^ hii^ fovcivly wourdod and loavin^ his 
dead unbnried, before midnt^ht withdrew hie foro^ wMch at 
tho oarlj dawn found Hb(.-lFt.'r in the hij^liliiac^a of MidiUobiiTg. 
WjiflLIiigtou then inarcTicd townrd llto North river; tlie Bri^ 
iffjj inr Nirw Tcirlc bjr vay of ftuidy ITnofc. 

Od i«c«dTing tho English accoimtfi, Frederic of Pnuaia 
replied : ** Clinton gained no advantage exo&pt to reach New 
York with tho wreck of hiA army ; America ia probably loit 
for England.^ 

Of tho Americana who weto in tho engagementi two hun- 
dred and tweot^-nino were killed orwennded. Of the Britiah, 
more than four huniirod ; and nboTO efght hundred deeetted 
thoir atandArd during the march tlncn^ the Jenoys. 

In the battle, wldoh took its name from tlie adjaeent vilhge 
uf Honmonth, llio Anmncan grUE<nhi i;xc^)t Ijok dxt well; 
VayDe cipecbUy eetabUdiefl Lift fame. Tlie army aitd tfae 
whole oocmtry reaounded wltli Hits pnisee of Waahlqgton, 
awl congrcM onanimoaaly thanked hkn ^* for hia great good 
coodtiet and victorr.*^ Nor may history omit to record that, 
of the ** revolutionary patriots" who en iLat day perilled lifo 



il78 AMERICA IN ALUASCE WITD FRANCE. ■r,fT.; *Mt' 

for their ootititiT, more tJian fteren Lundi^ dolorod Americana 
fotijiht side by Hide with tlic vhitc. 

Aittrr fJio battlo. Leo wiw treated from bcod-quartcis with 
forbciiniiioo ; but in two lettora to tUo ooIl1mnnd«^in-<rllicf he 
ftVDwcd tho exfx^tAtioTi thjLt tlio campaign would doso the 
war — that », that the t^noe offered by the Bririali oomtiiUjtion' 
en Tcmld be accepted — uiid duEUumded reparutiou for injiKticc 
anil injtiiy, A c.ixirt-n^arfiA] found him guilty (if diwbedictioe, 
misLeliavIor 1«fora the enani)', and dii*fft«i>t!el to the oom* 
mindcr-iJi-clLicf, itTid nJ] too Icak^fitly did t»nt luspond him 
from coaunand for twelvfj mixiths. AiUr long delay, c»»n- 
grou coutinned the sentence, though by a narrow rote Tho 
nest year it censured Lcc for obtaining money through iMtish 
4>ffl<>erB in Now York, and in Janoary 1780^ provoked by an 
impcrtinciit letter, dismiaicd him from the Wirri^. Fiom 
that tttne he no longier conoealed bid wish for th« retum of 
Americft to her old a!l(^auee, and hia cboson companions were 
the pnrdeBU of England. Under the fidAo e^itora of uulitary 
g4±nhiA and experience in war. he liad Bolieited a cuntinand; 
nftrr htx apiHiiritiiuiit hv. Iiftd givt^n thrt rvhw U> K^lf-will fn thst 
Diiafcatune overtook his treachery. In October 17d2, Hinlciag 
uiulrr A if^vcr m a Etordid inn at FhUadelpliia, he; died as ha 
lukd Lived, loving neither God nor maa 



i:t8. 



Ama THE FEEKCn ALLIANCE. 



279^ 



OHAPTER XIX. 

CcFifmrEC betvreen ridgos ihrtc milM ap^rt, the Stifqne- 
honnob, for a little more than twcntj milofl, wind^ through tlM 
valley of Wjoniing. Al>rupl rocka, rent by tribnlwy etrearnSf 
riae on tbo caat, wliiJo tiio wostiMn dixilivilio^ am luxnriiuitJy 
fortilc- Connecticut, whoKO diivrtcr from CLarlce IL wae older 
tlim that of Pennsjlvani^ uamg itB prior claim to kuda 
nordkcf lilt? Mui:uirirTLi*clc river, hiul coluniiitMl iJiiv licautifiU 
ro^oTi and gcjvpmrii it iw it* county uf Wiwtinoreland, The 
Aottlemoiite, begun lu 17^4, tucreiiHed lu niiiuboi^ ua^l wtullTi 
till tlieir aiiiiW kix miounti^d to two tljouMiic) pounds in Con- 
Xkectkat cuTTCPcj. In the winter of 1776 the people aided 
Wfiflfaingtoii witti two compAnio» of iufuiitry, though tJiotr men 
vereiJl noc^lt^ to protect Uioir own homcc Knowing the 
ftlUinoo of tlio British with the Six Nations, tb«j built a lino 
of ten foru ud pkcc« of rcftif^. 

The Sonccft tnbo kept freeb in nwtnory tWr chieb &ad 
bnra vrha fell in the condlct with lUe New York biubond* 
man at Omkuiy. Tlu-ir T^itig* 8ii(Tii]giTnu'ht»n, wn^ IhiUi ui 
mo'anid in council, Uie forpruio»t man id all the Six Notiona 
OoropAred with him, tlid Kohawk, Bnuit, who had been but 
Jtaj Utclj" kiiotm upon tho war-p^thf woa lightly c«tocmod. 
Qifl ottaobmont tc tiic I^n^h incrcued to a paa»on on the 
allifinee of Anicrim with tbo Frencb> for vlu)m bo cbduhod 
lotpUcablc hate. Throngh lua intoTDet, snd by tbo blandldi- 
menu of ffiita and pay and obMicea of revenf-ef Colonel John 
Butlur lurod tbc 8cn«ci wirrioi* lo eroiA the border of PttUk- 
ny Kan ta under tlw Bndtli flag. 



280 AMEBICA IN ALL1A:\C£ Wlin FK.\XC£. bmt.j a 

Tto party of Bavngcs and nin|-cre, nombcn&g bctweeo fire 
btmdrcd tmd ^vcn hundred men. foil down tho Tiogft river, 
and on tlie liust day of Juuq lud in tho fcrc«td tbovc Wyo- 
ming IhQ next d»y Uic two iicrtltcntmoiit forts c^^tuJotod. 
Tko men cf Wyoming^ old imd ycitm£f, vdt^ one regnkr co^^ 
pony, tn nil lurlly more djiui thnw hundred, took connsol 
wllh one another, and fdund no liopo of deHvierTi7n?0 for thoir 
f]uiti1Ei«i buL fJirun^li a. Tivturioua onoounter wiUi a fcir irf 
twice thcJr nutiilier, nud tagru skilfid in tlit; wood* than them- 
ttelvea. On the lliird of Jnlj the devoted bond. led by CoUmd 
Zcbdon lintler, wLo bad just ratumcd from the contincntsl 
acrvico^ bcg&n their niarcU up tbc rircr. The hordo of mvat- 
den, pret«adiu^ to retroat, conched themselvw on tho ground 
in OA opoD wood. Tlio vUIagcra of Wyoming bt^ia fijing tg 
they drew noar, and ut tho third voUoy stood within one hun- 
drtd yards of the ambcsli, when the Seneca brnvee roao to tho 
Attaclc nnd vrtmi trnnK^jhjitidy Nit-j.itidi^1 hy iliu rnngi.^r^. Tho 
Senec-aa gave no qiiajti>r, and in Ies8 than & lialfdiour took 
two hiuul:x-d aiul Iwdity^hrc Mcalptt^ nfni>iig tlicin tJiono of two 
iiold ofiiceTfi and seven captfiin^* The ningcrs cnvcd the livtia 
of but livo of ihtir captivee. Od tho BritUh eide ondy two 
white* were killed and oi^bt Indioi:* wounded- Tbc next day 
tho romainini* fom> iillod chicfir with women and childrcD, 
espitokrod, Tlus long and wailing procea^oa of tho iunrivont, 
flying frotn tljoir iivhU of eom, thi^ir gnnScns, tlio £uiim of 
their cotiagee, the nnhnried bodiofi of their beloved defenders, 
e»ca|)od l>y a |ni>A through Ute hUht to the cafttom ftettlemc^nlK, 
Every fort and dwoHin^ wafi burnt. 

Thu ^nwnA ruitjiied over Oie ^urniuiidiug <^untry, adi^phi 
in mnrdor and deTiiAt«tion. The Bntifih leador boasted in Us 
report that hi£ p^vrly had tornt a tliousmd houaea &ad eveiy 
mil] ; Gcnuain hi reply oxtoUed tiuur prowc«i and even tlicir 
humanity, and roeotvod on diK«dii{ % meeeeaioQ of eiiuUar 
parti'^d. and to wnEte the older ecltJcinoEiU, but not to reoovor 
and luild tlii^m. Thfi ancient ufEiMtion for Enghind xras wuhod 
out in bloGcl. 

After the n?tn?iit of the BHtj^li, tho gOTomnieDt of Peiu- 
)cy1v»ii3i, KMu-r.n )u& that of Kow Jersey, UMd the right of brinc^ 
log to triid those of theu- dihem who bad been £aW to thtor 



tira 



AFTEa THE FCEKCn StUATSCB. 



261 



fllJegiuioe; but Livingitton, Ito governor of Npw Jcreoy, pnr- 
doncd every odc of ecvcnfcea irln> were f<>iutd fsmlty. At 
Pbiladdplua, JtgiUDfit liia intercoaaidii, two men, one of vhom 
liad eondnctod a British ^xirty to it mi<hii^ht cfirrn^, wcio 
ooQvictod, sDc] mffdrod en tho gdlows. ICcgrot praroilod thaX 
thQM had not in like nmAner been forglvciL 

Before tbo treadci of nJlicmoo luul boon n jm«d Vcrfi^tinM 
wroUi *' tlinft It wiw ft1mo«t phystcaJIy impoasibli^ for tlie Eng- 
Mi tj> wrest iiidajieiHJence from llie AmeHean*; tbat lOl 
nlTurlH, lumeror gttHt, wrmlil W*. powrrloN? to tttcAll a people 
00 tboroughly dotcmuncd to i-ufiuo BabmlfidoQ-" On tbo »Id«i 
of the soiLf ixom Nova ticotia to Florida^ the liritiAb occiipiod 
na pom Dxcopt tbo idand of Rliodo Jjikud, iukI New Vork 
city witb its onTiroi]& Tho Briti«h woro oj; yot at OgdoDBburg, 
^fiftffaJiT ftnd Detroit; but tbe Ainericanfl held tbo oountiy 
from thib Higblaiid)^ to tlo wator-Khud of Ijjke Ontario. 

TEie love ntid the eiert-ise of hidiviJual liberty, though 
Uiey hhu^Iered Uie eftltrieiKry of gopemmeni, innM tin* Ameri- 
can* nncoD^ocribK They looked heyond danger to tlio enjoy- 
ment of peac« bi a family and country of their own. Tfaecr 
wrrice in Uic cai^p exnltcd their character; they kneiiT that 
th^ were Euffcriii^ not f<^ their own land only^ but for th© 
benefit of the human raco. Aioroovcr, tho inmoat mind of ttic 
An^criciui piicple had cbjxii^d. Tho coutefoiunoM of a na- 
tional bfo bad diflcolved the sentiment of loyalty to the crown 
of Kngland. 

In Kigland a dmilar rovoltition had talcvn place. The Sn- 
iiiri^ita, loafng the name of rebela^ bagan to bv called Amm- 
«aiu. OHieeni, retTi ruing from Urn wiir^ naid njatnly tltat '^iia 
penon of judgment oonceiTed the kaet hope that the coloniea 
CQ^d be anbJACt^ by forces'* Some British atateemen tLont;hl 
to retain a political, orat loa«t aoommerdal, eonnMtion ; while 
many were irilUnK to givo them up BnconditiouaJIy, Even 
before 1\k Anmndcr of Bnrgo}iw, Gibbon, a member of tho 
board of trade, confeeiod that, though Ecgkiul had a&il to 
Amahm the greateet force which any European power ever 
rentnrod to tmvport into Uiat eontbiont, it wu not stroi^ 
enongh to attack its enemyp Tior tj> tirrrtent tlirrn fnim rrot^iv* 
inc affiinrnnrrt ; Ihu wax ''njcaAuroa*' of the adnuxu^UatioD 



2S9 AMERICA ra ALLIAKCE WITH FKAXCK IP. IT-; <S, ZIX 

vcro thorofora '^bo rcpTi^iLnt to 8oiiikd policy that they ccosod 
to be right.'' Aitcf that iiurrutuJtjr, lie aj;n.-od tbot, «ince " tho 
eulMtsaeo of powor «i« loHt, tho nAm^ of in^lopudoucv loight 
bo granted to the Aicericaiu.*^ Genora! Hove coi]]>led hifi 
T^tiromunt fnjni uctivo itervice with the uvowoJ llmt iha di** 
piMable reeonroes of hia coUDtiy coukl produce no decisTo ny 
«nlL " TltingH gij ill, Biid wlU nttl gu U-tter," wniU? ll:ie chief 
of thd new commiHion for cstahluhlng pence. Sir IlGnrj 
GHntoD, the succeaaor of Uow^t reported himself too weak to 
attempt tilt Kfltomtion of thtj kinicV authoritv. Lord Gcorgo 
Ucrmain hxid tio plan fortJio conntii; cntiapui^ but to hty tho 
coloQios W3£te. Lord North, who b^td boon at the h«ad of 
^Skln from ITTO, owned fa anguish the f^ure of hb Bwem 
and deplorad itit coEittnnanco. Blitmld the AniuHcuiu mliiy 
the French aJlianoe, Lord Amherst, wlio w» the ^ide of the 
miiuaf.ry in iJn? itmiiiurt of tlm war, rvt^omiuHKlvd tJie evtunii^ 
tion of Hew York and Rhode Island and tlie cmplojiuciit of 
tha troops agftlnst the I'Vanch West Iudid9« 

Jlut the mdicol change of opinion witt xhowii moat clearly 
l>y tlio Totoe of parliament In Fcbroary 1774, the hoiuc 
of commons, la a momoot of uureetnuDcid ^xtasioa, iidopte<l 
meifored ior enforcing tlie tnulittonil aUoluci^m of parlia' 
mont hy inajoritiea of three to one : corneponding majoHllfiit 
ia Pehmary 17'iS, rsTened Its jiidgiiit-nt, ivpctilMl th« ptmi< 
tiTttacta^aDi] ciin(-4^t*d inrcrything which tlie colonies hed dtv 
maDdod. 

There waa "a ge&oral erj for peace" The king, in 
Janaaiy ^17^ confcascd to Lord North: '^Tho time may 
eomo whcu it will be mse to ahaadou all Hotlh America 
but Canada, Nava Scotia, and the l-loridna; but Uion the 
generality of the natioQ mtwt ece it first in that li|;:hi." 
Lord Rockingham woa eonvinGed, and deiurvd to *'eonvince 
the public, of tlie imptxwihility of f^oing on \rith tho vrvrJ^ 
On tho wcond of IVbmary, Fox cpokc a^faJnst lis contiDoanoe, 
and van heard wUh furiir; and tai tlm dlviiuon furvtrml totimn 
voted Vi-ith him, English opinion had by Xhh time i¥«d^ed 
itaolf to tho belief that the United States cnuld not be n-dnccxL 

> ox vould have had Kogland *'infitintly ckclan: their in- 
dcpcndenoc;" PownaUf who had onoo defended tho Btimp- 



irra 



AHCB TOE FEEKOU AUJAKCB. 



2S8 



met, nr^d titeir reoo^iiou ; tu\<\ Conway, breaking througli 
bk TGAOirc, wici io poriiamcnt: '^It liu htxu proved u> 
ddnonstnitioa that there i^ do other mcUiod of JuTing pcaco 
vith them bat ftdaiowkdguig thorn to I>Of what tbej rodlj 
■ii\ and what tbcy aro (Jotomiiicd to remeiin, imdepuadont 
Btatw." Tho hooeo of ooromone seemed secretly to agvDe with 
him. Tories began to vote agoinat the mluistir. The aecr©- 
tonr of war, T^inl Rarrin^im, Kiiil ti> ihn Wiigz "Tlu^ n|jiiiioii 
tli^ the ndniinisti^tioD is not <^qa1 to the tiiuos prerails oren 
OQhODg thou vrho ore moat dependent on the minkten and 
niovt attAchod tc tlicm ; fn^y, it prer^ls among the mi&istcn 
tticsueLTce.'^ Lord ^orth was convinced of the rainooB t«tt- 
doner of hia meonuiw, and profcMcd, but onlj pivfcwod, on 
ooraoet wiab to rc«ij*n office Lofd MnnaGold deplored tho dan- 
^r of a WOT with both houfi^a of tho Boorboiu, Tho landed 
oriftocncy vrero grown woxry of the conflict of which the coa* 
tibUDce prciiDised onlj in<7reA&ing taxation iMid s vi^lblo ]oe« of 
nutioniU digriitr mid imfiortanee. Bo long aa thora remained 
ft hope of reooveiing AnicrictOf the irtinihtctrv vrcro mipport«d, 
fiir thoy done vrotihl imdertokc ita roduction. The dcsiro lo 
replaoo them bj ttatccmca more woHhj of a gnat pevpk im* 
piled the cocueut to peace on the bo^e of Amcriosii iadcpcu- 
doDoo, To that oad idl clcmccld eon^iired. 

On the eeoond of July the ptoddcnt and nvenil member* 
of conjcucaa mot oneo more in Fhiladelphi& On the Eiirth 
the aitidea of ooDfederation, enrolled on porchmont, wore 
dgied by eight atatAa. On the tenth, oongm^t iuTi^ * dnni- 
lor Co tho otli*ir Cxv\\ urging tliem " to OJDchide the glorioiv 
eotnpoct which was to tiTtfto tho fitreiigth, weoltli, ant! cuitnrila 
of the wbi>W* North riLrttliiai oeeeded oa the twenty-flral; 
Geor^Ji, on the twonty-fonrth. Vew Jeraey demanded for 
the United States the regulation of tmde and the ownetidiip 
of the vsgnmted nortb^wcrtcfn domain ; but, after UDMSiated 
eflortB for a tnore cBctect imion, the etito, on the twen^-iiftb 
of the foUoving November, oeeeplcd the eonfederoey without 
amoodmoBt; and. oo tlto fifth cf }fay ITTI^, the delegates of 
Debwve did the Hune* Uoryland alone orreeted the eonsmn* 
matSon of die eoofodentloa b; demandi n g, that the pnbUe 
loadaoartb-ireetot d» OhLodwnld fiivt bo reopgnieed as the 



281 AMERICA IK ALLIANCE WITU FRANCE. Sf", tr. j cnt. ZK 

common pKport}' of nil tho et^toA, an<\ hclrl as a common re> 
source to dischax];^ tli^a debts coatracted bj con^^reu for tlie 
<a^DBeA of the WOT, 

On tln! friglith of July tlm Tmirli {\ti-t^ cangigting of 
twelve ^Ifis of lh& line &nd titree frigateb, nlior a n>iigh vojp- 
B^ of acurlj' uiuijty diiyM from Tcrnlon, aiicbi>r&d in the \mj of 
I)oI&warG, ten day^ too late to intercept tbc inferior f quadraa 
of Lord Howe and ita crowd of trandporta on tb&ir retreat 
from PbtliLd&lphm. Tbo Conat dXataiug li&d pemudcd 
Mario Aiitoiaotto to propo«o llio cxpocHtJon, of wbioh lio bd*< 
ouno tbe admiroL On the oloTvuth, congreea leftmod fouai 
hi* Ictton that ha vtm ** rend/ to eo-operato ^th dm Btatw m 
tbo reduction of th(? British nrniy fltid nnvy." This first fnri- 
talion tu a cona^rt of nieasiiita reveaJed (liat the Amcricua 
people^ for want of an org'inixul gnrifnunciJt, coaM do no more 
tliaii empower WfisiiiiitrtcD to call upon the hx states north o(i 
th(j Pci[twarc for oidd cf nnlitJa^ whilo ]t« linancia] mMCim( 
^Ta« a popular loon to bo ndacd thionghont the coimtr^ hf- 
volontcer ooUoctore, 

XPEfltfting fultowed hia finomy to tlio NorlJi, and anchored 
^tbiD Bandy Hook, vhoro ho intorc^od nngugpeotinj:; Brtt- 
ish ships boniid for New York, The fleet of Ix>rd Hove vrna 
Imperreetlj itiaTniMl^ hut liin fame attiuctcd from mcrchflnt 
vimelfl imd transports a fnTI complement of Tolunteera, Tlie 
Fmidi flt-el dwlred nevert!iel<«ft to wul up ilm Imy ami nfff-r 
hottlc ; but no pilots could bo fcimd to tako ita Wgeat ahlpa 
through the ohanneL 

Sinoo New York could not be nachcd, d'Ej^taing, igno- 
ront of the secret a^rccmont hctwoon Fnmco and Spain, iD< 
didgcd tho drcoci of annexing Britiah Isevrfoundland to tho 
American repnbUo a« n fourtoonth atntn wiUi repreccntAtion in 
oongnw. "WafihingCtai proposed to employ the temporary snp^ 
riority at aca m this oaptnro of Hhode Itlund ami itt garriwjn 
of aLr thonBand men. He Wl in advAncei^immumpd Mi 
oiii]NtlA,Ounnuclii^t,aiid lUiode Island to«eiid ijuotAis of their 
militJa for the BX]iodjtioD. The council of war of Rhode Ial< 
and, exeeeding his reqnircmcait, colled out ore half of llifr. 
oSecliro force of tlie at&to ita t^ent^ daye Iroui the firet of 
Aognat, and ordered tho remainder to b<} rcudy at & miimte*d 




AFTER THE PBKSOH AUIAKCJE. 



$$! 



%-iirDln^'- Out of lilaovn feel^Ie armj he tpucd anol^gndo 
from Ikfajtuirtitiiu'tUi MicI tmn froin llluidts Iitklid, of ono tlioil- 
tvMtd eucli, and tLer were follr^wcij hj t ^rthex ilcUoluneait 
Directing Sullivan, wLo waa placed ot?er the district of IChodo 
IfilAnd, to tJirow tUo AmuncLin troopa int4> two dirisiotis, ho 
Bent Greene to comma&d tlio ono, and LtiiAjtsiUi tli« other, 
Touoi* Laiirena sefred d'Efitmnff as aid and mt«rpraUr. Oo 
tlic tirirnty-uinlh of Julj', wliilu Clinton waa leportfng to Geiv 
main t.hfit hd wonid probably bo under tiie itece^ity of evueiiat- 
iiig Xew Tork nnd rvttrlng to Halifax, iU& Fmieh tlcL-t, uitk 
tlnrfij-fiw biindrrd Innd trc>o]w <in TioanK ap{X!firt»d off NeiT- 
poit ; and the Driti^lj hnw liieuiMSvoe forced to dcfftroj ten or 
marc armcMl aliij)4 and ipiJIcp, carrying two hu&drod and twclvo 
gun*, 

Tlio couniry wae palpitating with joy »t tlio allianeo with 
FranccL Cou^n.^ on Sunday tho aixth of Angnfit^ vith ^tnd- 
lod Mnn^ony ^ro itc ondi^OQ of rocoption to Coonui Alex- 
ander Gor^rdf the Frendi plenipotiantiaty, listened to hu oasur- 
uticM <ii thv ftfFucfJoii of Tlik Icing for tlia Ufjited Rlul^ and for 
''^sch ore*' of them, and *' acknowloJgttd tlio hiuidof n. gru- 
rjouH Pnividouoe in nbEng them np so \ittivvrfu\ h frluud." 
Robert Livingwtoii cscjiruMcd thu lioi>o tJiat congnra?, in tiuit* 
ing for pence, wonid mmt on tbo indepeoidenGo of Cuuda, 
HudA>nV bn/. tbt Floridu, and all tho oontinont 

On tbo eighth tho IVcnch floct, which a whim of SuUiTan 
had detained for t^ daya in the offinjt- nm pa^t tho Britiah 
hatteriea Into the harbor of XowjHirt. The landing had been 
coneortod for tJio ti:3ith ; but, l^ontitig that tliu British otttp^ivta 
on the north of tlio island liad beE>n wiibdrawn, Sullirajif on 
tlu? ixuindiig uf ibi? niiitli, iv'ithiiiit nutlcit; to d*Ei4l4m^ croued 
with his troope from the side of Tiverton. Bcarocly had ho 
done CO when the squadron of Lord llowe^ which had been rein- 
forced from EngltDdf WW eccn to anchor dcu- Point Judith, 
On the tenth, a Gtrong wind ming from tho north-caj^t, d*£»- 
taiog, bj adrioc of hia offloera, among whom veto Snffren and 
do Gm<o, boiv down npon tho Britlili aqnadroa In ofder of 
hattl<>. While d'Estainjf wju bafllwl in tlic attempt to force 
an actiom, the wind Incn^aeed to a hnrH(^ane and wreeVoil and 
aotlorod bot3i ^KvUt^ Thu Fnnu^ Khip Lujigm-duc luet ita 



fl66 IMEPJCA Df ALLLA5GB WITH fHAKCE. mr.wr.\m^ 



nidder &nd nurta; tho Apollo, U) vr)uoli tlie Urituh lulioirtl 
ht^ Ahiftod bid dug, could not koop Ckt eea. 

Tho Nunfi tfUmu flooded Kbodo Icknd with nm, danu;-cd 
tbo flBkinitaitioR of tlio Amt^ricaii smiy, ox'orturoL-d their tiiril 
tttd hft them no shelter except trees &Qd fences. Hones w«r» 
Idlltidf EUid ovcm GoMUra periJslinL TIm BHtiJi trucpa, bdng 
qnjutered in t)i*3 towii, Eiiffi.ireal Iw* ; antJ^ on f.h« rrt.nm of HW 
wcnlliiTr, Tigtit^ but fur Iua mcrluiavi, might luve fallto upuu a 

Tlie ai^iuadroa of Lord Hi>vre vtccred for SLindy Hook. 
D'&Uing« throe of wlic»e ehip* L&d wjt'Crally cibcountered 
thn^fO Kugtieh sbipA, appciLrcd on tho twcmtiotlL within (ighl of 
JTewpoit ; bcl only to onnounco thiU lo waa compelled to aoU 
for Bo«tott for rop^ii^ and 0upf>1io«, lu guuord urdcrv, SnUU 
van confortM) d'^ntiurt;^, and irwinustod t\nt inuHUty of die 
French alliance; and then, nndcr eouipuMon ^om I^fayette^ 
in otbLT geni^d unlers nuulc n.-|Nmit[ii(i. Wuj^hiiigtJiTi K^nL him 
timely &nd locoe&nnt ciesMgoe to withdraw fn:>iri tlie island; 
yet he pf!t^iati?d hi mifiln^ ou Hoiiyinau** UtQ Iraltcneo wIJc^ 
Vttns too remDto to be of u». The ixtrcnt, which wnit ooo- 
ducted in the proaence of regular troops eup&rior in &iuab£fl^-| 
vrns dchy<^i till tijc night of thu twonty-oightli. Tho ruat iff] 
tho Und^h attomptod to got round tho American right vring, 
and cut off vvcry clioncc of oteapo. Od ihat dde, Greene^ Eiip> 
portdd by youn^ Lauronfl, cbaiigod tlic dofoioe Into tu attack, 
and dro^e the enemy In dlsoMer and with Icnm back to thvar 
rtrong pcBBt on Quaker Hill. On the night followiitg Urn thlr- 
ticdi t!if army of Sullivan, OTadln^ ita pnrenevv, voBped from 
tl;r! isilriiiiL 

Olinton. with a reinfaroenicat of foor thousmd men, landed 
the next d»y. He sotm nrturncd to Nev York, hariii^ accom- 
plidicd nodiinf^, except that a detachment under Grey tei fire 
to the ahippiug in Kevr Bedford, and then Ic^od cattle and 
money on tho farmcrv oE Martha^a Vinoyard. l^rd Hovro 
give up the naro] cominond to Adminl Byr>:in, and wu not 
a^ain employed in Amtffoa. '^ushiugion, in Au^at, aa ho 
ciunu ULgnin ii|ii*n White PUina^ wrote to a friimd hi Virginia : 
"Aflvr twoyean* mantFurrlng and tlte atnuigwt vteiwitndtv, 
boUi amiia ai« hrouf^ht hoek to tho r&rj point they let OKt 



ITTfl, 



APT£B THE FREyCH ALUASOE. 



aar' 



from, ftn<l ihc offending jxirt/ dt the beginning ib now rwlwcrd 
to tho iiM of ibo epadQ aiid piekaxc for dofotice. The liaad 
of FrovidoQCO lias been ao ooiupieuoiut m nil thin that li« mul 
ho wojw than an iiifiJtJ tij-it lack* f:uth» and moiv tbuji wicked 
that 1i» not gratituf^o to aclaiowled^ luA obli^Uons.^ Gov- 
ernor Trutaliull of Connecticut earpreodd thft bcdjef of liU 
Ktxttu wlu?ii !ki *euil : " In l]m u;riiw of miirvellous oceutronccfi 
dming the preeoat wai- bo must bo h\h\d ^Ito ilotli not see 
the <lIvuiQ orderlufc tJieroof." 

On the third of October the coranusfiioDeiii for restoring 
pcttco to the colonicd odiirceecd % iarewdl nunifcsto to the 
ceogrcaa, ■Mcni1>licS|iindothortnhflbhuitaof AjDon<% that their 
pemrt«Doo in soparntin^ from Gmit Britain would ^^ change 
thd vholo nature and future oonduot of thU wnr;^^ tltiit ''iho 
cxtnnn« of war*' idionM 8o dimtrttfj* tho jxj-opld and deflulite 
the country w tt> maVo them of little nvall to France. Con- 
greoa publiaUtjd ihu jMiptrlii iJiu jpuwttc»ttj cuiiviitcn tliv pjxiph 
of tbe ituidivus denigti* of tho ooninuffitcin«i& In the BrliiKh 
Loom of commons Coke of Korfolk propoAi^ to diMLvow tli« 
dedaraffDn. Lonl GeorgQ Germain uiAiatod tbat tb« Anieri- 
CAn« by tbcir alluinco were become I'^roiclif and abould bn 
tJreated as Frendunon. Burke pointed out that the "drtadful 
Eoenooe waa prononnccd aguiui thooe who, couaciona of rceti- 
todo^ itood np to fight for froedom and country." Tbo com- 
ndsfitoneTf Johnstone^ who, in oLanglDg aldei on tlua American 
qnepiiliDn, Inul not lunitnl ilin fury of bw tnannor^ Raid : "No 
i]Ufirtvr onglit to bo (Jiown to tbelr congmn ; and, If tlie Inft^r- 
nab coidd Ite \vt looou ogiiiut ll^rui, I vhoiilLl nj>pmvc <>f ibc 
mcafiurc* The pr\>clankaticD certitmly don nicAn a war of d^o- 
Ution; it can mean nothing ohse/* Gibbon divided nlently 
vritli t]io friends cf America^ wbo had nith them the judg- 
ment, lliough not tbo vote, of tbo heoaoi Throe daya bter 
Koolun^ltuu in tbe hotiae of tor<b dcnennecd the ** aconreiMl ^ 
inaaifMto, an^I doclareid tbat ^uaoe tbe coming of ChriflC war 
hvd not lietm c<*nductttl on micb Inhnmun idcaj.** Lord Suf- 
folk, in iTj^ly, ippi*a!cd U> t)io bcnc'-h of liiEfiopn; on which 
tli6 bUliop of P«terboraU|^tj, tnciijg the reeeniblmioe between 
the proclninatJiin imd tlir acimtf Butler at Wytifmiig, uVhsl; 
^ Tho3D ia on article in the cxtnoidmArica of the ann^ for 



28S AMERICA IN ALTJASCE inra PfiiilOE, W.IY-; 



scalping-kmvi^M. Great BriLiin defeate any topoia flic ji ntpgw 
of i:ier canrtt? by muni^ji like ih*Me to support SL" 

TJie iltft>At« cloeett well for AmcncA, except that Lofd 8h<i- 
htxrue vrtut iirovoked into aaying that ho noTor would acrro 
witL any man wlio would oouAont to iCa indf^petidtizioo. 

The Bntiflb army under Clinton QoM ouly nvago aud 
doetroy by andden cxpedidona. Toward tHio «i<I of Soj^tent- 
trer, Cornwallut led u foruy lute Kew Jei^ey; and IfajorOen- 
end Grey with h party of infmitry, Murpn»i<ig Biivlor'n IS^fc^ 
hone^ vuted the bayoitet merc'ile«j^ty HgunFt taan tltat eoed for 
qQarl«r. A liamlj 1i»l liy Ca[iUtu Pfttrick Forg^ueon io October, 
afLer dbntroyin^ tho shipping in liUlo Egg Itmrbor, q)TQ«l 
tliixiu^H tlia ne^boriim; country to bum tho houses and wito 
tlic lands of tho patriota. On the lught of the fiftoenth th<ty 
surpnaod light infantry under Puiaikfa oomiiuuid ; and, coui- 
Uiing thenieclvee with no pruonorR, killod all thoy coulxL III 
Ifovooabor a 1ai^ purty uf liulhmii, with buida of toriw vid 
rogrtlaiB, entered Cherry valley by an unf^uanlocl psM, luid, find- 
ing till- fcirt Uitt tiinjicg to }>& isVea^ tniirdered aQiJ Acit1|>tid uitrro 
t!mTi ll^iii'ly of tlir- inhtilntAnt*, ntasi nf thpin woinf"J and i'.hildn?ii, 

riiiinediaielj after the pieneral decW^Uou of iiidepeiulf-.am 
tlic dttzen4 of Soutli CatoIjua, liy common conwmt, intnutod 
oonstitaont povcra to their representatives. In Januaiy 1777^ 
a bill for a new conetitutiou vrca lutrodnc«d. TLio atsnuto via 
to bo chotfcn by tho cloctora in tho forcnd pafiabw ; tbo dis- 
tribution cf tho ropiesentation in tho gencnl Mannbly vw 
left nndonf^ The bill waa pnnt^, uid aubmittcd for 
vxAirimiticitL to rhi^ pvApht (or more than a vear, Tho legbfe- 
tnn?, in Xfiiri.'ti \ 7TS^ |^ve it cbt-ir («ui<rliiju \ and it wna d:ea 
presented to the jinftident fur ccmiintiLilion, Every ODe ox* 
p<H-frd t}\nt m a tcfw houra it vrould l>o jtruuliuined, when 
Kutlcd^o, the ontgoiDg presideDt, called the cinincLl and tmcm^ 
bly into the council chambccr, and, after a formal apeodi, gavo 
it a ncgalavci, because it took from tho chief of the ejwcutiTo 
hia Toto power. Tho niajoii^ dotcnaiocd to vote do taxoa 
until tho veto ahonld bo rut^raod. Aftor a throe days' adjotVD- 
ment, winch wn^c roquired by the niloa before a mjoeted bill 
ccnld bo again broii^t forward. Rawlins Lownd«^ the nowly 
elooted pn-Md^mt^ gave IJit uuictton to tbe risfrmirted bill. 



• 



I 



177a ATTEB IDE FRE3fOe ALUAKCt 

Tint new ooiutitalaoa mig^t be altered hj IegUAt£T« u< 
thorit;y- oitcT a notice of ninety daje. NoiKt but frccboldera 
oooJd elect or bo cJoatod t;i oiEoo; aad for tlic Liglicr offioea 
the poaeeffiioD of a largo &o«iiQld wm reqaired- In uij redi»' 
triUution of the repr«i»euution of tlie stale, t!ie number of u-liite 
inhabitirtrt xin} the maoiint of ttxulili^ property wore to bocon- 
Aliltfred. TliQ veto powor vva8 tAken frxjin ihe preeideuti. Till 
UiiJt dtiiu, llie cfjiiruli vt Eilj^IuihI liwl )h<uti tJiu iMtabtulKtl 
dmroh in South Oftrolio^ Tbo Ohristi&n Prot^tftnt cLiirdi 
vad now declared to be tlie eelabllAbed religfoD of tJie state ; 
and none but Proti»t«ata were di^tilo Co bi^ cxcaitivc or 
niiy Icfjialativc office. The right of ^qStb^^ waa coofcned 
exclusively on every fn^e whiM man who* baTln^ the roqfoidte 
age and freohold, ackiLon^lod£:cd God and a future etato of 
rewards and punl^iineniA. All persona who so beUev«d, and 
tbat Gixl in pTiblidy to be wordliSppcd, might form rellgicas 
KDcii;t,i<w, Tlie mpport of ntli^iifiii; worship tcm votimtiiry ; llm 
|ifoperLy tlieu Wlungirig to eodetwB of the t^iin^ of England, 
or any olltcr rvliginu* KOcieCJi<«f wiw Keciiivd to Uiotii hi \x'.r- 
petnity. The people were to enjoy forcrcr the right cf elect- 
ing their own paetora or dergy ; but the state waa entitled to 
WCuri^ for the due disobnrgo of the pastoral office by tlie 
poffKma BO deote'i Of slavoe or alavory no moatitja wae made 
except by imptidatioiL 

The ooiictitutiOiii haTiBg been adopted on the ninctoonth of 
Harch 1778, lo go inCoeflec^t en the foUowh^ tw^ty-nintb 
of Ifovemher, all ttfudent fivo nmlu jienona in the »1iitt,> aboTe 
ilixtDeii years, n^fGEing to take tfao oath to maintain it agnlnat 
the king of Great Britain and all other enemtea, were exiled ; 
bat a period of twelro monthe after tlicar departure waa al* 
lowed them to dUpoao of thoir property. In October 177S, 
after the intention of the Btidah to rvdnce ^onth Carolina 
boeane known, dootli wn« made tbo ponnlcy for tcf utlog to 
depart from tbo elatc^ or for letununj- without pemuseioa. 

At thia time tbo Britsth oiiuuttiyf nwgniug the hope of 
r&du«ing tlw ^orth, indulged the expectation of ooTKpiering 
all tlie Niatea eonth of the &uAr]Tieliiitinab. For thle end tfao 
BritU}i coBomandeMiHsMef at> N<iw YoA wnm ovdr*ed to d^ 
qiateh before October, If pofidible, a thonauid men to reinforce 

Tab *>^IB 




2S0 AHEKICA IN AUJANOE WITH FRASOE; xr. n.; on. rax, 

FeitaaeolA, am] tbrea thoaawid to takt Savannah. Two tWor 
Btntl niom ivoro destined iw u raiDforcenu^nt to Sl AiigustJne. 

Tlic now poliejr irn« innngonitcd bjr rcmonetrouccic from 
thQhig:bo0t BrUiBh ofiiciab in Aniorica. and ^m followed by 
ncTCiH^Ddin^ complainta. Imt^ CurUate and ]m aucidflto €0m- 
inicnonois doprocatod the policy of «iif«obLtiif^ N«w York by 
detaohmeDte for distant servioes. '^ UndertbeeeappeftKL&ottof 
imkDe«»," so lL«y reported, ''our cause lias vlaibly dodiiiod." 
Sir lT<;nry Clbit^ni rvmuiMlratvd i^puntd 1>omg ^'a mcmmfal 
witnccfl of tbu debility" of hh arnty ^^reduced U> a Etarved 
dfifecart^.^ Every deUcbmant for the aootUcm aunpajgn wu 
nude "nith imUon reluctAnce; mid bu todiroct crimiitatiom 
ofEcndod the onforgiVing mioutcr. 

The use of paper money by tfao Amcrioane and ito ovtrrao- 
eeUraUtd dcprocla^ou, and tlio vast ctf a oontnl govomm^nt* 
r^vired tbo iopo of mbjn^tin^ ibcnu Thd Unitdd SUm 
oloaed the c^utipafgn of 1TT8 before autumn, for want of 
money. P^ij^er MHa, tunittad by ifuu^^nuH on il» pUvl^ of tbo 
faith of o^^li M^]>anLto atate, KUpportni t\m war in itfl earlieet 
j>eno(I. Tlioir decline was ba3t«ued hy t!io diaaatera that beftaQ 
tlio American anniea. Tbur valac ira« fnrtlior impaired by 
tJic: i^oblc ttrata^cm of the Bntuh uimi^cr»i under wbooe 
anthorily Ix-rd Dunmoro and others introdnocd into tho oireo* 
latiou cf Vtrginliv and otbor rtaloi a large number of bilU conn- 
t^rfoit^ for tho purpose in ED|(land. In October 171^, am- 
gron, vhlch poaseaged no independent reaonrcea and no povron 
OD which crt'dit could be foundwlj upciml Icon offlooa in lb« 
ftereral ^UfeA^ and audiorlced a lottery. In Decemtfer Et iasned 
fivo milium i1oll;tr« num: in rontuiBnt^ liilla. In Janii;uy 1T77, 
when they had sunk to ono half of their prclcndcd xalnt^ it 
denounced erery peraon who would not receive them at par aa 
a public enemy, Uablo to forfeit whatever ho olFercd for mJo ; 
and it re^peatod the etato kgielatorca to df^dare them a lawful 
tender, Thia KaiGaai^iiACtla bad enaotoJ a month Ixrfore ; and 
tho oicanplo was followed throogbout tho unioiu 

Tho loan oflicea exehan^^ Unit^ Stat«« paper money at 
par for wrUflcak* of dobt buaruig *ix jwr cent intt-rwi. On 
a hint fn>m Arthnr lev, congrr«H n<Mt1vi-i1 Ut yny lltm inlxTroat 
by drairing on iCa comuJ^BttOneta In Paris for eoin, though the 



AFIEB THE FBEKCB ALLIANCE. 

eonunia^onera bad no inn^ The bilU vtw of a Y^ry long 
date; nnd, Ixfon? (Ley TxTrAiDtt ^uw, <ino dolliir in rein wm 
wcirtli aix m paper. 

In tlia tniddle oi Novrm1>cT ITTil, ^fnffUtchiiKitui, which 
had gro'sni opnJcnt before the war Lj- lolerating no cnrn:ncy 
but LiLrd money, prop<»aed ft oonvcuticn of cH»nmittoca iivon 
the MvonU Xow KngliDd vtatc* to oc»uidor alJ quccUonj} rclut- 
'mg to public credit Cormeoticat feared tha ixneaHUT^ vonld 
^TO nmbra^ to oongr^^, ITpon thU^ a iwnvendon of tbd 
Kuw KiigUiiit jcuitcff, cftlled by Hhoile Iitknd nndpr tluj niutiu 
of'* a coiuicil of war/* met on Chnstmas day at Providence- 
Tlwy rt^i\nUi*\ [iHoeH, ]in]|KMoiI laxrtLlifU Aiid lixum, imd nn^um- 
mcaded that tijc KtAtc« nhotild iMmc do more paper, *' oii)o«« in 
extrcttno caAos-" Con/ifreafi liked tWr doii:^ » well that, in 
Jonu&rf 17T7. it adririLHl nmilnr conrcntiona of tliL' middle 
and of tbo UtiKc coathornmcst etotoa. Stnving for tlio mo^ 
nopoly of pftp^ monoy, it aaUed tbo »tatC8 to c^ in tlieii 
bill^ and to isiue no more. 

All tlie nienAnrva l)il}u>rUi Mii|igo4tc<t baring (m\vA nf their 
objert, SfaiWHclrtwittt*! oTin? tnnn* took the load i aniU on h«T 
iiivlutiou, the four X^w Eii^kud siiaUvA aud Nt;w Yurk oiet. 
near iIms «aid of Jnly, nt Simngficld «n tli(! Connccr.ictit. With 
one voices they fonnd tho root of all tinaacial difiicultics in the 
tuo of irr»ioi>inabIo paper. Aa tli« only romody, tbcy propoeed 
to Biak all balb of tfio stotcs, and to provide &liko for their 
local oxpQDMi and thoA« of the war by qDartor-ycoiiy taxea. 
TL43ir oxunpld aboiped bo^ rc^dilj tlio pooplo of the atat«a 
ooald «oa>o togi-tltcr by thdr delogatoe for tlie purpoac of 
reforming tlie govamment; pri«^ rose and bUls went dowD 

The umous doljbor&tionfi of tbe committao of oongroil 
during oioro than two montljaat Yorktown, uith the report 
of tho Springfield convcatioa before ibcm^ produced only a 
raooumondation, adopts in ^o?Gnd)cr 1777, that tho tcvei^ 
itfttcfl thotJd booomo ovditort of tbo Unitod Statoi by nueing 
for tho oontinontal traasory firo nailtioiw of doUan In foiar 
quartorly inatalmenta, tbo fln4 pAymont to bd mado on tbo 
coming Nov Tcai'a day, and the irbole to bear aix per cent 
lnt<<reA UAtO tho final ftdjtutmout of noooonbc, iLftur Hm con* 




$93 AHEEUCA IN ALUAXCE WiTU EltANCfi. RiT.;cx.TaT 

foderutloL dioald hare been ntlfied. 3IafuacliuaeUs mut nb?d 
at eight hundnxl htuI twenty' ttionwnd dollAn; ViigmUt At 
figliit hundrod; Fcan&ylvania* ct ais hundred wid tivonty; 
Coubcs^tieut, lit BL\ hundred ; Now Yolk, root tad ranged by 
tbo wnr, at two hundred ; Delaware and GdorgU^ atxh st nxty. 
A general wuh prGvailod ta iv^xtct tUu rMommoDdiUion ; bat 
moAt of the statt*s retained th^ir ^uotaa to r^mhoree tbem* 
ee1vv»i for ftdviinrr«; ciiid, Ixwiilis, Hwy wvrv hJI wi'-ighod dr^wn 
bjr eipenaeA and obligations of their own, 

61iiii]i>wy hupeei of fortrt^ louna row before coogrOM. In 
December 1777, iu jxdvAacc of trcatim of comiDcrcc and alli- 
anoe, tho American comiDiaaoiicr? in trance and E?pain vere 
infitruet^ to borrow two nullion ponnde sterling, lo be rojnid 
in t<iL jam; and, in Febrmu-y 1778, tho oommianouer for 
Tuscany was clinrj^d to borrow hnlf u mach more. Vot the 
grand duke of Tiiscanjr wtmld have no relatiooa with tha 
Uhiti-(] Suttfui ; am) im jiowcTr wujt wt if) iliM^Mmjd Uiward tJioni 
afl tlie kin^' of Hiuin. 

Tw tJie AnienOLU people caogreaa wiote in ilay : '■ Tho 
Toa»onj» that jronr money luitli depa^Atcd an^ bccooMo no tajiee 
have been impoeed to catry on the war ; " bat they d>d not na 
yet venture to o^k povor to li^ry Uixa*^ On. obtaining the 
kinj* cf »anc« for their ally, thoy nuthonzod drafts on tfaeii 
coinniitfion«rit in Tttrii for thirty-one and a half miUieaa of 
Hvrea at fivo \\vr&^ ta thi? dotUr, ui payment of )o«D-offloQ 
certlflcatefl, leavinfc FrankUn and hia coQeagOM 1o meet thn 
liilb of <-x<>Iiitngv M tlicy eouhL Of conllncflital bilU, firo 
Diitlions of dollars ^ere lAflUed in May, a^ many niot9 in Jone^ 
am) art man/ untTn iti July, In Au^uatr coujifroiH devotn! tvo 
daj-a ID tbo week to tho conridcrotioD of ito HoaDCCft. bijt with 
no better T«a\dt than to order dve noillioiu of dollar? in paper 
in tbo tirvt week of September, and ten milltonft more in tho 
Last Ccrtiticotcfi of the loan offioofi were nscd in i^roat amountd 
in payment of debia to &e separate sUtoa, eripecially to Penn^ 
nylranuu 

The l9gflli»d tJMof paper moDGj spread iti Bera^faillng 
bllgtit Tnule Iwvume a ipime of bourd. ITnacnipnloiia 
di^hbtni diBehnrgiHl mntnirtM of lon^ Hbindiiig in liflU vnrth 
pcrhapi bnt a twcDtictb of tbeir nonunal raluc. The xmwwy 



I 



I 




ITTB. 



APTEK TQE FTtEKCH ALLIANCE. 



S98 



nui in clc^lit, wliilo cuiming crtHliiom vmtcd fir pnj'nicat till 
tho continental biLle elionld ccam to be a legal tender. 

Tho naaiic of liicliard Price waa (l«ar to eveij Iotot of 
politiod froedocQ. Ho dcririHl lua llicory of morals from 
tttoTCttl iui<i immtitablo pnndploe, iind hie «m7 on " Uborty^^ 
vhloh -wae read in Gr«ai Britain, Amencn, md, tlirongli a 
ti-ansladoii. Id Genrmnj", founded llie rigbt* of maii on tba 
nulit^ of tnitJi Rtid jNi&tiiH^ liti Unil ikviNi^l a j^ditftne for the 
pay:iR'nt of the Brituh debt. Coti^iva^ or tW Bixtli of Oeto* 
bcr, iuvit^d liim to l>ecumo thtir £eilovr-citiice«t ami to rv^bto 
their ftnonco^. The inviUtioQ wan dcdiDcd bj their illiiGtnoiia 
friond ; but be gavo tho nasuranco Uiat he " looked iif>on tko 
United Stat(3i oa now tlio hopc> lat^ mood to bcoomo tbc refuge^ 
of tnankind.^' 

From tliifi time (xm^r^i^ flaw no rttonroo bat In «ueb '* veiy 
Gon^der^ble looiuortubAJdliM iaEnropo^ON could beoscpdCMd 
only from im ally ; and, Ixiforo tl»e wid of October, they in- 
Btruct^i Fr.uiklln *' to aHanra hU must Cbnbtian nuje«ty tLey 
Loj>«3 pr>tuction frotii Kia piiwnr unt] magjiiutltiiitjr-" Tboro 
ircro thocio in con^rcm vrho would not place thtnr country 
GDder ^* protection \ *^ but Uio word ^vna retained by e^ht ttuitm 
ogfttcut Khode Jnktid ojkI ^liirvIiLiid. Siunnd Ad^una nnd 
lovell of Uiitifoiobiuetta vot^ for it, but wore bolanood by 
Gcnry and Holten; Shornuin of Cennectimt oppond it, hixt 
]ii« voto via ncutnlisod by tbnt of KU^u.-ortli. Tlio poopfo 
of the Unlt^ States, In proportion to their nnmhere, vroro 
mom opalent tiban Uie pei:»ple of Fraiioe ; but the pride tJiat 
vould not C4;nm:nt to m efficient anion wt* wiUiug to uk 
protection. 

The conntry wm looking to the United l^rorinccfl for i£d ; 
and in I^eccmbcr LAorcDfl retaicd from tbo office of presi- 
dent of congTi^aa, in tho eipectataoa of bciuf; appointed to 
negotiate n loan in the Xcthcrlan<l^ Till inonuy ooald bo 
borrowed, paper ^rm die only rosouKe ; and the wants of No- 
vember and Deceroijer required on emiuIoTi of mher more 
than tirenty milUoniL The debt of tlie ITuif^Ml SuteA, in eur- 
nrncy and in aTtiflcales, wan p«4iiiiAled at one hundrvd and 
forty milliriiu. Thir mntinttiiud lulb aUvadjr exd^nded one 
Ituiidrcd and eix tmllwca of dollAn* and Iiad fallcti in toIoo to 



2H AITBRICA LS ALLIANCE WITH FRASCE, m'.iT-s cm. 

twenty for ono in siWcT ; yet ^oogrcm miuntAiDcd '' the oer^ 
taintv of ihoir redemption.'' and resolved — ^^MQuol Adoim ttid 
sijc othiM^ diHHjntiii^— " thn! imy octntnuy report w lalao, iod 
doKt^atoiy t'J iu tonor," To mnko ROf**! tho proiuic^ thd 
fttatei were Invited to withdiaw s\x millions of psipear doDara 
arnuaTly for eighteen yenrs, Ix^iiciDg witU tlie y^vr 1750- 
The ineaeuro wtw ^il^rip^l )yy Pimiwrlvaiiiii antH th^ utatr* north 
cf ii^ i^iJciHt Die ecruihein aUUift. 

The expenses of the ^v&r 177f^ ito &r ai they were defrayed 
bj congTces, amounted to Aucty-two fttid a nzth millioiia in 
pAper monej-, bi^dej more than eigbt^'-four thouftftiid dolbrs 
in spcdo. To^ntrd the cxpoiucA of tho comiiij^ joor, nothing 
foTtljer ^03 done ^loii to itLVit« the at^tee to cc^&tritnite fifteen 
r[^tiotiK in ]Ui|>er, oqnal En ppecfe to seven hondred thottond 
doUiiis; Init, ns tlio pajTmntrt depended on tlic good-vill of 
each s^ipantto etate^ very Utile of ttiis modeiute nsises&Tnent 
nvu^lKvi t)ir iiatiifm^ Intjiiniry, Aiid lJii*n» vtm no ti?ii»iiruj hut 
ill IKTW itULiwioiiM of nottw ami Iohq cort^iicatoe* 

Private reports from Anierlcan rofuf:o<», seeking the favor 
of the Icing of I;ng:lAn(t, pcnMiadcd tiomifUTi that tbo cause of 
t!ic United States wc^uid Bhare the wreck of their financ<«; bat 
Le knew not bow to concillalc proiinoes that were wceiy of 
war, HOT to moa^iiru the t4-nucity of Uie pnfsive rcntutaneo of % 
deturminud p(?*iph», and hf* «y«to[natirHlIy noiif^ht to enbdlie 
lh*?m by terrr.ir. The refugees, emboldened by the powerlcift' 
iKviHiif rJiiijfmw arid rmljittrAv] by lU lulrirtf Ui ilw ivvvnl 
«tjitc-j( Uy coTifi«cAte ttidr propt^rly* tlironged tlie anteclrambor 
of the uijmHter U> tlrv bta vt^i^fiil pa»ioiu hj thdr crvrn, !□ 
Xow York thcro t^mng up a doable «ot of counecUork Clin- 
ton rcpreeecd the oonfldenee of the eecrttuj of etatc by faith- 
ful reportt of the inodoqnaoy ol his 4rmy : on tho other hand, 
Williani rnLnlclIn, hto f-ovemor of ^ew Jonoy, aiming at the 
powier and emoIuiTicnte to be derived from an appointmeiit aa 
the liead of a aeporato orgonbation of lL>yaliRia, propoeod at tto 
ililHinilt UfiV to rediiee and retain one of the middle pixivitioea 
by han^ng or exiling all Itarelbtdft^aikdoon&catinir their cMMei 
for the benefit <rf the friendt to gorcrament Wiser partieuta 
of Great fiHlain reprobated "the deeCre ot continuing the war 
for the eake of wv/* mi foretold that, ahould ^* the lucxle of 



im- 



AFtm TOE FI££NCU ALUAKCE. 



595 



<lov»«tutioQ )>o odoptodf tb^ bicafis of gnn^rDniont muFt bid 
mltsu Ut all hopee of ejvr agaia living in America^" 

Tlj€ J^ntiftli gained ntinifrou* rccmii* fr*>m immigrants. 
Cultiratod men of ilio Koman churcfi gave hearty eupiKNrt Co 
the canao of indopoadciLCo ; but the ^^roat iuobs of ita mcm- 
boiY, w!iO w«ro tlMJU Inil aWut oiio in tajvonty-tivc uf tlio |K)pU' 
Ution of tiio Uritdd Stntc^ and wcmi ciiietlj n&w ocondra in tho 
middlo stated, foUoired tliQ in^uenee of the J««aita» tn vlioed 
tiandN tlie dir>*4^tioEi of the CitEliulicH iif tlu tTniUn] 8tdU« ttiU 
rem&inod, nud w1ic» cberifihcd batrod of Fnnce for \mr sLore 
la tliQ overtlm^w of tbeir onler. la I^uladtilj>}ita IUwvk hv\ 
been ftb]« to form a re^meat of Roiaim Cntholiot. IVith »ttll 
better bucocbb, Ulinton courted tho Iiwh na Irwhmco, They 
had fied from niok-rentuig landloida to a country trhich ofiorod 
thorn toeholds. By Hutcoriujc thi^r natioii&litj and tUttlrNoiuo 
of the importamoe attacl;ed to thoir nninben> Clinton allured 
thmii, alika CatLoHca and rroCeBtant^ to a combfiiatiou direoUy 
ftdrMN to tfacir own intcnsift«, uiid nuMil ioT Imt^I ItAwdoTi ft 
hrgb n^nicQt in vluch. t^fHccrs and m\sn, including ncofly fivo 
tjondred da«rtera from tlie Amerlcau army, wore eAchiHivtJjF' 
IHjOi. 

Yet the ilritiah i-cDcral U^gcd far behind the toquiiemcnta 
of QflnDoin, who couutM upon ten tkouaand proviudol Itmo^ 
and vifibod *^A moDiior of vror botrcr ealcttl'itcd to nioko tlie 
peoplo fool their di^treeece.^ Tho Jdnpf bebcved that **tiiio 
^lonIc« muitt tooQ sao to the motlur country for pordoiL" 
But Clinion, obeying peremptory hutniciaoiiUy beforo tlic «m] 
of the yejir moti reluetantJy detached tiuve tJiouHUid men for 
thi> iMnrjiirrt nf Georgia, oiid t«ii itgirrnTiitH fyr w'-rri<^ in tho 
Viini Itidicti. JIbi auppliee of lueat oud bread, for vthiok ho 
d^)eDdcd oa Ktiropo, \rcro pnKnrioutft; hiif luiIHiry chcet vaa 
empty; and the inhAbitAnte of N«v Teak, mtndfid of tLo 
hoar when tho city vrotild be giren up^ wero uDwiUing to lend 
him tlwir «pccio. ** I do not oomplaiot^ co he WTot«; in Deceai< 
ber to the sectcCaiy of state ; ^ butt my 1»^ do not let anything 
be expested of one Qirctungtanocd oa I anL** 

On tlio oilier hand, AmoHco, notwitkstanding the wnnt of 
efficient govenimeDt,fet no narrow houndB to its oepiradoiu. 
Sonuiel Atlaitiji, iit1<tring tlw iMjpiilur nriLtltiKTDt, vrmtn frum 



S^g A^mOA IN ALLIANCE WlTn FRANCC ir.lt,; Mim 

PlitlideTphia : ** I hope wo »hnU nxniro to Uie UuiUxl Sutei 
OuiAtIn, Tlova Sf^iitiat, I'lwida Uji>, and (he fidiHr^', bj our 
ttrm« or hj itvAty. Wo dmil never be on » nolU footing till 
Great Britain cfidce to ue, or ve wrcet irota bo/, viiat nature 
dodigiiii y^^ should liAt^c/' 

Ftom Boston, d^Khiain^, in tbo nomo of hU kin^, lud 
Sttjnmonod tlie Cuudiana to thr-nw olf British mie ; LafajcttOj 
tn Dooember^ exliorted *'lJa cbildrec^ tlie aavagca of Cmu- 
d*." to look upon tlic EnglfiJi a* thf^ir ciiennivt, Thm en- 
coura^^, oongrese, without connLlting a single uiiHtaty num, 
formal H plun furtlie "^eniaueJimtiDii of CuimU" in co-opera" 
tion with an aimj cf FranccL One Amcnua detaclumrtit 
from Pittabnrp was t*^ capture Detroit; anotlicr from Wjo- 
min^, N]u^;nr<i; a tiiird from the Moliawk river, to MISq O^ 
wogo ; a fourth from Xow England, bj wnj- of the St, Frfta* 
OB, to enier Monti«fll ; a fifth to p^iianl tbo approvhot ficm 
Qitcbco ; wbUo to Fnmoe rnu A«£!gtiod tbo offico of rodncing 
Qneboc niuj TT&Ufix, I^fn^vettt; would willingly have u«cd lu» 
tnlluenre at Vereaill^ In fdvorof tbe ouk-rpriNc ; hnt Waafa- 
inglnii Hlirrwi-^il haw Cur llm ^wrt nvj^rvud for ihtf United SlUM 
went beyond their resoarce& 

The t^ini of mdtp«ndenee grew in ntrenglb. Tn almost 
■11 port* of tbo countr)' the inhftbibints were left toplotif-b and 
plant, to flow and map, without foor. On tbe planuti^^iui of 
Virginia tl»e abundaiil prodnet^ of labor wcro beupod up for 
exportation along tbo bonk^of her navigable watom In all 
yew England, eoed dmo and barvo^t liad not M\ed ; and tho 
portc of ItffliwicltiivettJt gn;vr opinlcnt liy eoitimercc 

For want of a goTemment, this boiindle4s hope of a young 
iind rcAolntn pi!i>pUi iHnibl luvrr. no HMiijHirt ii^ itrf;nn'M*it\ fiireaw. 
The ami/, of whkb tbo htwd-qnartere wcro at MiiJdlebrook, 
wm cHicninped for the winter so aa to fonu a lino of ob^n-a- 
tion and d^enc« from tlie Connecticut «liore of Long IMaud 
Sound to tbc Delaware For the convenience of forage, tbo 
four regiment* cf oaToliy were diatributed among tbc atale« 
from Connoeticiit to Vtfginia. Tbo troop* wxiro buttod a« tX 
Valloy Forge ; diej ^nffi?r^ extrmne dutrac* for wjuit of food ; 
but» through importationi from France, they Trero beifor clad 
tliiui cwr [K'fom, OiluwrH in great naxubent uejv (^uitliTig tlio 



ITTBl 



AFTER "nffi FnEKCn AIUANCE. 



2W 



Kcn-ice fnirn alwiTutc nccewit}-, sni ihon vfho remdncd vcnj 
Binkiiig iiito poTortj ; irliile t)i« men grow impatient lutder tiicdr 
prir&tioiia und iTrUit of pa^v. 

A^d t-ct tJio Uriiiah nUdc tie progrce« in rccovoniig iLcir 
coloikicfl. iDcal(<nJ;LbIo etie^ lay in reeerrc id the bMes ukd 
iti thi^-ir uUizun« iiuLviiiiullj, TliOQg^h congrcM poitMwd HO 
cffix,<tiv<i mcuia of ftren^hening tho rcj^lar ansj, tlun* oouM 
BJwajs be aa a^jteal Xfy the mlUliB, vbo were Ihe people Id 
armsL Tli« HLn-^igtl <tf iiHtric^iUn^ Kowovcr it might ieom to 
dumlfor^ wu n^ody to brenk fortb id ovcry cnaie of dniigor. 
lite peopk never lost buojiint ^fHreUfta«e, nor tlje rcadiocM 
to tnaift McriGcee for the ptiblic good. 

Congrcj» brought forvrard no propooitioD to «lotho tho 
imioD with powers of i^oor^oo, and by choice devolved tho 
chief executire power upon thoir cooftitw-ntiL To tbo Hporalo 
»tttto« it WM loft to enforco tho embnrRO cc th» wcport of 
provisions ; Co euiolion tbo stjixore of grain and flour f:>r the 
armj at oituhlLtliiHl pHc««; to funUftI), aiid ii% grext jiorl to 
tnpport^ their qnotu of troope; and to colhxrt tho gmicml 
rvToui^ 60 far ae iti <x>UeoUoii vraa Lot voluntai^'. Eaeh 
fitato gOT^mmont vnui dmrcr to itic inluibitooto than tho gcnonl 
gOTemincTit ; the one vrsa cicoUent, tbo other indioate and in* 
Qompetocit The fonucr was Muiolitiod by the tooniiorjcs and 
aflncbmenta of ^enoraitoiu ; the Inltor Iwd no Mnwiatioof idth 
the pwt, DO tTAditioDfi, no inherit^ affeattoiL The suto^ bad 
power wfaldi thejr oxcrvt»ed to rai*c taxoa, to pledge and l:eep 
fsitl^ to cstibiiKh onk-r, to admini^^er jnctiro through able and 
Dpright and luuned oourts, to pniteot liberty and proportf 
and all that ia dbar in mx^iul Itf*? ; tlm vh\t*t ur!fa of congma 
vcre ocdy propoaitioDa snd promisee. Tho sUtca wcra tiwy 
wl>orc lepfetented bj civil ofl^ccra in their emph^ ; congroei 
had no magistiatca, no eoojta, no executive agcnta of tta own. 
Ttio tendcn^ of tho general govonuncnt waa toward uUor 
hotpIeESUoea ; to that, not from intention, but from tho oamrnl 
eonrio of political dcvcl^^pnwnt, tho ipirit and the habit of 
Kcparati^m ^r^vr with ovory year. In July 1776, tJw tTnilw! 
8ta1ei (h^ebuvd tlt*?itifl«]vt'K to iiave oilled a **iH?ople" into 
beSiig; attbf^ctulof I7T8, <yxign!»t Icde^v no '*p»N»p1tt of the 
United Stata^'but only " inbabitanu." The Dam€ of ''the 



)8 AHEIUCA IN AIXU^OS ^riTH FBAJSOE. xr.iT.;ca.itzr 



UiuUnL Statr^*' l«gaii to gire place to that of "Uw Confed- 
erated titatcsp" cTcn before tlic pliraffc could prctcod to Lvb 
torio Tflliditv. The attempt to fomi rc^mcata directljr br the 
Unirod Stdtcft oompku^ly failed ; and each atato moiDtaanod iU 
scparato line. Thuru ^vre Uurloeu dirtinet eovercif^tlcs and 
thirUM'n onuiaa, tnth bcatc^I/ a ^jicbol of tiatioiial unitj cxct]>t 
in ibi^ liigbuut offleefl. 

From T.lnT liP-glit <if hU ptwitiori, Wellington vm tbe firrt 
keenljr to feel Aiid cteartj to Jeclaro tliat edeieiit power nnut 
be LiifiiM^il ittht ihc gvni^TuI gdvommt^it. To BonJRmin liar- 
rieon, the president of the Ikoufc of biu^gcacs of Virginia, lie 
wrote from i\td camp in Uec«mbor ITTS : *^ Tlie Atatv mp9t 
mtdj arc too mucb cuga^l m thuir loeol conoon»i Aud have 
too numy of their abloet moa vritluUuwn from tha geuoraJ 
eouficU for tbo good of the oommon veaL Our political lyB- 
t^m TOAy bd coin]>ATvd to tho mocliiuiiimi of a clo^ and vre 
fihoold derive n lesson from it ^ far it fltewora no good porpow 
1o Iccop tliu Hniiillur wliaeb in orJt^r if the groatca- one, whicb 
ie the sTipport and pnme mover of the vliole, is uogWted. 
If the ^reat whole is mismajia^ed, tha itlatea hiilit tiliulljr 
niiiit eink in the general wreck ; in cSecting m great a rcrolv- 
tion, the greatest abiiitjci! and the mc^t hoDe«t men our Atueri* 
can world affords ought to be cini^oyod." He eaw "America 
on tlio brink of*' dotmction; her ''common intoru^ if a 
idtnedy were not soon to be applied, mouldering and fdnkiDg 
tnto irretrievable rnin/' "Where,'' »afd he, ''are Miuod, 
"Wythe, JoffoTBon, Nicbolnf, PentUcton, Nelwiu, luul Kiiother I 
eonld nanwi" He pleiidw) for ''the tuoiaenleuB ooncemsof 
iLu ompiro,'* for "the great buMmeicf of a imUmi.^ ^71w 
etatai, aejriuate]/" Bueh w«re his words, "ani too niccb en^ 
g^^cd in tWr locnlconcenia;'* acd he nerer oeaaed luaefforta, 
by coriTefiation and correepocidencc, to train the etntcnncD of 
ATcena^ oipec^j of Ids bebved native common^rcalth, to 
the work of cuutmcttng the real union of the etatea. 



ma 



&?Am AND TOfi DAOKWOODSMEfl. 



299 



CHAPTER XX- 



TOB xsra or spact bapficd ht tqi: oAdcwooDituex cm 
vuuixu. 



TiTK Catholie kin^, wkoiw public d^bt u ^o^ iuuiuaI d«- 
ficit wae TRpidly incroaeiBg, n}Coi]cd fK*m war, anil, aWvo bU, 
from a v^r which waj3 leadiDg to the {rretriBvnble min of the 

Tlio nmnagcniiHit ei it« foircigii dG|Hni<]ciicie«^— col^niw 
tlie>' oonld not properlj be nauwd, nor oould Spain bo callod 
their mother countrj- — vnjn to that kingdom nn object of ntver* 
sleeping; enspjcaon. hoightcncd bj a comcioti^nGBa tbat tho task 
of Kovoming them waa bo}^niid its ability. Tlio total number 
of their ininbitAntM ^ntly eitooedod iU own. B,v tboir very 
ext«^t« ^mbracin^. n1 lcn#it in theory, ftll tho I^^dilo oOftBt ot 
Aioorica, and all tbe land west of the Mis^aalppl aiid all 
T^onifihaij^ it (vnitil Imvii qj* ivicuro fwllng of tb^^tr gnbnrdina- 
tnon. The reuiotenesg of die prorliuses oa tlie I^^IHe «llll 
mocB weaktriied iU Mijnvnior^j^, wlucli woh lunrbcnr onnfiniu^id 
bj a ccmmon Inngongic or fiilimtioi of mco ; by the joint |k>«- 
soodon of politick nght«> or inbred lovaltj* The cooncetioii 
botwGon rulcra and ruled wba one of force aJonc; and llie 
fon» wu foobto and procAriou«. Di^ntut markod tho poljcj 
of tlio bovne ^voremment. even toward tbora of Ito oflSoIab wlio 
wero nattvea of S]>ain ; «till more toward llio Crcoloc, at tbe 
offspring of Spaniardt iti Anieirica woi« called. No attempt 
had been made to bind die uihid of tbe old raoea, except 
tJirough the Itonuii ruKgioti, wbtcb waa introduood by tlw 
«word and nainUined by Enclhods of aaperrtilfon. Tbcve was, 
perhaps oerer a time wbctL the inr^rir of aonkc one of tine 



300 AMERICA IS AIXIASOE WITH FRASOE. m'.iT.;c«.»; 

BGtui-barlMroiux nntiruw wlio fr>nuocl tli« Itjlk of tiw poj 
tton waa oot wmcwiicro heard. The ro&traiutfi on coimnorco' 
proroked muimuro and frauds, 

Moroovcr, oil tlio vorid woa becoming inipaticiLt tlut 
brgo A iMrtion of tlio gl^jibo slioulrl bo monopolbsed by a 
crepit dvnasty. Tlw I>ut<]h &nd tlio BritiKti und ilio Froiidii 
sought €pp(iTtiinfties of illicit tmde. The British cut down 
fiirmt-lmtiH, useful li: Iho wiirloJuip mid tlit* d^t^liuuMS, uiut 
pArriod tliuin olT ws imupjntipriated product* of natiins. 

Ti> tlicso daBfiers ChArlce ill. Lad addtd aiwiUier by tnnk- 
ing war to Uto deixth on Uie ao cillcd oonipany of JoMitf. Of 
the prelates of ISpoJR, Bcron ardibishope and twcDty-aif;bA| 
tiieho^ two tiurda of tlic^m oil app^>1'od 1h<> txHc of diftj 
cnior from hift douuiiions, and ^ccoInInond(^d it« total dijscoh^ 
don; vfIAXq only one bishop desired to 'preserve it without 
rofono. Wiib their concuirenoo, and tbo support of Fmi< 
And PfirfiigiLl, lit; trxtiiiiiM] thr? lUMint <if fhn pojx^ to tlio ftboK*' 
UoEi of tlio order On the BEoond of April 1707, nt one find 
tltr Ewuo hour in S]):uri, m Uiu north Aiid nuutli of Afrii 
ILL Ana, in America, in all tlic islands of the monajx^by, 
royal docreo waa opened by officlala of tbo cr4>wn, cnjoli 
thiom tmmcdiatoly to toko potiOtttiOD of it» hou«M> to cliAie iti 
membora from their convcnte, and irithia twenty-four boiuv 
to trftn»port th«JU u priaonon to toinc appointed harbor. la 
Spnin tlio Jc4iuit pnc«t«, without regard to their biitli, c^lucft^j 
lion, or iLj^. w«ire sent on boaM shipfl to land whens they could. 
Tho coniiiiiuult woro ftjcfieuted hm perfectly fn Uexioo and 
California, and still len bd dong the ^ulh Paci£o coMt 
thv wsl£^ of the Iji Plata. 

But the powor of Spain in America tiad rosled In a 
meftKuro on the nnweaned Bcdvity of tho J<miit« oa 
niioa and tOMhcra Aud organiuis of the nativo populatii 
Tboir buuiboiGDt weakened her tnthority over Sptmiali 
f^rant^ and confased tho minds of the rudo pn>j^my of 
al^ori^nei. In Pora^iar, where Spanlab aaprpmncy had 
od nlono on Jevuitjt wlirj liud held to tlieir ban<U alt the att 
butas of CfetoT and i>opis of tiato and chnHi» tlto rcvoliitit 
made ft fnu^tnre Omt ut<ver could be hcnlcd. The indt 
doDOC of die United S\aUm tlircntenud & very r^ dan^ 



177a 



SPATir AND Tire BA0RWO0D5VKK. 



801 



ull tlie lionndtcM vtco-rcipJticft of Spun. As thoy liad beon 
von h^ adventuraufi leaderaf ao a priest, an aboHginal dilef, a 
de»c^niJant of au Idi^ m!g:lit wakuu mny of tiiriti fnO ilnfj tlie 
BpnuuH rale. Jcnuto might ^Tid sliclC^r union^ their iteo 
phytes. and icappcor aa tho guide* of rcl^eUioo, Ouu of (In:ir 
order haa writUm: *'Wben Spain loro eyu;g;clinxl Uborcrs 
away from tbo coloruot, tho bmth of indopcDdoDco ag^ta^ 
the y«w World, and God permitted it to deUch itaelE from 
theOiA"* 

TI10 TTiniid ^tiiti^ i)id tKji nu^n^lj lliroftlvn to hold the left 
Tmnk of ihn ^ri>Kij4>l])]ki ; Init, hh rpidi^iilc diflefiBe Wpa myvterl' 
oufily oTor mountains and acroas oceana, s|>DfeH uf dtH(»Miti<xit 
tnig^ bo unaccomiUhlj liomc to tlic mnny-torgncd pooploA 
of South America. ALEonng promiacAof weakening iiritftin 
cculd eootho I'lorida Blanca no moro; and, from the timo 
when tho court cf Fnuicu roaolv^ to treat with tho AmcricooH, 
Lm pn>p!njtic foar* wviv iiovur alLiyed. 

Early in the voar liTS Juan de MiraloZf a Sj>anish omto* 
aary, ttj)|>e;Li^l m riuliutelpbia. Not oocreditod to oragron^ 
for S|Kiin would not rvi^ii^iiw tJiat body, he looked upon the 
rui&^ rrputiUiT ^ a imtural euern^ to \m country ; and through 
the Frcf:ch nuTiitit^r, with whom ho had u yet no anthonied 
connootioiu he Gcm^ht to raise up obstaclce to its progr«& 
He OBIDO OB spy and an mtr^oer; nevertbelcea, oongroM, u-ith 
unsnspocting ooniidGiica, ^cl<iomcd hici la tlio roprooontaCtTO 
of ao intendod ally. 

G>unt Hontmorin, the French ombaaaador at iladrid, bad 
in hb 4*hLldh»(id hv*>n a pbjmato of the king of FnncOp whom 
fnenil^bip he retained. Aa a man of hoDor, bo desired to deal 
fairly wiUi lljt? TToittTd Stattv, wul hit waltdii^ witli imjiartudiLy 
the- politira of thft Spanish con rt. On learning fromi him the 
separatd dt'Uif-iumatiou of Fniucv to ^pport the United States 
Florida IJUnca ijuiTcnKl in every Umb and could hardly att«r 
a reply. Ever haunted by the ■poctrcAof eoatn^Mod tndop 
Bad of tGrritonal Gcioroutihinents, he waa appalled at die es- 
unpte of Uie Aincticaia a« inMirgimti, and the colosal gtvU- 

* Cli«rW in. H Ie« J6iuilc0 d« k« iutts d'8urvp« d d'Aia6r1qu0 vn ITOT- 

>tutt ■« LimU. 



L_ 



80fi AMERICA ni ALLIANCE Wrra FRAXCK n-.tv,; cm.xi. 

Doea whicli thi^r IndApcndenoe foretolEL ITith rlicoe »p] 
lienfilwis 1ui cambiDod amibtte jeftloiisjr of tbe ^od £utfa of' 
die Frencb, who, &a ft oolooial power, were reduced ta tlie 
lowest rank imiOD^ the nalaoni of wMtcm Europe, vid who 
dOLild rearer their ^luro in ooicjneice ooJj through the min 
9f coJoniAl monopoly. 

"WIictit ir April, ibu Frcneh omboBKidor preteed Fleridft 
Bbnoa to i]^Urd nt wliat opoch Spun woold ODgtj^ io tho 
v«r, tlio minister, bealde himself with passion, eiclaimod l ^ I 
will taki? tit' trptnton of Oi*? t^tig- Since April tif bitt year 
France liaii gone roiint<tr to our lulvicv.. Thr king of Spain 
meiuft to lie locikeil u|>od a^ a viceroy, to wbom yxm put quu^ 
tioDB i» if for bifl apinion, ajid then fldiwi order*. The Atii^ri* 
c&a deputies arc trcEkted like the ltom:ui coiurols, to whom the 
ki&g» of the Eiiat oomo to bo^ support* The umoimoomeniof 
youp treaty with them ifl wcrt!i_y of Don Qulj[ote,'' The firrt 
wieh of Spain was to prevo^it the eolf-exieteDCG of the Uuited 
SCitiis, and. as mediator, to dIeUle the terms of their ao&om* 
modation with tln^ir moth«tr Lv>Liiitrj-; if ihU ww no loii| 
poadbta, shi? hopiTid to be a.h\« io concert in advance with E119*' 
biud how, tu the vegollaLloii for i^eatt, to uamiw tluiir domain 
and rrcot liarriem ngainri tljrir ainbltion. Xo BOon«r had 
LouJB S.VL and hUeonndl rvolved to brave England than 
thoy mode it their parunoimt object to roooncile the S] 
king to their mooflarca. Hi§ need of protection, hianxpootj 
for thd elder branch of hie family, and &ouie ri-moante of lan* 
Gor o^oat England, ooncurred to bind him to the alliaiice with 
Fivico. Mfjr(w>vi?r, Florida BlancA, who from tlie dmdgeiy. 
of a provinctAl nEtomoy Tiad riaen to be the chit^f mliiljiter of 
a world-widt; em^Href L;id a p:i«ti[iiri to bii fnmot^K in hiAOwn 
time and in lii«tor\\ and w^ therefore willing to jdn F^ot, 
la the war, if bo coxdd but mcunr? Spain RgnioNt the Ub!I 
Stotca. AroidiDg an immediate choice between peace and war^ 
he demanded the poetpouemcnt of actire he«tilitiue is Euro- 
pean watcn that ho might gain free aeopc for treating with 
England. Britain wai unprepared. Tho French were ready 
for action ; yet they consent^ :o wait for Spain. 

To aacertain tlie ^trongth of the flo*t at Bn«t, a BritUh 
Ilwt of titrfity shi^K of tho tine pat to sea under Adminl'j 



L 



ITTBL 



SPADf AXD TEE BAOSVOOD&HKN, 



803 



Kcppol, «> WftD kiiOTv-n to po#t<jrity hy tho ponoil of Roynolda 
and tbd ivordB of Ettirko. On tlio sev^itwnth of Jtitie, mee^ 
ing two French frigstes near clie ialand of Oneataat, Keppal 
g:4Vc ofi!iir» llml i\wy tlwrnld bring lo, Tln^j" mfiiwil, Onoof 
theni, being tlrccl into, discliarged iU bro»d«idc nnd then low^i 
csrud iU flag ; tJie other eecaped. The ^^imcb goremment, do 
looker able to remain innoTivo, antbori;»xl tlic coptorc of Brit- 
iah mtrcluDtmi^ ; and carJy in July its great floot eaibd <mt 
of BroaL Koppo3 put to ew once more* On tlio twenty- 
fiovonth tho two adaiiinl*, ooeli huring tliiity men-of-war in 
ChroQ diflsioiu And osieh profoMlng tlio dot^rmmAtioD to Sgtit 
(L dedslve batlla, met off On«Asaikt. D'OrTUHers we^ better 
Rttoil forft mntiHKfi-ry tlimi f(irt)io(|UArterMWk; ntiit ihnBntiflh 
adimral wanted ability for so great a oommand. ASt&r an in* 
Hi^iificant action, in wMch neitbcr parly lost a elilpf the French 
rotoinod to Brtrt, tlic British to PortsmonUj- Tlio Frcnclt 
army encamped in JJormandy under tho Count dc Bmglic, aa 
if to invado England, and waatcd tlio aoaaon in caba}& In 
Indin, Chjmdoniaeor on tbo Uoogloy «ammdorod to tho Eng- 
Ueh without a blow; thej^ovotnorof Pondichonj, withafoehlo 
gurrtMQ and wciik dofvtie«s maintained a idogo of Mvcnty 
days in tlio vud hopo of relief. The flog of tlie Bourbons dl»- 
appflareJ from tho gulf and Aea of Bcn^^ and from the cojiat 
of Malatxir. 

Florida Blonca proposed to the Dndtli nuniet^^r at HadHd 
to obtain a cweattou of hoatlliti'^ in order to eatabtiah and 
perpetute an oqnilibrium on tho continent of America. This 
was an offer to eeonre to En^^and the baatn of the St Law- 
rence^ with the territory north^woet of the Ohio, and to bonnd 
tlio United States by ^jo Alle^baniee. Lord Weymontli an- 
fwered ^ that, wbDo FMoee supported the oolonW in rebellion, 
no n^otiAtipn could be cntTred into;^ bvt, aj* both Great 
Britiut] and Spain were inlereated in pvioservin^ colonial do- 
pendeoey, lit? invitutnl Sikiite to an idlianoe. 

Bpain vna nnpreparod for war ; her ahipa were poorly 
anned ; her aiMiiaid ill oni^lied ; and few of her oaral oSeera 
wero ^Iful : y£;t Florida Bhinca threw oat liinta to l^nnco 
that he would in October bo ready for oetion, if abo would 
undertake a dOMest into England. To the BritiaL propoeal of 



in unancra he returned n more fomul o9er o{ mt&M&m 
twiM^ii tlitf two bel£ig«re9its» vith fjie ftvowd tint the Id&g 
Spain would be foiofid to ahooM liifl port if tli« mr aliould lie 
oontinuod. 

AVe^-uuoutU, in October, waminj; Spain of tbQ latal couso- 
qnwi9o to tlio Spanish monaroUj of tiio independttico of iho 
Uoitud Statc*> put tlio propwid luclde- Yet Florida Bltnoft, 
amtiDtied to fil) the courts of I'^urope witli thu dEcTaratioH tJfcat' 
Spftin wuiild auver pn»4.<dt» Kn|f1iitid in nrcoguiaiiig llwuujiB- 
mta eicititciicc of her coloitii*. 

lu Uiift ftUle I'f the reUfiocLi bctwoen the tUxoe great povrem, 
coA^r€», tircO of the didien^ona of rival comnLimioncn, omj 
the fourteenth of Scptcmbor, with the cor<iiAl ftpprov&l of Johii; 
AdELini«, jilH>lidlio<i tho jomt comiul^ju and appoiittod Fhinklitt' 
tbcir niiniet&r ploDipotcntiary iit the «oart of Pnm«o, la him 
the mtcrefita of the Uniiod Statoe o1)Uin<td a »<roii6 And w«lce-j 
fxd gttardiitn, who penetrated the wllei of the Spanlflh govonw* 
munt^ juid kriuw ]u>w to vunUi ildeKl^ to the Freueli ullij 
wUh titiiely vindication of tho righUof Aiiicnc^ 

" I olntTve with pain," so reported Count UonlmoHn in 
October, vid 00 lie vtoa obliged coutinmll/ to report of the 
y^mifpBt branch cf the houeo of iiourbon, *• that this gorem- 
ment ringnlftr-ly fears the provperitj and pi'ognea of tiie Aiuu^- 
iCEUw; and ^1 bo macli inolinod to itipukto for ft;ie!i a form 
of independenoo a^ may loave divigir^m between £nf;la&d and 
ber colonleB." To chla end I' Ijzirida Bl^moa widied England to 
retain Cunftdn ojul Nova Beotia^ that tliv^ might prove a poroi 
ELial Aourcd of qiiarrela betwuen tlte Britwh ai^d tho Amerioanftii 
" On our »ih%" wnrti? Yfrgcuiua* niimiltAui^ufdj, "Ihero wil 
be DO difficulty in gnajsnteoiug to Enghmd Canada and 
other AniRriom pcttMMDOna which may remam to her at tli 
pc^c. Tho idoig baa rocc^iwd tlio Uiirteen ptoTiocee oiMl 
free and independent etated; for them we Sfib indopendcncefl 
T>nt witljout eorapToheading otLor Kugliiib pofiBoediona. W^j 
ore veiy far from dedrioft that the naKffni republic eboiJi 
remaia the exdualve inktreeB of ail that Immenie oonti- 
iienL" 

The Freneb minister at Philadc^lpbia n^ougly nrged 
bera at am^nv» Uj renoiinoi ever^' aiubilluii for iul lucraitt of 



irr«L 



SPAtN AND TOE BACKWOOMMEK. 



dOS 



territOTj. Gouvcmcnr Morris Awontod to tho nc<c$aty of % hw 
for Betting a limit lo American dominiou. ** Unr ompire," 
Boid Jay, then pn^idbui ot conjip'oM, ^ id alivadj too ^mtt to 
be vrcH gownw) ; njij iu ooiu^tntion b ineoikiUuiiit witli t]i« 
paaston for conquetl ; ^ and m ho smokod Ui« popa fit the booM 
of Gerard he warnily eoranionded tliB tri[ile allLmce of Francef 

From tho studj of their fomu of gorcmmciit, VergcnncA 
repreei^ited lo Spuiu tiiat '^ there ^ru do ^niid for aeetng in 
thi« ncir people a racu of conqnerora* Their ropnbtic^^* ho 
Aaid, *^ utJcEB thoy omcaid itd dcffiCt«i wliich from tho divcmty 
and even anta^nism of tlidr intercuts appoan to lao very dif- 
ficult, will nfTV<?r lift anytliiiiff mure tlum a feeWe licdy. otipal>1o 
of little activity.* To allay tbo f»a» of Florida B]>mc4L, Vei^ 
gecnea. in Oct^iber, without demandUig tfie lite oMifidflnoe from 
^jmriif t-j]i]it]«mttid lu Hiv. ortly oimrliLioiiH wlitclt FntiKM; «'iniM 
exact for herself at the peace: the trwty of Utrocht wholly 
conUauvd or nholly alirogate^l; frve^loin to rwtore the hur!ior 
of Diinqncrquc ; Iho con^t of Ucvrfoundland from Capo Bon*- 
vista to Capo St. John, with ijio oxcluavc tidiery from Cape 
Bonavista to Point Rivhc. 

From tLia tJmo Flori^tn BlarioA vroj^ in Damost in ^KBhinjC 
Spain to take part in the war. Uui \u& deiuanda, in eoEnpnii- 
Bon vdth the tiuKleratlon uf Fnmce, were ko cfxtravngvit that 
hii viot iit^uitttfA hUur-tAf to gtvi? them titl^nmce; and fn Xo> 
Tdubcr, baying that (he king of S|Kitn t^imld Jtcit 1m irdiirtw] 
to OQgagd iu the war ^copt for gr&»t uhJEiicte, he p&pii*ted 
VurgcuBos to «i^:gc«t to him the advaiitd^ which Franoe 
wenld bind itfidf to aecuro to 8pain before liat^nlng to pmpo* 
BitioQs for pooca To Mcntmorin ho Torbolly cx]?Lainod his 
domatdt in both heniidphtr^. Ab ro Europo, ho Mid : " ^itli- 
ont Gibnltar, I will nex'or consont to a poaoo.^ *^IIow aro 
ynn to ^n tho plaool** aalted Uoaittaorin ; and bo replied : 
" By deg^ It U iuipoAbiMo ; Giljndtar mii«t bo iak<t\ m Ireland 
or hi Kttglnnd/* M<mtinf>rin ivjoirwl : '' Tho English mnst bo 
n^duc<1d very low before tliey can eede (JIhndlar, hdIbw the 
Spuaiarda fint gi^t poMcmoii of llT ^^ U onr opetnticnu mto- 
oeed,** anflwcrod Ftorida Binnca, " &ig1aiid wtll be compeUed 
to fubecribe to the law that we shall dictnte." At the aas» 



AMEEfCA IS ALUAHCE mxn FRANCE, ip.rr,; 



tiiD^ \iQ f ratikly avowril thai Frnitce niiut undcrtikc tJie iiiva- 
nion oi Orest DriUin alone ; even the junction (^ the fieetc to 
proU^t tho iuidiu^ mufit he cf abort duration. 

Early in Fobnjarj' 177U, T^ayettd, after n abort winter 
po^fog^ fnM^ Boston to Brcet, n^joincl hif fnmilj ftod friends 
HiM dcpaitmv for Aniorica in tlie procediog ycoi', o^pumt tho 
commiuid of Ui^ king, woja atoned for bj a vroek*« 4SxiUf to 
Parie, atiti (.^tin^tKimc'iLt tji t1i<f hoa^u of liU Litbrr-in-lnw. The 
king then ivoeivei] hiiti at VciYaTtle^i with a gentle reprimand ; 
Hw <|necTi aiJdr«f0e(3 lilai it-illi eager cunoail^ : '' Tell w good 
news of ovr dear rrpablicftns, oi our bclorcd AmencAoa." 
His fum^t hxB popularity, tho influence of bia rankt wero all 
cmplc^'cd in bcbulf of tlio Tuitod Stetoe. Aooovtomcd to 
900 f^at intorcgto ^Ti^UiTtcd by «inaU moan^ ho fudged xh& 
prodip:ality which oxpendwi on a eiitf^lo feetiTaJ at coTut a* 
luiich uii would have equipped tbe Amorican omiy. "To 
clothe it^" taid Manrcpa*, '-he wuuld he glad to elrip Vef- 
aiUlW.'* He fonrid u iTiiTUAtry nf^lecihig tho innin quc^on 
of Amrrican indejiendcnOT^ and half nncon^cioije of }>elng at 
w^. TulJic o]jmjou In France Imd \wtw1 abtml, aud awry* 
hody clamored for pence, wliicli wnis to bo lio^tciDcd by iho 
ftctivo alliance with Spain, 

AH tho wbilo tho Sponiidi gOTonuncnt, in it« intcroooivo 
^-Ith EngljLnd, erdnloatly ooutioncd ita cSova of mcdiatJon. 
lA^t ita amhafifiador at London ehonld betray tho werot, lie was 
kept In tIio diu-k. Ixtrt] Gnnihain, flu* BHtii^lt amha«m<lor at 
Jfndriti. was completely hoodxdnked ; and wtoIc home in Jana* 
ary 1 7*0 : *^ I really Itelbve tin* irourt la aiiicrtc in vrlabing to 
hnri^fthont, n pnrifii-atifin.*' At the end of Him'b tJut king of 
Ectglind fitill coidkK-d in the neutrality of Spain. Acting fmm 
her own nitcn^trtii nhinr, Sjmiii cvmJi'd tlic^ qncntion of Aoiirri' 
can independence^ and o^cred England her mediation on the 
haeis of a tniot ci twcnty-firc or thirty yetLT%, to be granted by 
the king of England vnth the coucurrenoo of Spain luid Franca 
Thie offer enllod forth the moit earnest ejpoetQlationd of Ter- 
gamot, till T^>rd Weymouth put it a«ido ; for he held tliat^ if 
inilcpendenc^ wae to bo conceded to (ho no\r ctatei, it muat bo 
eoDCPded "dirwily to congrew^ that it tnfgbc be nude tho 
boHiH of nil tliu udvaiitogM to Oit<at Rntain vrhidi ai divtrablo 



im. 



Sf AIK A5D TDE BAGS WOODSMEN, 



sot 



an olijcct migtit Aotom to bo wortli,*^ Engkmlf in t^hhUitiiing 
iU relaliom vlth AiuericA, wlkithcr jUt ili.<T[x^d(ti»ci(» w u« nlales^ 
Tic«r*"K*{l to iUkM complete freedom, 

Alcantimc, Vcrgcnii<«, oa tho twelflh of Febniwjr, fop- 
warded t](o draft of a convention ^rhicU jiddcd to Sirnin aU 
tliat ftlie i^iuirecl, eicept timt lU fourth urticio xnointoiDod tlio 
iu'lvpciuItTiee of the Uriitod t^tnte^ *' Id respect to tliw " ho 
wrol^^ " our ffiiga^ments are precise, %nd it U not poniblo for 
tiw to rvtract i]ic'iih BfiaEn intist iJmm iliein, if ebe m^cfi eom- 
moa KUHw wjth tw." TcL liic ftrticlo wa* peraifetenlljr cavilW 
at, as in itself oselc-M, and luisplace^:! in a Ireat^v i*f Pmtcc 
\y\ili Spain ; and Florida Bkncji rentJtrltcd ^itlj il]4timior how 
ppcdwlv Ute trwiiy f^piilAt<.^ '•tliat flrraa sbould nut W !nid 
down ''till American independence ahoiUd bo oLtflintd, while 
it oflc'Ped onlyjivagii© proEiiUc"of evcrj- effort "to procure 
the objDcts in whidi Spain wu« intor^i^tdd, "Kffnco the differ 
eaoe/' anawered MontmoHn, " and employ tbe tAme cxjiTvmonA 
for IjT'tli i^tipuhitioTitiL^^ Tlie 8fULul»Ji mmtjttor CAit|;ljt fit the 
nowaiy offer, and in thiit VfjKy it wba agived ttiat peaee Klicmlcl 
not he uudd HttLout tho roBtoralion uf (^ibnUbir. Ftivd Uy 
tho prospect vrhich now opened before bint, the kiu^ of Bpnui 
pictured to lumeelf tbo anuicfl of I mnoe hreakm^ lu uj>cin Uic 
£agU«h at tbi^r Hn^^idos; and Florida Bkiica Kud to JXoot- 
morin ; '' Tbo nom of the niptnro mnt^t boconio Uni koowu to 
the world hv a landinf; bi England. With unioa^ oocrocj, ind 
SrmncKfs va fhdll be ablo to put our «iieiiii«i» tnd«r oar feet ; 
bttt rtodeciMrc blow cuii be ^ntck nt the Engli^ except in 
England llself " 

All tikiK tinuT till? Sji^miB^h mmir4tT:LvnidrHl flxTTigtli^ epoch 
for joint active mcunrof. " TIio dtlav,'' taid Vtrgonueft, *^ van 
ho atiri1flit«Ml oulv to Uiat eptrit of a pettifogger -wlacli formed 
the cwenc« of liia Gnrt profcMion, 1 cr^r otit lc«a at hta re|nig> 
nAQoe to guarantee Ainoric«n independence; to euitabJo coo* 
cee^on&fronitlie Amencandweaegiiredljmake nooppoftition,^ 

DiMiiubg with JbfoQtmorin the iLrtlcIa v^lating to the 
AnMrioari?, IHoridA Blancn ntil: '' T!iu king, my master, viU 
UtiirtT acknowhHlgi* iheir inilGi>endeiice, until llie Eu^i^h them- 
wlv** ttlmll hi'. foiiH^fl ill nifuigtiiw it hv ihis jvocic- TTo feaw 
the ezaaipltr whicb be diould otherwise giro to hia own pas' 



308 ahkSTc: 



ALLTASCE W!TH fraxi 



ap.m;ni.Ts. 



Mttiooi.'* " As wU ftcknowledj;^ tliotr indopenfloiic* u accord 
them aawUUnce," begun MoDtTaorln ; Itut die Riin^Bter cut Mm 
abort, Bajing: ^'N^olHiig wO) (hhuv nf ^^nur itukULing on t!ii« 

Xaw t!]iit no mora was to t>c g&inedf Floridih Bluitc^ mnde 
a draft ol aconvtulion, ^nd euddcnly presented it to Mtmt- 
mco^a, A fcv verbal corroctioDS wore n^rocd upcm, and od 
tlic evening: of llio twolftli of April the treaty wne dj^nt^d. 

By itJH tcmit:, Franoc boimd licrself lo undi^ake tlio mva- 
aloa of Greai Britain or Irelaaii ; if s^u e<jnUI (lrii*c tlio British 
trcoji Kewfonndland^ Ira tiaharies wi?r6 to he ^tiared only irlth 
SpAin, For ttiEUcig l>um^b>i Ut ]m na^iilrt^l {ur hr!nw4f^rth9 
jirumist^ Ut \it*e every eiTort to recover for Sp^D MiDoroa, 
P(^iiNn»la nii(3 Moliile, the Iny of UoDdnraa and the cocutt of 
Oampeocliy ; and the tvro courts bound tbcniAolvc« not to grant 
jHSicf t "'^r tmce, Eor eBBponaion of hostiHtiea^ until Uibmltur 
lilionld be rwitoKid, 

Ti\]tfi cnrvontion of Franco with Spain morjifiod the treaty 
betwe<?n France anci Ameriwi. Tbe AmeHcani varo not bound 
lo eontintte tlie war till Gibraltar sTjouUi Ihj taVcii ; etill leffi^ tiQ 
Spain k1i(»uIi1 liuvr i^jirriinl ant n. piliriy btwtile to thQlf Into 
ests. Tbey gained tbe rigbt to make jjeaoe whencwt QroaC 
BriiAiu woidd reoogniBc tlieir independcnci;* 

Tbo Miai;H^i]i|>i river iA tho guardian and tbe plodgo of 
tbo nnieii of iHia ctatc« of AmcncA. Had tbey been coofiDod 
to tbo eostom £lope of the AUophnnEoa, thuic would have be«tk 
no googrsplilcal nnlty between tbeni. and tbo thread of ootmoc- 
tion boCwoen atatoK tbnt rnt^^^ly frjn^^ed the Atlautio Diurt soon 
bavd been rand^red. Tbe fatber of Hvorv gatbon liia waten 
fwimt nil ibu cJuuilft (but break Ix^twivti the Allftghflltlfn and 
tbe fBrtbcfnt ranges of the Rocky Mountatna. Tbo ri^Di of 
tlio ctutera cliaiti bow tlidr bcuda at the Xorib and at tim 
South; 10 that, long bcforo scioace became tbi; couipaiiun of 
man, nature herself pointed out to tbe barboxona races that 
abort portngot jodn hia trjbntniy rivere to ilioae of die AtlotitlG 
coa»l* At tho other Bido, hia migbtrnt arm i&terloeka wiCh 
arma of tbo Ort^a and \}m CotoradOi and manbalfi bigb- 
waya to t}i« Pacific^. An from tho romotMt •prinjp ho beu 
timt^y wntt^rw to tbe boeom of tlie oceoiij the mjriada of fiigi 



I 



irra. 



SPAIS A1TI> TOE DACKWOOrSMEN'. 



309 



tlmt vTdvc elIkitc them luc Uw eamigne of obo people. StaUa 
laigcr ttian kui^doms floTiruh whc^ro be i>a3Mw; uid, txsiiisitlli 
Uia nU-pT cili<« dt&rt iiito bcuip, more nmrvcllouv iu tltoir nMiUtj 
tlmn tliiA fihloct crcuti<mi< of imcJiaotniciiti IUa tnagniliceiit 
vaUey, Ijittg: in tho beet part of the temponte soqo, «ulubrioii« 
and fertile, is tbo diocen muitorgKHiiid oi the inoflt tiuious 
cLoincntfi of Inimiui culttiro brought tofi^hor by men, flununonod 
from all Ibe civilized nauona of the earth and JLjiiU!(] in tlid 
boudjt of c^onifuciii cUi»?!wliip hy tli« iitlmction of i^ptibliciin 
fren:*iJoni. Xow tliat scjetiGe lias couie to be tiie lioioc^liold 
fritiud uf ttade and commerce and trai^l, jiuid tliat niirun* 1jil« 
lent to ir^ltti aiKl iDtclIcct tlio use of licr coiutant forctf, tire 
billfl, oacc walla of di^OD, are scaled or pk-rc^ or levelled ; 
and the two ocean^ behrec^u vrliidi tlic rcpn]>lic ha.i unvnulnbl^ 
intrenchftd itsolf a^iut the outwnrd world, ara bound LogiMUor 
aoroaa tfao continc^ bv friendly Uuka of iron. 

From die great dc^tiuy fort^told by tlie pOMCMlon of tliat 
riTor md tbo lands wbicb it dmiiWf thv lk»arbon« of Spain, 
hoping to act in concert wll-h Gi-ait Britain m -kvW ai Truxm, 
would bavi! nAml ntii Uic; TTuiU'il ^Uiivi v.vi*j\ on iN cA«t«nt 
side.' 

Wiiilfi tlie absolntt; monarch of tlic Spnntsh dotninion^ and 
bis miBUter thon^^bt to exclude the republxQ from tine valley of 
the Misaifl^ppi, a |>owu' emerged frcm ita foct«ta to bring dieir 
puny policy to nonght. An c&tcrpneo is now to be rocordod 
which, for tlio valor of the aoton, their Sdclity to one another, 
the aeeming fecblencw of tliotr nu»n«, and the great result of 
thtnr tiar^bood, remains forever memorable f& tho hi^torv of 
the world. On the sixth of June ITT^. the emlgnnts to tho 
regSoni wtutt <if di^f I^nuiAii rivrr^ at u gniirTrd iiiiHTUnj^ in Hat^ 
rodrton, elected George Ro^ra Clark* then miilway in his 
twenty-fourth year, uiiil fini? otJicr, to rcprowut tliem in tbo 
aasetnbly of Virata, with a roqac«t that their fctticmento 
might be conatitutod a cotmiy. Before thG>' could croM tbo 
saonntaina, tifo tcgi»latiut3 of Vi^nia liad dochired indepen- 
de&e«, Qflbibliahed a i^ovemmeai. and adjourned. In a htcr 
auakm iLey were not adinittod to aeata In tho booo? ; bnt on 
the sixth of I>eceTiilwr 1T70 tbo wa«tvnimoat pan of the atafe 
waa inoorponUtnl by the Dame of ^ the ooim^ of Ki'-nUKVy."* 



310 AUEPJCA IN ALLIANOK WITC F^AXCB. tr-rv.;ni.u. 

Aft Clark en Iiin rciuni <]c?acTri1(^1 the Oliin, ho Ivnotlcd 01 
the oonqocst of the land to the Dortli of the rircr. In tho FUm*-^ 
mcr of 1TT7 lie ecnt two j-onn^ Imntere to reconnoitre Uio 
Frci3ctt viiln^it in lUinotr; nnd Ofi tlic Wiib^bA)}. 

Id tlio latu^r ]iart of IT'iT Clark t)ok loavo of tbo wooda-j 
men of Kentucky and depojlcd for tbe Eut To a fev 
'Williamftbiirg, of wliom no ctnu fitiowcO mf>n> pertUt^nt xcsl 
tliiLD (.leoTg^ Mhtoii ntifl TWnnw Jtiffi^rsori, hi? ptnpowd as6._ 
crct t-x]>ed[tion 10 the Illmoift. Pfilnok IJeniy, tliegovefTkorf 
tnadc (}iG flnn lil» <iwri ; aiid, u1 lil-i iiutuiK^ Uw Ijouhq of dell 
gaUs, by a vote of vliich " few knew Uic intent," cmpawerod' 
btni to aid ** any trxiicdition a^nat their woatom enaniea^" 
On tLo eccond oF January ITTS, Clrirl: receirvd from this go^ 
tnxoT and council a enpply of moneyi liberty to lovy troopa m' 
any oaunly of VU^Lciia, and written aud verbal uuLtruetSoiia, 
clcthinfi; Inm witli kir^rv diiorctSoTHtrj nndtority to attack tho 
Bridfih domiDion on rlio Illinois ard the Wahasiu HaBienin^ 
U> i^ie froiUi^r, liu uiitihlblied ro^niitli^ jKiTtiaft irotn tlio head 
of the Ohio to the ITolj^on. At T£cd«tone-cild-fortf wiT^h the 
ronlUl aid of IJaiLd. lU commander, he c^JIected Ustt^ Ught 
artillery, ruul fLnin>nn[tic:pi]. It was probably tl^crc tliat he Avt 
with Captain M'illiani Itarrcd and hie company.* There, too, 
he wna overtaken by CuiHain Leonard Ilclm of Fanqnier, and 
by Oaptain Joseph liowman of Fn^dorie, each with Icfis than 
half a company. Thceo and tho ndTentnioiB of hit own enlist* 
ment, to^fJicr only one hundred and flfiy men, but idl of a 
hardy racc^ eelf-T^lying, and tmatiiig tn onv ^motliur, lio was now 
to lend near a tl^onsand niilefr from their funnifr bomee a^nH 
a people vlio rxt^n^lnl tluun in nuinbiT aTuI wiim xifVv! tiy 
merolleas tribee of aavago aOiei* At FortK&nawha. in liay, 
ihey wurr; niiiiforcvd \ry Capt^ ()*llaia and hla eoin]iaiiy. 
On the day cf an ecliprn* of tho nin they ghded OTcr the fallfl 
of tho Oliio, below which thoy wera ** joined by a few Ken- 
tochiana" nndcr John Montgomery, On (ho twcnty-nxtli of 
Jnne, Ckrk and hie ccmpanioniB. yirp:iTiian8 in tbo aemoe of 
Virginia, h^ off from cbe ftXIf^ and, with otus doabte-manned, 
prooe^cd night and day on their ever-mcroonble entorpritt. 

From Detroit, llamilton, tho hedtenant-govemor, eeiit 



I'lb-in^. SPADf AXD THE BACKWOODSMES. 



811 



re<^d«is omeltyvron hi« applaiifie; aud hijscheniod Attempts 
Agiiiiut ibe *' fel>el forts on ih© Ohio/* reljing on iho red men of 
thft pniriit* ami Liu? wliili- nurii nf Vinrrtinnn. Thn rr|hinA s-rit 
to tiemmin mudu liirn Wllt'vc thai tliL' iiitiahiLftntii tif tlifitHrttlo- 
inent, thougli "ft poor peopio who thiiught tbem£clTC« cast oS 
from liii majoaty'c protoction, were fimt in tlit-ir lUe^naiiotf to 
dofoDd it o^ainiit oil oDomioo," find thiit bimdrcds in Pittabur^g 
rcinalnod at honrt iLttachod to tho crowTu 

Ou tbo invasion of Canodji iu 1T75, Carletcn, to itli«rLgthon 
tbo pcwU of Detroit and Niogiuii, li.id wUMrawu tlm unull Brit- 
ish garrison from Kagkafikia^ and the govemment waa left in 
t!Hi liatiilrt (jf Ri>i;Uel>]»v^ 21 FrHiicJiuuui, w!wi hml ukIiIh-t Lrii>[M 
oar moiKj» " I to1i>" lie wnjtu id Fclmuu^ 177M, **(Ko ini- 
tioa ttiigUt QOme to know oae of iU be&t ponoaaionSf and con- 
sent to give it Aonie cncourag^ucnt ; aril hti cutnuted Uenoaiii 
that a lioatcnnct-goTcrnor might bo dc6pal<ibcd vi& a ooon- 
pon^ of aoldiore to roaido in Illinois. 

A|>|>rift«<l of tho oi^nditbn of KiL<bui)cia by a baud of hunt* 
OTB, Clark rati hit boat^ into a. croek a mils above Fort MacsiCr 
r^osed thore bat for a night, and ftunek noroM tbo HUU to tbo 
grcit |ir[UFi«^ Oo Uir tn<iTlc>v pliiin hiK pitrty, **in all about 
one huDdrcd and d^ht^,^ could bi^ iwen for luihA around hj 
oodoEiA of Lidlaua, able to fall on tlicni with tbroo timm their 
Q&iabor; irct tlioj were in the highest ftpirita; aud *'h^ dii 
u neivr a^io in hie life u tlovr cf ra^,^ an intcnfiity of will, 
a K4»l ^r action. Approaching K&BkMkia cm the fourth of 
July ITT^N in clio darknom of evening ht aur|>riMd tlio town, 
and without hloodehod ^xAkh} RochoUarc^ ihc commaDJant 
Tho inltabitants gladly l>ound tliannwlvee to feaity to tbe Unit- 
ed Sutofl. A detachment under Bowman was diea]>^icli<.'d to 
Blabokuiy am] rvc^iv'ed lE«iiubjnu«ioii. Ttic poopio, cf Frt^ncb 
origin ajid fcv In nunibcr, were aT«ne to the domluion of the 
EngU^ ; and tliia dlaaiTectton waa confirmed by Hm A [nenean 
alliuicv witb tlic land of their aDGCrtoa& 

In a long conforcnce, Gibsutt, a Oatholii^ pnosc, diasBided 
Cloiik from moving againat Vinc^^nncd. lli# own oScr of 
mediation b^^ii^ aocepted, he, u-itb a «niaU party, rcpairod 
to tbe po^; and its peoplo, havii^ listened to hia C3E[>Iunaiioo 



3ia AMEEIOA IK AIX!A>XC WTTn FRA?rOB. >^ !».; OtDL 

of tlio fttaUft of ftffdrs, veitl Int^ tbe oJiiirdi and took tlio oortfa 
ftItej(Uiaoo Co tlio Cnitcid Stalut. T)ut ti-:irt?^Hic>T) fmm tbe corn 
don of subjects of a king to that <^f integral membprs cf & free 
fM^ mru3(i UirtiEi new m«ii, Planiuug the ut^jiiihitioii of tbo 
wliole nortli-wwt, thcjr niit bi llui Indiiiiut i*ti Ihi- Wuhai^h fiv-B 
IveltA : a white one for the Kr^Dch ; a red omc for tlio Spaiiiardfl ; a 
bine cn<t for Ametica ; oi^d for the Indian tribea a gr&sn one A4 jlh 
o5€r of pcflcOt ftnd one of tlio eolor of blood if tbcj preferred 
war,withtiuamc«sa;^:^ThokiDgof KronooifloomotoUfo. Wo 
dc^iro yo}x lo lunvo n very wide patb for U8 to pase Cbrough your 
ooniitry to Detroit, for wu axv m^my in nuidbcr nnd wo nnglit 
ebance to hurt somo of joar yrmng pw.pic with otir awords," 

To dui|MjMW'« lliu Amerii^'iijH uf EJit* Jlliituts nmiitry mil 
Vinn?inTicis on thu wvciitU c/f Octtil)<?r Liiiitr-uaiil-Gov^'njor 
Hamilton left Detroit, with re^lars and TolunteerS) and tJiree 
hondrod and iiftjr wnjrloK picked h^ their chiefs OQt of tlii> 
t«€D diiTcrcnt naticnF. On tho ficvctitcc&th of Ucconabor be 
took poaaoe£ioi4 of Fort Vinoeimed withont oppoattien ; aztd tlio 
inbabitantj of tlio tovm rotiimed to thoir iubjootion to ttio 
Bridfih kiDf^, AitvT thifl e3:ploit he oontcatcd bimftclf for 
the winter witli Ktndin^ out partiot; bnt ho annonnood to tho 
8puu<h governor hia purpose oirly in tlic q^rlnf? to recover 
lUinofA; anilj uunfidiTnt of receiving r^inforc^mcntfi, ho tlin^at- 
enrd that, if the SpanisJi oQloerd ^ouM aiTord an asjlutn to 
rebela m anus agtiltini th«ir hi^fwl novrnngii, ha woald invadci 
their tcrritoiy and icixo tlie fu/^tivca. 

lUniiltou vra« metlioiliciil iq hiEi iirie of ludianA* ITe gave 
iifAndiug n^^Ardfl for BcalpK but offered none for pruoocrs. 
Uifi GoniinuouB partiea, of Indian and white roltuitcore, ^parod 
neither men nor women nor children. In the coming jenr ho 
promiAod that as oarly tie pcGeiblo all tho diScront natioiu, 
from the Cliieliaafts nnd Cherckven to llie Htrroua and Ftro 
Kation*, riiould join in tho oxp^dittone Ofnttn^t Virpinia; vliilo 
th^ lake Indians from Mackinaw, in conjnnctlon with white 
in«ii, ngn<iHl u> ih^trny thtu fow n*boU in Jltinoin. Tip nrnt 
oat detactiinente to watdi Kaalcaj^kla and the falla of tlie Ohio, 
and to tntereept any hoattf that uii^bt T«nture up thai riTor 
with aopplioA for the reSck lie never doubted hi* abllit/ to 
reduce nil Vir^nia woet of tho mouDtdi£L 



1779. 



srja:^ axd the baoewoodsuf^. 



SIS 



Id 1T7J), danger liovenjd from evcrv jjimrtcr over Clark and 
Ub por^ in DliooU. IJc hud not, rcocivod a siiigla llnr fmin 
tbo ipovertLor of Virg:mkfor Dc^twelTcmontbs; hia force wa^ 
too small to stand n uc^ ; liid poeitioa too remote for aa&iat* 
flnco. By hu ordciv, Bowmjin of Kentucky joinod him, after 
•vBOuatmg the fort at Kohokii, and pi^)ajtLtionA wc^ mode 
for the defened erf Ka^kaskla- Juat thwi Fmncia A^i^, by 
birth nn Ttalijui nf PltMlnumtf a trmltT of St. Louis, arrlvtMi 
from VlDceiiu«s and guvo infonu&tion tliai HamiUon bad 
weakened himself hv ^endm^ oiit hordot of Inrlijui^; that La 
hod not more than eighty aoldicn in garriaoiu nor more than 
ihroo pacoce of cannon and Mine cmr^U luounted ; hut that ho 
intended to coUcfOt in Eprin^ n ntifflekiut munbcr of mc^ to 
clear tho vfxt of the Americana before the fall. 

With a conra^e aa dcofparate aa kia eitnaUon, Clark r^ 
aolvtfd to attack Hanillton before he could coll in Itit. Indiana. 
On ihi^ foiirlh of Fi'hntiiry hi-t drRjmtrliot] a emaW galley, 
motitittiig two foiir-poundeiii and four fiwfveb, and earryiiig a 
company cf nuya. and mlUtaiy a£on» uni^or f'sptain John 
Rogers, viih orders to aaccad the Waboali, tak^ a t^tltm a 
few inilcA below Vincciuidek eo&r nothing to paaa, and await 
farther mitructiondL Of tho young men of Illmoiis thirty 
Tohmtcerod to bo tho oompaniona of Clark; tho real ho 
uobodiod to gruTivon Ka^kaakia and guard tho difbroitt town*. 
On the aeroncb of February ho lic^^uu hu narch acrofiB tho 
eoanti^* with one hondred and cldrty men. The Inderaenoy 
of tbo Boaaon, high u'ater, imd *'tbo diYm-iied Umk** of tb<i 
^aliodh riTer^ w}doh tbcy woro forced to pass through^ throat* 
ciMfd tJirm with miu- 

At this timo Ilamilton inia planning murdoroiio c;tpe£* 
tSoDft. He wrote: ''JNcxt year there will bo the greatest num- 
ber of envagca on the frontier that Loa eror btcn lotown, aa 
tho Six 2vAtioBa hare facmt belta arourd to encoiunge tkcar 
allien who haro made a p:eDend alliance." 

On the twoa£}'-third, juat at oronlng, Clark and hU com* 
pankna rettcbed dry land, and, making no delay, witli a wMto 
Aog flyinj^ (hey anterad ViiKennea at the lon^^ end of tho vit- 
Uge. Tho town ffurrr^^hTnil witlunil mii<Tji[ic«% anf) on^iitti-d 
in the M^ge uf tho fort, which vaa immediately iuvcat^ The 




3U AUERICA hV ALLUXCE Wrra FBANOE. Br.iT.ica.xz. 



moon woii nvn\ and in tl« dftrtciift» CJurk Ikrev up ui in* 
trcncliinorit wilLlii ritlc-fJiotof tbo fort Uiulvr tJiii protMtiicai 
tlio ritlenicn til^c^d two pieooa cf o&iiiiODf uid, before lli^ 
oloAieof tltu tveuTy-f<>\irth, HftiniltOD and bis gairisoa hutco* 
dcrcd IU4 pruoiiuiv df war. 

A large au]>plj of goodA for tlie DriTi&li force wzu on 
lU way fnnu Dt'troil, SIiLv iiutil, d<T*|)aU^liLil hy Clark in 
boata well moutitcd with kwlvuU, Aorpiiacd tLc convoy foHy 
leagute up ttc river, and mads a pnsc of the wtiole, taking; 
forty prtaoticru. The jo^ of Uid men cf tiie Xurth-wtet vad 
GOtnpUitL'iJ by tLo return of thdr mcflKngor fnitii Yirgtnu, 
bringing fi'om tb« houea of BESombiy its TOtoe of October and 
November 1 ITS estabUflLing t!ie county of Illinois, aud " tbaak- 
ing Colonel Clurk oiid thL* bnivu ofUoer* unil ulod uiuIct his 
oanimand for tlieir extraordinary resolution and penevieranoe, 
and fortliL*itnporUnt»ervioea vrliirli llit<y had tlicruby reijdi<nHl 
their country/' 

Since the time of that vote ihey Lad undertaken a far oiona 
kfjcitnloiift imturpritc. and bad obtoinod pcnnancnt " i>ow90««>oii 
of ail the importaut poete and aotUomcata on the llUiiom and 
HVabash, rescued the inbaUtants in>tn Britt^ ilouiuiion, ortd 
oatftblijJitd civil ^rornmcDt'' in it« mpublican form. 

Tbo conapu*acy of the IndiauB embraoed tbo«e of the Sooth. 
Early In the ^-^ir ITTD^ CIi«rokoca and wairiora from ovouy 
hostile irilxT viintli of tbo Ohio, to tilt? number of a tiioutaitd, 
aweuibled at ('lackauiaug^w To rctilr;un Uaur mvagi^ wlneh 
bad tfjilvndod from Gc<jrghi to Poiii»y1raD]ay tito govc-mntenta 
of Kortb Carolina and \'ii:^nia appointed Kvan Shelby to 
command ubout a thou3aad men, called into WMricc ciiitfly 
frciEu Uio nottlcra bojond tbo mountains. To tWo v«ro added 
ft regiment of twclv&montba men that hod boon cnliatod for 
die reinfoncemont of Clark in Uliooi*. Their cuppUoi aod 
nwBQi of tnmjqK>rtation were dn« to the anvoai^od and nwuX- 
titih pxcrtions of Isaac Shelby. In the middle of April, em* 
barking iu pln^^ncfl and eanoa xl the uiouili uf Itig Creuk^ 
Uicy de^crriidf.^ tlio nvur «o rapidly lu to Bitrprise tb* cara^Hi 
who fled to the hilla and foro«t& Tbcy were pureurd. and 
Bome of their WLUTi»r» fell ; tlicir towns were burnt, their 11l-1*Js 
laid wai-t<;, and thdr cattle drivoi away. 




17T8. 



8PAIK A!n> tHE BA0EW0OD6UES'. 



315 



For tike rest of ihe j^at 1770 lite wtwCern MTtflements eo* 
jr^'cvl jhvlco; and the (rrnitSiniouji 6(iw <if timigratinri tUniug}L 
the rnxmntahm irt Ecntnckj utd the Gouiitrjr cm tho npLttoa 
»o stTcngtliGncd tli&m, tli&t thcj were iieT«r aj;uii in duger of 
boiTig btxjkcn up Ij onjr ftllinnco of Uic um^M ^tK the Brit- 
ish. Tho prowo^e of tbo people wofft of tboAIIc^haniiM, where 
negro alavery lucl oot yel been intiodnowJ an*J every ninii »aa 
in the fall poMCttion oi .i wild I>ut MlfrvtAtriLfiied liLcrty, HtuA 
tbem for eelf-defenco. In tUu y«4r Jaine* I'U>tN?rtAon, with a 
1»Ltti) o? hunter^ touV jxHiLA^iuu of tlid HurpAittJn^j' fertlb 
niuutry tin tlvi Oumlierlaiul rivc-r. 

The regiment dcngnod for tho support of Clark hod bcvn 
diverted, and thua the British gaitied time to reinfciroo and 
fortify Detroit. Ilat Jefferson, then govemor of VirgluiOt 
^To in^tniGtionB to occupy a sUtioD on tiio Mleei^ppi, botwMoi 
tlie iDoutb of rhe Ohio oni the parallel of tlarty-«ix degree^ 
thirty minnnii ; and, in tlo ^ring of l"SO, Clju-kf ehoo^g a 
strong ^d commaiuiiiig situation fivemjlcc below the moutli 
of llie Oldo, cvtnlliiihud Vort Jeiluivun ttt tha wtLtdi ou dio 
&tbeT of rivers. 

In ditf Hutiintifr iif 177^, nuw* wiut mc^tivud of Uta eonqaai 
of tlte BritUh eetllenieDts on the Towgt HisAUsippi. Jaince 
^iliin^ of I^blUiklpbin, % e&pUin in tLe eervico of dto Untied 
Sta1(4» left tJiat city vith abont twea^^eercn tncn, who grew 
to he tntyro than a hnndrcd at tort I^tt and on the rivers On 
die evening of tlio nineteenth of Febroary 177S, they arnvcHl 
at tbo Katehcs landing, and early the next morning «cut out 
eevetnl parllee, wtio almost at the <aiDe manunt made tlie in- 
habfnmtA j)ri«onen of war on parole, bolAed the colors of the 
Vuit^H] Slatt.^, and in their natnp took potwowion of Oie conn- 
Ifj. The Brityi ajjenta, who had t^ikeu parL in ^Jmulatiiig 
tfas awth<wwtem Mtrugiv t<j jirowl or the Amcni^au frontiera, 
escaped in temii' lud in ii^te* 

The frii^ly plantens Ivft onprotected and fearing the ooo- 
fiflcation of their propor^i proposed tcmu of aceoaunodatioo, 
vUcIt Witling readily accepted. Ou the twenty-first^ Ounj 
fbnnnlly pvomii^ on their part in no vfAy to give aialslanee to 
tbo anenuaa of America, and in retnm roeviv■;^d the aSRTance 
of poroteetion duHng their neutrally. From this agreenMOt 



Sie AMERICA IN ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE. tP.tr.lCtLZX. 

ward excepted all publio ot£cdra of tho orown of tiroAt Bht&inti 
T1k» property of BHtiidi offiijon &nd noo-reiidonu ^nw coo-' 
fifcatodf and nil tHc oojitcru udo of llto rivi^r ims cleaned of 
lojallflta 

Ftotd PSttdbur^ aui] KuaVaalfJa to the S|taaUh bonudtrj of ^ 
Floridjt dio United States In 17711 were lUono in ponesdon of 
the Oliio and tlie left baiJc of tlie Kisw^dppi. Cimiil C\\ 
III. of Spfiiii fifop tho onward wave of the luckwoDdnDenlj 
The IcginlatuTO of Virginia put on record that ''CoIodi 
OeoTgo Itogen Ckrk ploanod and cxcentod tbo reduction 
tbo British pO€td between the Ohio and Mlasioftlppi,^ and ii 
^fronted ^'two hundred ncrctf of knd to evvry ^MUsr is his 
corpfi." "The GXpi^Iif.ioti" wroto Jc^iTurwjTi, "will have 
Important bt^ritig ultimately in eetablUbing our nortb-waitera- 
boundary-*' 



THE TOEATT BETWEEN' FRANCE AND SPAIX. SIT 



CHAPTER XXI, 



TniE 'nZATT BCTWnEK FlkJ^CB AKD SPUN* ^EffODJdS C? 

TtBacaA^ PB06&SU or the wabu 



I 



Tnc allionoo iivith Franco gft^o to tli« TJtiitod Stat« a 
fieepite frC'in active war; bat tlio forood ftccoptance of irr^ 
doonuiljlo j)tt|)or hmjuoj* oa legal ttnier neoessaril}' wrecked 
public cnrdit nnH impftircid privAto contnicUund clohtio. Tho 
Briilfili oRicjab liad eircukted coiuiterfeiti to widely that con- 
gmw, ill JsLnuELry ITTtf, wiw (■jiiEijvIlud to rvcttll two st*|raruU; 
COtiiaBioiiB, each of five millioDs. Tbo ^vntit cf a cctttiol powcx 
|an]jzoi eTGTj efiort at ao orgftniutkni of the Btrength of the 
ooBccUto ftUtos. WwhingtoD rcnuiTicd more tEion a month fit 
FliiJAdelpliifl in ooneultation wiUj congrose. Fort I4uf:%rft and 
Detroit, afi w^lJ oa Now York dt3r,-\r«n) in tbo possoMioQ of 
BnUiB ; y6t all a^rocd ttuLt tho coontry mnit con£no it«olf to 
a defeauTe campaif^. 

Even a defenaivo cimpaign wtM attended ^tb diiBcitltioa. 
To IcAvo tlio oHlcorn^ by the depreclattDn of the enrrency, 
OTAti witboiiL uieoiu to proviilo tlirniMrrlvcn witlt rlvMmt di)iJi«» 
and fniULtLonc^iaiJ^ttxI tlieraducdoDof timaniijtoafliadovtr. 
Fev of tbem w«r« Trilling to niniain on tbu exuding eatabtiah- 
meat, and wnffrom vai aveno to prominng pcnnona to them 
or lo their widowa. To each of the rank and GJo wfko vonld 
agreato aerve dnrii^ tlio irar a bcmnty of two hundrod doOaia^ 
beiidat land and clothioj^ , wk o0«rod ; trhtlo tboeo who bad. is 
formor jetrs enliatod for tho war rooeivod a pfrataitj of one 
handred doUaia, YoC aD wtwld lavo been Sn vain bnt for tbe 
aamocbimi of the peoploi 




313 AIIEKJCA IS ALIJASCE wrrn FRASCE, w-tT.i ctuxxt. 



OoDgreSB DOvoT had any powor; now it^ aiilbonty vns 
baiist«<l, anJ it dould do nothing but uppeal to tiie stiiC 
Tardily in SJjirch it voted tluit tlie ii^ontry ahouM coi 
Bl«t of elfcTity Lattaliona, of wlnob eleven were Hmgnod 
Pennjiylvajiia, iia inatvy tu Virgluia, and fiflten to Ma^^ebai 
settai Xo stato fumiKlicd it» whole quotA; HuitacHuMjttjt 
iiior« nearly tliaa hny other. In addition to tlic coogrtMonal 
bonntjr, Ko^T Jt^nti/ paid U o Iinodred end Itf ty doUan to eaoh 
of bor recruit*. Often in ^MoMochiuctta, aomcUmM In Tlr> 
ginla, levioe woro raised by draft. 

Four ycont of hard oervfcQ and of reflectJon bad ripened ia. 
Wafihington tho conviction of the; ncod of ^ truly ^fficEoit 
ertd goveruniertt. To Jamea W&nvTi, speaTf^T of tin houso 
of repnseutativOA of MoamciuaHtl^ ba timdt' uppecd* for tho 
AnbordiDatioii of Gvtjry Eclfisk iotcruft to tho good of wLaI lie 
called ''otir ciJiuiaoD country, America;" "our noble ouuk^ 
the canBC of mankind.^' To tbc men of Vir^iiia ho addreawd 
hiiKself wore £ft)ely. To one of Ibem bo wiole: '■Our »f- 
fain iTc como to a crtmx ; tinuiimity, diniiitcrortcdiijOM, ftod 
peTTOTcrancc in cur natioDal duty arc tlio only tnca&s to ATold 
nuBfortnnee." Before tUo end oi Haicht in a lottriir " wnt b^ 
a privnto band," bo drow tlio camcct thougbt« cf Oeot^ 
^aaon to tli« miu tbat vaa comEng w^cm tbe oonntry frcoa 
peraoTial eellislmt^iu and pfovinciAl af^paratiKtn : "I lutTO aeoii 
without *If.^|»ortdi»ncy, even for a raomentj tlie bonra which 
Amurica baa vlyliHl lier glotiruy nmv; bnt I Imvn bcilmld no 
dajydDCsthocouiaieiKwmait of hofitllitiee, that Huive tbongbc 
ber liberties tn ?ticb eminent djutgrr m at prvwnt. FrinnilH 
and focfl inxm now to combine to pult down tho goodly fabric 
we bare boon raiding at tho oxpeoae of io muob time, blood, 
and treafcre, InJcod, we aeem U> bo Ytifp^^ «o fart to diy 
ctructiou tbAt J am tilled with eaneationa to which I bare been 
ft etnnf^ till within thaie tbn;o tuontba. I eumot rcfnun 
kmcntktg in tbo most poi^ant t«nnG, tbe f^Xal policy^ too 
provaJunt in nitnt of the stales ^ employing thdr ablott men 
at homa in po^ta of lion^ir and profit till tho gwal nnticnal in- 
terert U Bxed upou a folid baeiit/* FTe repeatid the illuEtrsr 
tion which lio bad alrvuuly u*ed wilb HurriE«>n, Klmwiiig b4»w 
complotcly be bad thougbt out tbc proper nrUtdona of the ncion 



1«S, THE TREATT BmFERN FBANCB AND SPAW. 31© 

to llio fitAtdi l)y [utiiering to tlio wnrtU in wliSeli Iju liad fonoQ- 
latod them: *'T*> mo it ujipPB.r* no nnJiiPit «inil*T ti> ramipinj tb© 
»kft:urfl of ihia great condneat to tlte tnecltaniBiu of a cloclEg 
tttnnh. ttUXA repKflentin^ some one ct other of il» snollnr parts 
widch Ui<i7 &rc cndc&Tormg to pnt in line order, witliont COQ- 
6id<^riDf- how oaeleae and unavailing tJioir lalwr B mileea tiio 
grunt wbc«) or spring vhich ii to eot tljo whclo in motJcn is 
ftlw woLI AttondcKl to and kf^pt in j^ood ordor. As it is a faot, 
too notorioiia to bo couac^led, that con^ifrcaa is real hy portj, 
no rami wlio wl^lkoi wol! to tlio iil«rUiyi of litii (vnintr)' uid 
dosirvA In *Wrt ib; rfgKtis fwtAM^M^nd fAii ^ivoid ^Tyiop out, ^VLere 
■JB our tuvn lif abililitKf WIi/ do llioy n*>t cuine fiirth to 
save thdi coimtiy t Let thiA voice, mj dear mr, calJ npoa you, 
JeSorsofL, and otbcn. Do not, from a mietakon opmion, lot 
our liitliGrtc nobld atnig^lo tmi In tgnouiiny. BcUero mCj 
when I tell yirti tliero u danger of it""* 

Jn May ho wrote to anothor friend: ^ I Erever ma, and 
inn{>li lew reotfOQ have I now to bo, afraid of the cucmj's 
ami4 ; but I hire no scniplcfl in declariiij; to you that 1 have 
never yet seen the time in which onr ofEalrfi, tn my epEniOD, 
wcim al nti \tiv lui (it)b i» lil thcf prt^M-nl ; ami, Vp'illKicit n vjicedy 
tnd capital change, we shidi not be able to call out the r» 
•oiueea of the country." 

Count d'lil^Uirg wa« f^Ucd with the idea of a joint cxpcdi- 
tien of hid dcct and the Ametican troops " to give to the king 
of France Hultfax and Ncwfoimdlaud.^' t '^ *> eonnilt en this 
Bnhjootk CvermI, in tlie iinl daye of May^ accepted an Invita- 
tion from AVaahington to viait him in hi£ camp. It was not 
poJ^bte for tlic United Statea to famish a force finffidCDt to 
comjiipr nii<1 gmriium Newfotrndland ; Imt <m Iua rrtnni fmtn 
tha csjnp the tnini8teT wrote to Count VLTgenncs: "I Lave 
had niany convtaiwttoiid vritli General WaHhiiigtou, eoone of 
which have oontinued for tlirco hours. It u impoMihle for 
me briefly to coonmanicato the fund cf mtoUigonco whldi I 

• WMhln(|«« la ^^MTfE* llBMa, VjJdlpt>mplt, t; Vuvh ITT«- Tlu eni toU 

tVB wMh hli ovD bucL The teller b Cited In UnfftLaU'i V\ta c\t Wulibflm, 
1., SV1 ; «ttd b pdnUd trtm tiM ftepon of lioorgv IUhv, Id Ibe Virglou UUun- 



9^ AHERIOA Of ALUAXOE WITQ FEAK CE, iiMT.t cvlxxl 

liATo dcrirod from bim, but I fllntl do it b my letlcn iw occa- 
flL>ue aliaU prv«om UiciqaoIvq*. I will now coj only that 1 ha^rt 
foniied u higli an opinion oi the poweira of hifi mind, his mod- 
Qftticm, }iifl pLtnotkm, luul Ut* rtrtnci, m I hod bufon} fiyun 
eommoQ report coiK^ived of \i\» military IaIiuiU and of the 
iticiilruliiMi? Mirvimw bis \ia» rendered bi Ha counlry." * 

At this time atIuIc congrtcs wiu lulling itself mto tlie 
belief thut tLoatitiliod woro near Ihoir end, tlic epoctal treaty be- 
tween Frauou and Sjuui va» expotiiti^ Atuericn to now dtngcn. 
For Spfun tis woll lu for Fmneo tbo Fnmeb vDTOy to the 
United SUktoa conducted w'itb congreat a negotution <m the 
altun:Lto toniu apon wblcU the United States would be lesdy 
to mftk9 peaco^ nnd weik jqti^nlly oaiiiTtiBJuU^l to mould thein 
hjt4i ft fdnit acceptable to Sj^mn. So long as IVaooe stood alfnm, 
YcrgnniKV bad boen willitig tbat tlie Uoitod Stal«t sbould 
treat with Great Britcun on tbc ham of a euopk lecDgnUton 
of Amtirioaii indopendenoo ; tut after the nndcintanding witii 
Spain be R<[uired Amcrka " to docbra di^tmctlj and rotmdly 
that it will listen to no propowtioa unloffi it hM for ita boao 
pea^^ with Ff^n^ aa veil ;" and^ on the n^port of an able 
ODimoilliN^ aiiiioiig vrlicuii wEtm 8ai»iiiTl AtlMms and Jay, eon* 
gnw^ oTi thu fourtcoiitli uf Janiiiuy 17T£)« resolved imanhnonaly 
''that aa neither t'rance nor the»e IJuiltil States may of nighty 
eo they will not, conclude cither tmoo or peace with Utt eom* 
mon enemy vithont the formal conaent of their ally fiivt 
ohuined,^' 

This point buvlcg teen ginned, tho envoy of France held 
up to Aintinca t\w d«*«ire to include Spain in a triple alliatiee 
a^imt GreuL Brltaiu, and for that evid to inJuco tlio United 
Statea ia nhnfM: their oondltiatL^ of peace with Great Britain in 
accordance with the wisins of the l-Vndi aud SptmiMli moo- 
archa. The conditlona <ai wliicli It waa lUfficult to agree re- 
lated to banndoricaond to tho tiahcricj. For Ma«fiachuaotta tbo 
fi^hDriea had beeo the i^rcat and poouliar doureo of wealth in 
return for anuill outkji of eupital, and to put tliia industry at 
hazard soomod to that atote tike perilling its proaporily. 

With reg:ird to the flaherica no uniform role hod ae yet 
been ho miIUitiI by ]>iiMiir Inw oa to control treatlM. By tlie 



1779- TCE TREATY BETWEEN PRaKCE AKB SPAIN. J^l 

treaty of TTtr^it^ Fraiiru a^nwd not to fn^ wiUun tLir^ 
Ieagu«a of tlie €M*t of Kora iKwtia ; aud bj tUat of PaHA, uot 
to fieh witliin iliUxn [cagiim of Capo Breton. New Kngluid 
at tLc bc^nnitig of the wnr hjuJ. a« a piinitivc mcoeuirif bocQ 
debarred by act of parliament from fialiuig on Xho banks of 
}7ewfotmdknd. Wh^it rij^bt of Icgidntioti roipccting them 
would rom^n at tLo peaco to tlio parliament of Knglandj 
^'Tlie flsiierj' on (he high seas," bo Vergoimea alwuya ex- 
pouridcil llio Inw of niiiioTm^ ** U n* ftva w tbo wn iUuAi^ and 
it ia euperflaoua to dUi^ii^ the* right of tho Amcrirans to it, 
Biit tilt? p/jawt fi^luiried l>eUtD||r of right to the jirojivittarj- tif tlw 
cooft Therefore the fi^hcnc^ on the coostd of NcwfotmdUnd, 
of Nora Scotia, of Canada, belong esclnfiivoly to tlwi J^Hsh; 
and tlio Amt-rioana liavo no prctunuoQ whatorar to thm in 
th«m." But tbo Americanfl hod hitiicrrtc ahnott nlono ongagod 
in the fiflberiefi an the coa^t of ?^ova Scotia and in tho Gulf of 
St. 'Lawrcnira. Tho Hcvf England men hid planned and had 
slotie furni&hed ktid forcos for tho firet ivdticttr>n of Capo Bro- 
tim, and had aa«jjit4Hl Si^ t!ie acv]tii>itiaa of Nova Si.-ot{a and 
OmaA^. The tncn of Mruwarbtiw^s* tliprr-fore ('ixitiMtl tlm 
finheritut uii ihuh wraHtu an a iJt-rpRiual jobiL prt>|)t?rlj» Againat 
tfau Vrrgcnnoa ar^iod that the cuni]uwt Imd hr<m made for 
the crown of Qrent Britain ; and that the New England men, 
bj cLwing t:> bo no Icng^r tho »nbjc:cti» of thut crown, ny 
uounccd all ri^bt to the cout tileries. 

To pomuadc congrosfi to propitiate Spain by eoncwlirg aH 
Lor demands, tbo ^rcificb envoy ^ougbt intcmewa ^tli its 
newly appointed comnuttea on foreign af^n, whieh waa oom- 
poced of ono tr^nn onclt state ; and inaieted with th«in on tha 
reltn^iishment of the eoaflt flaheriGa, and of (he left bonk and 
the narlgatbn of the MLvimippf, It waa ar^werofl that tho 
land A« far a^ the MuflisBippi vns aln^^ly (XilDTikEL'd and hold 
hjr Americana, llu n^jianttl tJtJtl |icivina] (^riuKb^nliciim iiiuat 
^ve waj to tbo geni^ inlereeta of the republic; that tfao 
Idng of Spam, if fae eofEAged in Uio war, would hav<o oqaol 
rif^hts with the United Stales te acqnire territories of the Idni; 
of Engbind ; that t}io pornrtmoo id anorttr^ a right to eftob< 
Uflhmenta on tho Ohio and the niinoia, and at Ifatebes, wmU 
eibibit an unjoft dodre of coikqiuit; thatfmdaD aoqidaltioB 



322 AMERICA IS ALLIANCE WVm FRAKCE, c^.ir.;«w.sn 

'VfAA iryrei^ to tlm priiicipkit of tlic AnunHcan s1Liaii<96 witb 
Fnujcu, jt[ul (if die i^yr^toiiL of union betnueD FraDce and Spun, 
lu w[^ll IV* inuiKiritAUTiit witli tlio iutoredbt of ilin lull^r |>rj«er; 
and lie formAl)^ decbui^ "tlmt liid king would not pnjjojig 
tliO var one sUiglo day to wcuro to tLo United StaUv tliv po»- 
CCaKoru) which thny covfted.*' 

**]kmdcBt tlic ojctont of tlicir territory rciidered aImmI^ a 
good adminietnitioa difficult ; so ononuoua an incrou* woiOd 
o&upo thoir Lmmonjiovinpire to onuiibL? ^uidor its oimirciglitt" 
GoRird terminated )\U vory hm^ coJW'Gn&x^oa by diwlAnDg tJjo 
atiorigiNt dtiidro ** that tlio Uuit^Ml Sbittjci lutgbt nt^^i? bo mora 
than tbirt^x^fli." 

Oil UiE) fifteeiiUi of Febmuj^ Gerard b\ a piivAlu miil[i]itiGi> 
n^prcjwtitc^d tocongran tliat l!ie pricti wludi l^jKun put upon 
htr fnoDdfalup ^na PoosMDla and tiio cxclnairc ]iaTi|i:at^oa of 
lliti Mi»iH6a|)pi ; if h^^r wfahee wore not oompliod vitli, then 
wae danger tbat !>piuii and England iDight niako common 
caii30 a^DEt America. 

Two 4ityi aftor tbb private iEt4UTi6w QongroM rofctrod tbo 
Bubjoct of tlLo tcnn« of poaco to a epoctal cummiit^ of fitc^ 
compoced of Goiivemeur MotHb of New York, Borko of 
Nnrtli OuxjJIbo, Willivnip'^xni of Ki^w Jvnwy^ Sqiinu4rl AdaiDS 
of HaaaRcIiuaetle, and t^itiith of Vir^iia. 

On tbo twentj-tliird tlio oonunittoe n:|Kjrtc<) Utuir oplniou 
tliat tlic king of Spain was dicpo«cd io enter into an aHianm 
witii tlie United titat«9» and that oon^oqucntly indepcndanco 
mnetbc Gndl/ acknovrlodgcd by Qr»t Britaiiu Thi« being 
effeotod, they propoecd aa their nltimat^im that thoir teniloiy 
ahonid oxt^nd from the Atlantio to the MiaeJed^ipii from tho 
Florida t» Cauda and Xon 8co<ia; that the nght of £shb^ 
and curiD^ ^b on tlie bank* aiitl ooa«t« of Nowfomidland 
fidjonld Wong equally to the ITnited Stata^ France, and Great 
Britain ; and tliat tlio nnrigntion of Vim lhfiw]wLj>|n should bo 
free to the Unitod State's dawn to tlicir fioatlicm boundary, 
Ttth tbo bcncGt of a inx inrt Klow in tLc &jj«nisb donunioDL 

Congrcfis, in committeo of the wbolc, on tho nineteenth of 
Match a^TOcd enbetantialty to tbe wport on boimdari«0» jot 
with an (ipticn to ado|>t veetvrard from Lake Ontario tho 
paralU) of tbo forty-fifth derive of latttudo. It wag loadily 



f]TT». rUB THEAIT BETWECK FBAlfCE AKD SPAIN. 333 



I 



l-lgreed bj teu vi^ii itgiuiiri Puitimjlviiutj^ New nam|:i»3itn< oiul 
Conncctlciit being diTidcd, that the ngUi to niivignic tbc Mi&- 
eiaaippi need not iind a placo in tho treaty of pcoco with <jre&t 
BnUkti^ ioT, aQOordin^ to Clio Amerloau intention, Great Brlt- 
tin WW not to pOMOH imj tomtoiy o& tliti Hisaiuippi froca its 
Mnioe to its month. 

The riglit to ih& fiaheriea vssa long under diectusioEL The 
firHt drr-iMim wiu Ji nic.rvl^ tit^gativu v<itn Uiut tin? iTmninni] right 
of tbe Unit<xi Statofl to fish on ttie coast^ ba^vs, and baiilta 
of KoTft Scotia, the banlM of Xewfi>uiidkD<i a^d Gulf of Sl 
lawtenoet the frtnita of Labrador and iJoIIe-It^Ie, sboidd io do 
etw bo givcQ op. 

By tiie efioria cf Gorry, who wtifi from iTarblebcttd, Ricli- 
ftrd "Herary Loe was abb to bring up tho Gubji>ot anew ; nii<l, 
ftvoidiiii? B c<»llwion with tito nioiitn»oly of Fr»jici\ bo propowxi 
tUat tbe rigbt of flsbirg on the coaeta and banlca of Xortb 
Aiiiifriai sbotild bn ifM'.rvt^d to tbti tTnitiHl Stnti« ba fully ws 
tbtiy enjoyed iIm uime when fiitbjert to Grent ]lritAin. Thh 
anUiti1nt« pnjTftib**! bvUio rote nf Puniinjlrinia and Ddawnro 
yiith iUe four New Kngland atatee, 

Bitt tbe Btate of ^'ok York, guided by Jay and (iccTerueur 
Uovria, ftttogetbcr rofuM^d to mnot in the tnaty of pence on & 
right to tbe li»herioe ; and Uoavemetur MorrU, on the d^hih 
of l£ay, CfiUhiif (o mtnd " tlto ojcbax»t4M] dtuation of tl^o Uiiitod 
StJitMr th« dcnugMDont of tboir finance^ aod tlio defect oi 
Ui«ir twourocSf^ Tooved that tlio aeknoirledgineDt of indepcu- 
deoioe alionlil bit tlio miW condition of poaca , Tha motion was 
dedaivd lo be out of order by tlie votc«^ of tha four Nevr Eu^ 
land idata*^ New Jvrwy, iuhI Pi^mibylviuii^ a^iimt tJitr nnaui* 
nwu deictga^ona of New Yot\, ^arybrid, uid XoiU; Cajvlina ; 
irhUo Delaware, Virginia, and SoaUi Car^Uua were equally 
ditided, 

TIm French minister intGrrcDod ; and, oq the twcnty- 
aeventh of Kay, con^reae went bock to ita firat teeolTO, '^thot 
by 110 tmty of pc«ce iLboitld the eommoa rf^bt of fliJiing be 
giTon op " 

On die Oilrd of Jnne, Geny again appeeied aa tlie dLam* 
jnrtn ni vbn Artirrinin right lo Oh^ 1i»}im<v im Tmnkit or cvni4ii, 
«fl exerci£«d during tkdr politick oomiectioo with GrtaL BtiU 




3^i AMERICA IX ALUAXCE WITfl TRiKOB. *MT,i«l-3ua. 

Ub. no "Wtt in part rapportcil W Sbcrmun ; bul New Hmidiv 
Ahlre, Mfieeachuectts^ And Khodo lelaiid xrcro left l»' Cooiu)Cti- 
ciit, imd, tbonjj:b Feimeylv&im cdme to t1i^raicl,thd"Oa]lieai 
party,'' by ii vccc of i&v&n iftxEi^a u^tiut the four, set aBide tbo 
main queetion. 

The Etece88Cty of appeala to Franco for aid promoted oba& 
:]i]iimM]ci!U t.fj its wmh™. On llur fifLw?iitli t>f Juiit? 177!J» crm- 
groaa eolicitod eapplie« from il£ ally to the rnluo of ucarly 
tbne miUlona of dollars, to l;e paid for, vitli int^reet, aft«r tL« 
pence 

Fourd&Ta lat^, Qonj, crading a broach of the mlee of 
oongTt«A by t, clianj^ in foruLr moved ru^lnUotui that the 
Uniiod Stato* hav* n ccnimon Hglit vnth tho En^ti^h to the 
fifilieriffl OD the banks of I^e^oimdlaadf and the other fishing* 
briTtl:* tLtii} lu^tf of Xorth AinuHoi. A mMt At^irmy ^nd acri- 
tnonioufi dclmt*! irismsl, Thi^ friottd* of France n*Uti?d the 
reaulalioufi a& euro to aJienut^ C^palu, and conLmrv to the ^n- 
erul longing f^jr peiicc Four pitaleK rmd a aketch of tli^ 
protect oo the subject Congrcs* gave way in part, but by th« 
TOtca of the four Kow E]:£lAnd statu and Pennsylvania 
ogninst Jfow York, MaryWd, Vir^ia, and North Corotina, 
vatb Now Jti^cy^ Ddairare, and South Carolina divided, thoy 
affirmed tJio Goruinon right of the AniL'rioaiu to fifth on th^ 
Grand Bank« ; aiu3 for :hiA rif^hT, to ^Kich Vcrgennofi owned 
their indJepatfthle title, they asked the gnarantee of Franco In 
t}m fonri ol" art nxplmiatury artitthr of rxiHting trrafir^ 

The pereeverin^ French minister sought an interview with 
pn^pfiJejit tTny and tvp'ri other meuiben of cnngrew well dii^ 
poecd to the wisliefi of I'micc. Finding tliem inclined to 
yield to New England, ho Kmarked that disunion frciu tlio 
tide of Nevr England wiui not to bo fear^l, for it^ people 
carried their love of indcpondenoe ovcoi to doliHum, Ho 
added: '^ There would eeom to bo awieh to broal tlio eon- 
nectioD of France with Spain j btit I tliiiik I can ftay that, if 
the Amoriouu ehotdd have ti^e boldmiw** to foroe tJie king of 
Francs to chooae between tiie twio allianeeB, hi* deebion will 
not bo in favor of the Doitod BUUm ; lie vnW c«<r1ain1y not 
expoee hiukfaflf toconfinme^eTcmasntngreaonrceeof thaldn^ 



J 

L 



.A± 



17T«. TUB TttEATY BETVEES FfiASCE AND fiPAIS, fl2J 



(lom for niAJi^- yean, only to v^cnro an irtctxsnw of foriiino to 
a fow ohap-mAeterB of Kow Kugknd. 1 sliall greAtly n^gret, 
CXI aocotmt of tho Amorican^, eiiould Spuiii enter Into tlie war 
williOQt A oouv^nttou witli tliem.*^ 

Tlio iiilorvicw WtciJ fivm pigjhl o'clock in tliO evcflaing lUl 
an liour aftc7 midniglu; but Jay imd UU friuiid« would not 
tlitm^res undcrtalce to diuuj^ tlit^ opinbii of coaf^roGs; and 
tlt» n»ijh wiut u now itil^nriew on the Uv^lflh of Jol^ tkctween 
Gerard and iDemljera of oongrt^A in ooTnniiUuo <ii iJnr wholes 
Of tLe comuiittix: on foreign EtlTjur^ vl^hi nc(i?ptcd iht* Fn>nch 
policj. JaV| vrilli otbcr mombci^ gained over votea from tlw 
'^ Anti-Gal!ican" ddc ; and, after Iod^ debot^A and mn^y lUvi* 
•tODJt, die propoaitkm to tttpnlAtc a ngLt to tho tii^licnce in tho 
tmatj of pMco vw mdofinitcly postponed by the volo& of eight 
static a^inst ^ew Ilampahiref HaiaAdiiiMtlfl, R)iodc lalund, 
ukd Pennijrlvania, Georgia atone bcuij^ ubin^t. 

As to tbo fninro boiindnn(!<s of the L'nited Stntes, Spain 
pB»!onateIy da^red ta ni^orer tbe Floridiu 00 oh to have tbo 
wliolc sboro <if tlic Crulf of Mc^iitio. TUo Tnitcil Staf.i?* hnd jio 
Lradidoual .s^irJi for Llitiir acqtusitiont aiid fmin Ui*! miliUu-j' 
poiDtof tIcw Wa»Iiington prvfcrrvJ that Bi>ain should poawsi 
them rather than Grvat Britoin. IXcrc* tlicrcforci, no nnova 
difficnltj oTOtw ; but Sgxiin dreadod tho ostcoiaian of tJio Unilcsl 
States to tho Uisu«jppi Tho QueboG net ha<L tranKforrod to 
Canada the terntorj w«6t and north-west of the OHio, Spain 
Indulgod tho hope that England would En^t on fta right to 
that repon; but ss to tlio AmoHcaiLt, thvir liA^'MroodKnicn 
vrcTv alfvfuly settled In the cionntj;)^, and it would have been 
f«u«r to extirpate ilu; game in ila f[>r(-^U limn ti» drive? tlie 
American aettlcn from tbcir Lomce. SpoiOt witli the support 
of France, vlahe*i that the couuirr north-we^it of the Uluo 
lirerdiouldbcgnanmtQcd toGroBt Britain; bat ttoch a propo* 
Bitko oouli never gain a hearing in coDgroea. France, ro- 
noondng for henolf all pretensions to Canada and ifora 
Scotia, joiiwd Spain tn oppoaing every vriah of the Americana 
to acr|t]ire tbctn. In Urn congrew acquiMcod. 

Tha Fn-Qob mlnlattfr doared to peranade eongran to bo 
vrilling to c9m1 tlin irar by a tnrci*, iift^^r ibif pn^H-dt^iil* <if tlie 
Swim eanlODa and the United Kcthcrtand^. Curke of Xorth 




3M AUERICA IS ALUASCE WITB F3A5C& kp.tt,; en, xx? 

CBToljii^ii, ncconili.'d hy Dunno nf Nt-nv Vofk, irifibed do itiorA 
tluin that ittde^iaudeiica dbould bo tacitly acknowlcdgod; Imt 
COQgTCnn n^qutnd that, pntrviotia to any treaty of pe»oe, the 
independence of tho United Bt6tce fthouliJ, <tn tbo p*rt of Gmt 
Uritajn* bo *' asenred,^ 

Furt}iar, Goturd wiiOiod AnicHoft to brinj; ftboot tbo ooci^ 
uon of Spiiiu to tbo idliiinno l>y tnuliiig implidtly to tho uu^ 
Banimitj of tbd SpanlAh king; ottuM-wUc^ bo crud, *';ihi viQ 
prevent bis (?albollo niajeflty fmm Joining In car oamnum 
CMUfl^itfid from comjilottng tlii? inUauIt^l triuinvtrsLtc*' Cuu- 
grwB cecaped from an uiimcdiato dcci^on by rceolring to Bend 
a pleuipotcutiary of ltd own to SjiiurL 

Tlio minirttcr b> be cUa*cn to ncgf)t:ato a poaoo wns, bj a 
unamjiioua roto, dii^cctcd to require? ^Gn>at Britain to trcAt 
with the trailed Stat^ ai af>\*tTeign, free* afid independent," 
OJid t}io indo|Jvn(lonco vrtfi to bu eonliniLod by Uto trcoty. Kota 
Scotm WBB de^'rpd ; bnt tbe negotiat^jr might Icavo tbo north- 
e^lc^ni b[)tifidary ** to Iig Hdjndt^ tiy couiinlasfoneni afUrr tha 
peace " The gimnnitw of ah equal common riglit to tbo fulk- 
eriefi wai decliired to l>e «f tbu ntinost iiuporiaJice, but wuiiot 
nudo nil nlltirt-itrini, i;xcc]it in tlie in:»tnictiont» for tlio traitj 
of commerce Mitlt England, At tbc omo time, tbo Ajnoricu 
fnlniBtor at the court of Franco was directod to concert with 
tbat povoT a inntiial ^lanu^tcH^ of tboir ri^bt« fn tbo fij»bo?ifti 
M cnjoytfd before tbo war. 

Tlie plan fot a treaty witb tlie king of Spain Ungerad ■ 
montb Toiigirr. On t!io ncvi^EiittHjiiib of September oongrBM 
oflbiTd (o gnarahtee to bini the riorlda^i if Uiey abonid faU 
into bispiJwer/^pnn'iiW idwjij-n ibal- ibuTTnitrfl 8lari:!i *botd(] 
enjoy tbe free narigTition of tho MiMiMippi into and from tbe 
tea.'' Tbe great iliianclal di»trefiA of tbe etatea was to be mado 
Iehovd to liim, in tbo bopo of u ttub^y or a gmanotoo of a 
lotn to the omonDt of fiv« millioM of dollars^ 

On tbo twenty-elxtb, eongroes proceeded to ballot for t\ic 
Hdnlster to ne^)tiate ponco, Jobn Aduaa being ttominatcd by 
LiurenH of Sontb Carolina, ivbilo Smitb of 'NHiglnU pro^ 
poaed Jaj v/ho waa favored by ibe Frenob nil»uti<r. On two 
baQota on ctlecrlvHi wru niwlr. A <M>nL]innuue rvcmmted tbo 
rinlry; Jny, on tbe twenty-Mvouthf was okoted euvuy to 



iTTff. 



RE?y>itMS ra TIRGratA- 



337 



I 



Spiin. Thd foTmally dvU letter in whi^h Ver^nni:^ bodo 
fivewoll lo John Adairu on hi* retiring from P:trm wjm r«ul 
Ell ctiiEigTVHH tTi pmiif thur, ?ut wmitil bn iiKMt An^irpbitkle to tlld 
FroncL miniatty; find, dirocU/ contnify to its wjabet^ be ww 
cboAen to n^fotiAtA tie ti'eatv of peace ^ yvtM an oreniual 
Creatj of conunerco with Great BriUiiL 

In Dixionjbcr ITrs, Mario Antomctte> after many j«n o( 
an imfniiUuJ laarnage^ ^ro birth to a dau^^itor, OongrcM* in 
Juno ITTd, cun^atuJfttiiig tlm Idag of IVvioo on cJh) events 
BAked for " tho portmit* of himself and hi* royal ooTiBi>rlt to 1m 
placed in tlieir cotiut-il «hamtR-r." TJils wm nut .m suit of adn- 
Utinn. Tire Amr?rii7uii; took pfirt in thii linppniiEW of Lotlla 
XV 1. An hon^t uuptilse of f^'raiitu'lr 'n' Iih niniie (it the 
cilj Trhich overlook?* tlii> falU of tli.TiJli: 1. :i nl vrlrt-n^ in 1781, 
a con was bom to bun, Pciin«ylrnmft coramomoratod tho event 
in tbo name of one of tta countica. 

The oompnlioiy maetivitj of tho Hrititfli imnj at tijo north 
oncotiragod discontent and intngoM. There roso ap in rivalrf 
irith Clinton a hodj tC^ltni; thenuelvea "tli« loyal aaioointcd 
rufugtt*,'* who wuro iinpatiant to obtain on indopoDdent or- 
ganimdoTt nnder Tiyon and TTIQiafn Franklin* Thej in* 
^latbd iLiit iritm? alprhnww would timvh tbw rcliollioxi ; tbcij 
lOTod to rrcornmf^n^t the omployiucnt of ravages, the oonfl^ 
cation of the property of vralthj rebeH and cren tlidr «xo> 
cation or cjdic- 

The Vit;g{njanflt alnoe tbo «ipnKori of Lord Unnmoro, 
froo from vnr within their own bonier^ vrcro tunnelling thoDi* 
MlT«a by tbo unmolested onltnre of tobacco^ trl.ich was <ac- 
ported throng tho Choeapookc ; 0^^ when that hl^'hiff'ay was 
nnsLfo, by a sliort lind Guriago to AJbomarlo eoiuid. On the 
ninth of Xtay two thonauid 'mon mndor Geneval Matthew-, 
with dve Ltindrvd inorlnto, inic^i(ir<<d In HanipUut Koaib. 
Ho next (hjj after occnpyiiig Portsinonth and XorfolV, tlicry 
bnmed ev«ry houae but out* in SulTrplk cuutatv, and eeixed or 
rained aQ peiuhablo property. pAnif« fr^m a doop-o(>war 
and privDitccn entered the piiactpal waters of tbo Cbee^koako* 
caifiod ofi or waatod atorta of tobacco heaped on tbcir bonk^ 
and bnraed the dwelling of tlio plantcn. Before Uic end of 
the tnooth the preditoiy espodiiion, haru^ dteCiojvd mora 



32S A?kIERK:A IN AMI AVCe TTTH FSANOe. if, it. ; en. £3tl. 
ths,ti a 1]tini^tr9cl v^moli^r arnv«d At Koi:? Tori: vritli facrojitMa 

Tht; [<*^Ei][iliin^ of yir^tiin^ wliicJi vtiia En ae»>oo at Wll- 
liAmsbnrg dunog the tUTaaion, rctatl^tcd hj confijcatiog the 
property ^f British euhjecu uUhiii the commonveftlUL Aa 
net of a prcrious votwion liad dincUid dcbt8 due to BiitUb aub- 
jcct4 1-0 bo paid into the loaa-ofliiM: of tlio «^to. To moot tho 
puUio ts^ttd^ a hoavj poll U^ vraA laid oq all eerviints or 
itUrQft, tm wcH lut a tax pnjaljlo in eoruols, hemp, inspoctod to> 
b&oco, or tho liko coinmo<litici« ; itnd tlio imuo of ono mQlioQ 
pouTiOii [d paper moiif'j' v^an autlionzt^J. Kreij ono vbo-vooJd 
warvc lit luiituT or hi the cuiiLineutil urm^v dimu^ llie uar wiw 
proini«u<) a bnnnty of «cvcn hundred find £ft^ dolla>% «a iq- 
nnol mpplj- of clothing* and one handled acrc« of land at the 
end of the war; poaBions were protoi«<l to disabled ecldicn 
and to thi^ wid^w^ of tliOM) who should find their death in tlic 
eornc^; b&lf-jiay fir life vbb TOtod to tho officeiB. £aeb di- 
vision cf the uilllda waA re^^uired to furnUh for the Mrrioo 
OIK- ul)Jt>lKnlit>il iiiim out of t-vcrv iwt'Dt^'-llTe^ to b« divftod by 
fair Jind iiiipftrTi:i1 l<it. 

ThvOodtTiii which J*flen*Dn,'WjfUio, and pRmlUrtijii uiUptcd 
thcT Um» of Virginin to rcsk^n, thow^-lfftrc of the wliole pcopl<*» 
and tho republican farm of govoramont, waa hud before iha 
leg^Iature. The law i>f dtiwcntd aboliabod tlit; riglito of pri* 
xnugcnitnrc, and distributed real ju well ^ por^ioiial propcnjr 
oqnaUy amon^^ brothere and meuan. The puiiiehjui^ni of doath 
vaa forbidden, exeept for treanon and luardi^r. A bill vaa 
brought in to organize schools In every eountj, at die expense 
of ita iuhabltanU, in proporlhin to the gunetal tax^mtea; but 
in Itiiir of w)ir, juiil ill tho wntt'^rrJ kLhUt f)f ihr-. iiihnliiraTiNj It 
was not poFfiiblo to introduce u thoratjgb svstetn of uoivoraal 
educatuin. 

TIlc preamble to the bill for ostablialjing rcligiona frocdom, 
written by Jefferson, declared *^ that bdiei dei)eud& not on vlll, 
but follows orldcnec ; that God hoCb on^tod tJio mind free; 
that tompora] pnnishmont or civil ineapacitatioos onlj bop^ot 
hypoorisj and meanneae ; that the impious oiidcaror of falUblo 
l^ikton and rolors to fmpoae thcrir own opinigoa on othota 
hntb i^tnbli«h«J and maiDtoiiwd falw rell^ons i that to suffer 



J7m 



PBOGEESS OF TU£ WAR. 



9S9 



the civil mo^etrate to iBtrudo hid poworentt4> the field of apin- 
kin ctcdircya all relif^ons liberty ; that tnitb la tlie proper imd 
eufficitiEtt onugoniiit to error, ftad hn* tioOit&g to fear frum tho 
Gonili^^t, imlesB by bumnTi inwrpcwTtion disarmed nf Jier riitural 
TcnpuriH, irvti argwueiit and deljaU?; en-ow enWmg to be dHD- 
goroQfl when it U permitl4^ tvccly to corttnidict tlimn." 

It wiifi therefore proposed to be c^nnctixl hj the general aa- 
eombly: *^No man eball bo compollcd to taxiqucDtor mi]^>ort 
any rcIi^cuA wortliip, place, or niinistry, nor ahull \jq eoiOTOCd, 
toetrojoedt tndoeto'i, or bnrtbciicd in lii« b(x)r or goods, nor 
shall othorwiaa ftu^er, on accoimt of bis beliof : bat oil men 
Bbftll be free to prufijsit, und hy urgnment to nioiutaln, tbL-ir 
opEaton in mitttera of rvlJgloQ ; and the hnmc t\\\\\ in tut viee 
dictimuili, <!nlargi;j fir affacjt tbdr cJvU (?ai>a(rltipa. Am! we do 
deolarv tJmt the rights bcrcby nmurtvd aru uf tbo uAtural tight* 
of maiikiiid " 

Thccu vordfl of Jefferson on the freedom of confcietiee 
txpxeo&d tho ferming convictJoiu of the people of the United 
5tftte«; tlie cnaotmont ma doUyod tlmt tlic gr.>at docroc', which 
naado tho leap from on OAtablicliod ohnrch tu die lu-^^tst litx^]' 
of faitb and public vrorship, inip;ht bo adopted after calm de 
Uberatioa and with po]>iiIar oppruvaL '^^r]![fnJa used lia right 
of original atuI (rOTnplctc h^giAlatirjii to ntiolUh ihu pKvIlogtitt ef 
primogenitnre, cut off entithi^ forbid tho dave-trade, mid otlab- 
]ijK]i tbe jirininl]>lf< uf fni-^bitn m nTltj^iUR us tJicf hdu^nTril mid ui- 
alioHAblc pofiK'^oa of spiritual being. 

The Brttah tTXpediticn to tho OicMi]>ea1c:*, after lis return 
to Hew Vork, joined a dctAchment conducted by Clinton him- 
aelf forty milc« up tho Hudecoi to gdu pofeeaaioQ of Stony 
Point And Vorpknok'^ PoinL The ^Hoon witlidrew from 
thwr nidi&f#lied work at SVnxy PoinL Tho comrnfoitUu' at 
VcTpkiK^i Point, waitJug to ho eloeelj lnTost<^d by sntetf on 
tho BOcood of Juno innde an higlorioiu rurreudur. Tho two 
portji rommiuidHi Kinj^** ferrr; the ttrififih fonifiCTl nm] gnr- 
ridoiutd ihein, ai>i! m b-fi ihc? Aruoncuui tiu lint- uf cunomniira^ 
lion between Kew York and Nutr Jon«jr loatii of the high- 
lan'U. 

A pillaicing expedition, aent to pvnUi the pelriot^m of 
Conncettrntt wm fntrnatcd to Trjon* Tho fioci and truu^oHa 



L 



S30 AUEBIGA I!f ALUA^CE VlXn FHANOE. Mr.rr.;at. 



srrir^ cS Xe^ IlaTen ; aud, at t^o in the rmmuo^ of tlie 
fifth of -fuly, ono paHj' landed midiloiUy on litt veat of Uie 
town, ancrtlicr on the co^t. Kvotything 7m «b«o(]oncd to 
pIoDdeT: vcb^'iIb in tiie harbor, puLltc £toi^ and the wan- 
hoiuc0 near dio Bi^imd, wonj destroyed by tire. Tbe eokUon, 
domoralia^ by UtMTiM, 1o«t nil diEcipHac, ani] lli4i noxt mora- 
Injf retired before tbe Ccamecticnt militia^ wbo left ihenj n^> 
tiiiHT iii luini UifT tiiwii. At Eiwt Huvu^ii, wlirre Tr^dti <w*n. 
mandot^, diiTollm^honiiCBtwx^TO lired nxid cattlo wantonly ki1k<d; 
jLoutts of titc uiiiinucci in}Lal<ilaTita vevo put to death, others 
Carried awajr on pristmcrs; bwt tbe Briliih wtre driven to tbcir 
abip6p 

On tlid aftcnionn of tJia ficventb iTie exp^itton liuidod 
Doar FairlieUl, The villogo, a conttiry imd a qtinitor old, ata- 
aled near iko watt^r, witb a lovely ooantry fcr ite bnckpTonnd, 
ooutaincd a luund, ircll-cdumbxl, !tidiutrIoua, and afQncnt 
poopll'of luraHy untiiivoil Kit^liidi litirji^*; vrt'll-oi'ilrnvl lionios; 
freebn]di?<rs as lieaJ^ of fnmllSe^K An ('ptscopal diurcb f4ooiI 
bjr tlu ai<lu i:jf Hiv ht^r tniTutiiig'buuAe. TLe buvLoiidincvi 
Vtho camo together in:re too few to wilb^tand tbo nnfonveon 
OQfilangLt, The Ucaffiona ttoki let Ioomi to plunder, and every 
dwelling wna givcii up to bo ttnppod. ItL!foro the ran ^rcnt 
down tbo fmng of honsea bcgaD, and waa kept up throng tlio 
nlf^bt, ainid the "criin of diAnawd wotnon and liolpTtMt diit 
dreii/* Karly tlic next moniing tbo eondngration was made 
general. 'When at tbe retnm of nigtit tlie retreat was Minndod, 
the Tcar-giiardj i'didjhimhI *if flennaiia, *iet in 1nn»w tbo mooting 
bonse and every private Labiladon tb;tt till tfiea had G0(*9ped- 
At OmiTo FuntiH a m<»ting-houi»t( a:id all dwi-Jlingi nad liania 
were coDtmncd. 

Oil tEiti eleventh the IJritifth appcuit-^d l>efi)TV Nomralk and 
bumod itft houpic^, bam«, and place* of piiblic vorabip. Sir 
Q«OT|:o Collier and Tryoa, Iho Biiti^ admiral and funeral, in 
tlieir addroM to the hihubitauta of Connceticnti aaid : " The 
«xietence of a sanf^io liabitatton en your dufencoluM eoM ought 
to bo a oonttant repioof to your inirratftHde.** 

New T^in(h>ri imit M^lectiici a« tho neit victim; but Tfyon, 
whn bail nln^ndy Tost nearly a hnmlml tvwl ^fty n^r^n, wnw nv 
calloi to New VurU by a disaster winch had befallen the ISriL 



1770. 



PROGRCtiS OF rriE WAR. 



BS1 



bL Ko Boooer had tbc; etroDgt}- fortified tbemaelvcA At Ston.r 
Poant tliui WiiAliington, after n^ocrtaiiiing the cliomctcr of 
their wcrkf, formed u pliui for toking ibtm br fcrpriee. 
Wavne, of vliom he i&ad« ehoicd to lead tho cuterpriee, uidcr- 
took the perilotcfl ofBce ^ith aUcHty, wad d«v1&ed iniproiv- 
meiitA ID the mothod of i;x< 'routing tlie d^gn. 

Stony Point, a hill jntH b^low ili^ llighlatEds, projectn into 
Wvi Hudtfin, wUidi eummndB ilireo futiHliM nf ii^ liiur; the 
fourtli «ido vrai coTCmtl bjr a nian<K, i>vrr u-lni:}] tli^re lay hut 
oco pithvray; vhcrc thts n>ad joined the river, a f^mdy bcuch 
w« left bdre at low tide, TUo foTl, which ft-on fmriiAlicd with 
hcavv ordiianoo and g&rrifloned by tAx hundred mciu crowned 
the hill. Il&lf-waj botwoen tho riiw and the fort tiicre waa 
ft double row of ahattls. Breflstworlca and ftrong baltoiiu 
ootild ral:e anr eolumn whldi niight mItshcq orer tho b«Mih 
and the numh, Frj«n thi\ nxtrr, v«M»b of war commanded 
the focii i>f tfie hll], (jocidiLCtin^ twelve huudruJ dntevn tiH-n 
ID tnii^lo tile iiXcT moMiil^QA am] through oinraMCH aod tiarrow 
p aa a c B, Wa^-ne huJtf^d them at a di^tancd of a mile and a h^ 
froni tbc cncnijr, while with Che pHnoipiJ officers l)0 reeor^ 
Doitrci the worlo. Abotit twenty nuantc* aftcv twelve on tho 
tnoraiof: of tho eurtcouth tho ftamdt began, tho troops placing 
thdr f^le dependcoeo oti the bayonet. Two advaneo poitlc* 
of twenty men mdi, la one of whidi cerontoon ont of tho 
twenty were HUed or wormded^ removM ilie abnftis and other 
obiKtructiorw. 'Wiivrii-, hwHitg on a n-j^]iii<ul, wwi wcniiidtHi in 
the bead, but, Eiipportod by hi« aids, »liU went fnrward. Tho 
two colomnK, he^Ieee of mneketrj and grape^ol, gained tho 
centie of tho work* nearly at the nine moment. On the right, 
Flemy rtnick the oneny'a etrndard with his own hand, and 
wu nutontlj joined by Stewwt, who coaunandod die van of 
tho loft. Five hundred and forty-throo Britiah offloera and 
piiivaAoa were niado prlaooen. The achferieinoDt waa ux its 
Idud the EiKA brilliant of the war. 

Tho dimhikhing inmilxini of thii trjniu with Wiudiington 
not pennltltng him to hold Stony Point, th« cannon and etora 
wonv removed and the work* rax-d. Tho ^>cet waa aoon r^ 
QCCQpJod. hut only for & »hort tinu% by a larger Britith gaTTUon, 

He eoterprifdng epiril of Jiajor Kcory Loo of Virginia 



5ft2 AlffiRICA rS ALLIAVCE THIB FRAXCE, rp.iT.; n^XtL 

ha<l Ih^vu Applauded in genorol ord^e ; 1u< diHn^ propctiol to 
sttompt tho fort nt Puiliu Hoolc, now Jonoj City, (>l)ainGd 
Uj« appioval of AVashingtoi], llip plarn wa* stmng, Iwit wsu 
t-jin^liwly giiunUtd. Tiiu pitriv Kith I^M? uaa imdiaooverod 
UEitil, in t)io morning o( thu nini^lHCfErnt}) <}f An^rt, hedom diy, 
tbey plunged into tlio canalf then deep from the ruing tide. 
^olGjing i]ie main work thtou^li a fii« of mnakatiy from 
block-bonH:^, tli<7y dvpturcd tlio fuol Ix^foro the diftaJiargc of a 
einffle piocoof Ailillcrj. Aitcr d^yirook tti<?j withdioVf taldog 
wiUi thorn out* liiiadred and 6fty-ulne pruoDeN. 

Xncit<Hi Uy liic niiuMucrea of Wyoming mu\ Cliony t&Uiiu; 
cor^T^fls, on the twonty-fifth of Folinmyf had directed Washp 
]ngt^)Ti in piiili-L^t. lliiT iiiluiid friJiiUt-r Hud diiataM U»* St'itmn 
IndidTiK Of dio two naiLintl roulcvt tu llicirooanU^-^ tliat of 
the Siifir|iieliaiinah waa eclected for three thonaaud xsxn of iho 
beet cotkdDcntnl troops wlio were to nSy at Wyomiit^ whito 
ODO tbousmd or more of the mon ol Hc-w York wero to more 
from Iho Mohawk rivtr. 

Before tJioy eotild l*c ready, a party of fire or six hundred 
i]i9D| led by Vnii Scbwh and l^'illdt:, m^o a swift march of 
three daya Into the coimtry of the Onondiigaf, and, vilhonC 
tho loM uf n iiLttit, di'-ntmyiMl diinr K-ttlenit'itt, 

The command of tlie great expedition, wldcli Ga!*« de* 
oUned, dts^-olved oai 8ntliVHn, to whoiD WiuJiingtoa in liny 
gKT9 repeatedly the in&tritctioii; '^M>>i-c oa li^>lit aa poeatdo 
eten from the &>t ojl^oL Keje«4 ercry ariide that can ho 
di«pcn0od with ; tU« i« on extroordinary ck^, and reqtiirc* ox- 
tnordiAary attention." Vet Sullivan inado inaatiable demandi 
OD tike govemiuciit of Pt-nue^trania, autl wasted time in findhig 
fault and writi£;^Btnuif^tlioolcv*icflloceay«. Meanwhilo, Dritiili 
and Indi&n pnni^ans near Fort Bchuykr Biiq^rlAod und oaptnred 
tweutv>n!ue mowi-rK Saviigi^* under MaoOom?]! Iiud ^-aMto tlio 
wcit Uink of tho Sueqnoharnaljy till ^^llio Tndinjw,'* by his own 
r<.t[Htri, '^wisre j^lutU!<! wltli p!«mlfr, priwujt-ns ai^d i»raljt<," 
Thirty mitea of u cIoKly Mttlcd conctr)' were burnt Brant 
and lua crow cooBnincd with fire all the settlcmenc of Muusuik, 
one fort exceptod> arid, from a patty hy whom they were pcir- 
•iiod, look more thnn forty scalp* and ono prisoner. 

iia befit part of the eeaaeo wsi gone wh«a SuUlran, oa die 



I77»p 



raOGKSSfi OF Tli£ WAK. 



393 



la^t of Jaly, mdvod from Wyoming. I!U ftmrat m T^ofna 
eciit terror tc tW Indkiu^. SQ\-«nil of their clitub «u<i to 
Colonel IJolton tn ooutid) : ** "Whj^ dooi not tlw gtttt king 
oiir fatlier^ viMWt tuj Oiir \nrHgf« will bp ciit off, nTi<l we can 
DO lt>iig«r '>>?lil hiA battJtt^'' ()ji t.lie twenty^ieeoHd of August, 
the dnv sficr SalUvuii wuh joiuud lijr Ilew York ii\>n[M lUMlor 
General jr&mc^ Clinton, Lc bogftQ the m^rcb up the Tiogs iDto 
the Leut of tlio Indian countrr. On tbc same <t&y JUttla 
David, A Molkiiwk chief, doltTored & meMDgc irom JuntJiclf and 
the Six >i^atione to Haldnnand, then ^vcmor of Canada: 
** BrotJier I for theaa three y^am past the Six KAtiooA liflvo 
been mnntng u racLt ngulnift fnwh on^mieK, and an rtlmofit ont 
<}f bi-ealh. Kovf vjv tliall jwo wliether you are oar loving, 
strong brotUt-r, or wlwttier you ducKivts u*, HrotIii?r! wc nro 
etlll strong f<jT the king of Englaiid, if yoiL wilt «bow ub that 
hit U li man of liia woni, and thiit he >vil] not ab&udoii hh 
bnrihcns Uw Six Natioiw." 

Tha march into tho ^onntiy of the Boncros on tho left ex- 
tended to GcncMo ; on the ngld, detachments reached Caju^ 
hke* After dedtrojing eighteen vitla;^ and their fielda of 
coni^ SulUvfin retnniod to Ketir Joreey. A roiaQ party from 
Fort Wtt, itndor command of Golonol Brodh<n<1, hrolto np tho 
tovns of the Sonccas upon the upper branch of the Alloghiny. 
TIm inufiifHit babilily of Grvat BHtaIn to yn^teet tl« ^x 
TfatfcH^ tanpbt thpni to t]vKtm nentinlity. 

In Juru! ilna Bi'itoHli gt-jit-nl 7irai*Jeeii), who ri>inii>and«d !d 
Not* Bcotia, fi»iablt#bcd a pout of six JiuiwlmJ iiipn ut wliat b 
now Oaatinct od Penobsoot l)ay. To dialodj^ tbo mtrodcn^ 
tfae llaasachmetta Icgiabttitrv Kcnt timt'teen armed tihip!^ sloops, 
asd briga ; tro of them ootitincntol vciecb, tbc rc«t priTatcciB 
or belonging to tbo etateu Tho flotilla airriod more clrnn thrco 
hundred gnvf\ and vnm ntlmded by twotiijfour tmn*portij 
having on board netrly a thouBand men. So hufi;e sjx AmeH- 
can anoamcTit had :iLii-er pur to aeo. Tbo towns on tho CD^at 
#pamd no wcrifico to irfiure &nrr<«8. Otv dio twenty-ctigMh of 
July tho expedition gallantly effseted tlielr tandiitg, but were 
too vrcalt to carry tW works of tho BritiHh hy ittonn, nnd, 
while a reinforcement ww on the way, Sir Ocor^ CoUlor on 
the fottrtecnth of Angnst arriTcd in a alxty^four gun ahip» a^ 




3^ AUERTCA IH ALLIASCE WITH FRA^ICE. kt, i».i CB. x«. 



tetided by five fn^tea. Tu'r) vehutvl^ of war fell into litfl liatidij 
tli€ n^TLDi] all ttiu traniB^HLrlrt run up tlto nvi^, am] vrrmtKunt 
by thi* men of tLc crpcditioiu who made llieir oecApo tltroo^ 
tliQ wood& The Brituh wore luft mafitera o£ Uio cotinti^- cut 

ci tlio I'cTWbfiCOt. 

Yot tbo roralt of tho compaij^En at the north promised eno- 
ocoB tc Ameriow CUaton bad ov&cu&ti^ Rhode Uimd, and 
fiU Xow England wv«t of tho PonoUcot wu froo from aa 
eaemy. In Now York tlio Six Nations liad learned that 
tl»e u]liani« with llie Kii^lisli ftt«ijpt«i thv^m gift*, liut not jiro* 
tocdoTL On the TTuiInon rivrr Hh* A iinflj-'iin^ nxvjvcfvd the 
UM of King's ferry, and held all the ooimlry above Cl 

The whiter wt ua early and wifli uirjroutod •crcrrity, 
foJC the middle of December, and long before tho ana] 
could build their lof; hute, tho enow lay two foot deep iii New 
Jonc^i where tho troops were cantoned; so tlmt thcyaaved 
themeelvce with diffionlty from freosinji; by keeping up largo 
firee. Ccntinental money waa yalaed at no inoro tluin thhty 
for one, und evi^i nt tlmt nito tlio c.ttmtry ppoplo took it cnwilb 
ingly. Tlieit) oonM he no ro^ilariiy in aijpplits, SometiuK^ 
t1]€ ariiiy w^ Evt? or hzx <hiy* Uigt^thcr without Inf^ ; nt otbor 
tifnc« Aji Tnony witliont tncat ; and onica or twice two or Ibree 
days without cither. But fiudi wsa tLe ofRciency of tlie niag- 
t0trato» of New Joreey, tnob the good dUpOfition of it« pcopio, 
that, when rcqniationa were made hv the eommandQr-iii-<^ei 
on it! BQTonLl coimtJos, tlicy were punctniilly complied with, 
and ia como eountica oxcoodod. For many of tho ooldion 
tho term of servico expired with tlie year ; and shorter enlhit- 
mmtfl, by wlilch HovL!tul hUCck uitt^mpttxl ti> till thf^ir t]iiota«, 
were fatal to fomiJactTuj^i and etabiUty. Ms»^irhTWetra of* 
fvr^id A IjounLy nf live huudml dolluni 1u ta<^h uf tl]ii»r? u'hti 
would enli^ for tlirt'o ycjtrt or tho war, and fijund few to 
aoeept tho offer. The Americana wanted men and wanted 
money, bnt could not be aobdoed. An mcakufable rirengtb 
by iD tv$rvc in tho enc^^ of tbo ttatca and of each individual 
dtiien ; and nt^tbcf eongnsa nor people harbored a doubt of 
th^ nlttmato triun^>h. 

Thomaa Pownall^ a memher of parlinment, who^ from long 
dril acrrloe in Tariona parta of the United Statea, knew them 



m». 



PB0GBE9S OF TES TAIt 



8S5 



tlioiQiiglily vr<^\ p])^!uboll in KuglnrHl a merouriul ulioiit Uiom 

** Tliti «jrateiu of aitaljlifiliing coloulea in various cUmateB ta 
crttUo ft moaopolj of tko poruliv product of Uieir labor is st 
end. TIhi spirit of commerce bath bcoomc prodomuunt A 
fi:nat and |>ower^ul cmpm\ founded in natim szid growing 
inlo sn uulapcridoat orguiised being, hoi takcm its oqviJ iti* 
tion with the nations upon earth, I see the sua rim^ in tha 
wesL The ind^pendenoa <d Ajcerica Is flsed ba fate ; she is 
nmin^M of hur own forttiiu^ ; kiiaw« Uiat ttho w so ; and will 
estjibll^li li«r own ^'i^tuui and coustttulion and diange the 
synttioi of Eunijw, 

" In thifl Now World growth is fonndcd in the civilizing 
actirilj- of tlie UmEiau tucs. We eee all the inliaLiUnte not 
oulj frooi hut allowing an univcnul luturdiwtion. In a conn* 
tjy like thiB, whore ever? nia,n Im? the fnlJ nnd froo oxorticn 
of his pov^ers, an unabated ap[)lioaiior] aud & p^^rpetual strode 
ftharjwn the wtu and g^va coaetant tmiiriiig tc the mind. In 
this wiiderncea of woods the eettlera try experiments and tbo 
advantages of thair dlucorerlttt liro th^ir uwu. One seos Uimn 
U1>i>riag afli;r tliA plough^ lu Uimrgli they hw] not ao idea 
bejFond tJie gronnd they dwell 141011 ; ^ct la iheir uilnd aiH the 
while enlatging lis pownnt, aiul tht;ir spirit ricH^fl o^ their iiii- 
provcm«at« adrancc^ This is no fancy drawing of what may 
be lit ia an eocact portrait of what actnally exista. ^:u\y a 
real phitoaoph^r, a poUticiun, a wairior, cmorgo out of thia 
wildijnioia, a« tho eood risoe out of the i^nnd wiiero it hath 
lain haried for its season. 

" Ju tigri^LiiUtirg^ hi medianio lundicrafte, tlio Nqw World 
liatli been led to many iraprorements of Implements, tooli^ 
and macJiiflga, leaiUng csLprritmoff l>y t)»? hunt} U) innny a new 
InTCDlion. Tho soUlers find fragnients of Lime h\ which thBj 
make moat of the* artioJea of peMnnal wear aiul lunuwi^told lus 
for honne coosomption. ttcir no laws frame eonditioos on 
whteh amen is to exeroiae tlua or thai Inde, Here ar« no 
oppreaiti^, obstroctug, deadnlouig laws. The moment tiial 
tho progress of dviljzatian is ripe for it, mannfaotarps will grow 
and Increase wiib an afitonishing exaberaaoy. 

''The same iDg^nnity Is exerted in sldp-hnildlng ; their 



33$ AUEBICA r?3 ALLTANOE irfTH FRANCE, sp, tr. ; cb. zn. 

eonuicreo luth bwn Mnking deep root Tba luttm of 111* 
eoaOt moil of the winds muliin nunDO Davigadoii « perpeCi^ 
ftlly movii^ btercourso ; and tlie iutvr« of Ute rivero rtriulrjK 
inloiul Dftrigibioa but » fnrtlker prootm of tbit commtmiofi; 
aU wkioh become, as it ircrc, a odd rital principle of life^ «x> 
lcnd«d tiirougb a odo o^Euuxed he'mg, ouo natioiu Will tbat 
paoet oDbwpruing itpirit bo ttoppod ot Oapo Horn, <M^ not paae 
th« Oope of (iood Hopot B«foi^ loof? tboy will bo fouid 
Indbig in tlio Soutli Sea, in ili« Spioo Iidiiid«, and in Cliiiia, 

*' TbiK fortcring hiippiufin* in North America doth prodooe 
j>Hign.«Mive popniation. Tliojr Lave liiorcTiacd nearly tbo 
doiilklt? ill vi^Uu»t!U ^'mi^ Hy ivflUHtmit intereontmnnioD, AmoN 
lea v-ill evc^ day appirurb nc^-mer and nearer to EaropeL T'li- 
Ictti the grcBit pot«aiUttf of Kurope cm rtalloii cbcnitMiD at 
areiy aroniio with a floniing tword that tnnu eYer7 waj, to 
praniLt iQan*e qiuttiag tius Old Worid, mnJtitndea of thdr 
pooplo^ manj of the moat vK*fu], uatorpridng fptrita, inJt ofni- 
gr&M to iho novr ono, Uuch of tho active prop^y will p> 
theraaba 

(* The now coipln of Am<?ricH L( likv a gt^at n-nd}' to run 
ita ooana. The fa«t«ru:g cam with wliich the rival powen of 
Eiiropu wiU uunw it tmunai lU wtulilLluiiurit iH^'ond all doubt 
or dajigpr/* 

So prophctwd Pownall to the Knglkh world luul to Eu* 
rope in the first month of ITdO. Bh\Qc tJic ianie of the war la 
to proceed in a |;;reat part from Iho inflnenee of Knropeaa 
powcnt, it behoovta ua now to atudy tlic manner of thdr inter- 
TcDtion. 



lT7»-irT9. 



AMERICA IX ECHOPE. 



m 



CHAPTER SXn- 

AkUHTCA Df ffintOl'E. THE JLOUZD KCUTmLITT- 

177S-1-SO. 

FftKDfiaiocf Pnisda had raised Uiehope tb*t Ite voiild follow 
Fninco in ivcogmsng tliu indopciidcnco of lIic United Slatoi; 
l>Lit the question of tLo DaTariAii socaccttion compcUod hmi, 
in junctiot: wiUi Saxonj^, to t^t^nd forth aa the obampiob of 
Gennany ; ond in hii ]atc old kgc^ bovkcn am Jie ww in ovcr^ 
ttiinK but spirit, ho Ftiycd tho figgraMicm of Aiistria on i!a- 
Tariun UMritor}-, and on tho liberty wd tho couetitution^ of 
tho Germanic body* "At tliis moment the SL&in of ^xig- 
knd with her oolonioBiUsappoarod from his oy«e." ToWilUma 
LcCj viiha, iu July 1TT7, liad been appo1nto<1 hv corignuA iu 
commimooef to trc&t alikiv witli the emperor cf (icrmnny and 
tlje kiu^ of rroaaU, aad In Marrh 1778 imporlvned tlw rru»- 
nan nunutcr Sdiu]enlnirg for leave tc iroridd at Berlin a& aa 
AfOttHcon faccdonnrf, Frcdcrio minuted tlus anAwcr: **We 
on »o occupied mth Germany that wo eexmoi think of tbo 
Amoricoiu ; wo ahoald bo hearUty glad to reco^oldo them j 
hat at tliis pn^mnt momont it could da tWm no good, and to 
tu mi^t b^ v^ry detriloecit&h" Ho could not roeviw ihu 
j)rUu* of tht; Amudeona In £uibd«o, hecauie at that harbor be 
hnd no meniui to protect thvm \ thnir morcJianta vrTti ndmitti*d 
to hid ports oa the eante lemia aa tho ruerchanta of all other 
comiliifia^ 

Tho Britiah ministry, abandoning the lohaao of doCroyukg 

Prtifidaa inflmonoeat Pecerebnr^eoagbt to propitiate Fradorie, 

as the beat tneana of gaining bror in Busda; and 4titbonjEed 

its miniftor at Bvrlin to propose an oUiaoco. But Frodorio was 

C4&, r.— aa 




338 AMERICA 15 ALLIiSCi: "STITH FRANCE. kp,it,; omsEZit 

mmltoribly raeolTod "not to comrflot ivIalionB with a povtff 
wlikli, hk^ Et^gjbud in iha Lut war, Iind ouce dccdved liim la 
miirOTtlnly." 

"VTiih ihe r^tomHon of ]x?aoft, Atietria a&cl Ri»d& oontOBled 
Iha lienor of Woming medjatoM betwe^^n tJie Bourbooaand 
En^nud. On the fift«^nlli of May 1 779, ^farla Theresa wroto 
in her own band to Oharlce lU. of tipaiOf in tlie hopo to hold 
Mm back f rem wax ; and «ho sent & like li^tter to her MQ-in- 
Uw ftt VenaUka. KuniiitA, licr groat minifft^rr, follovred witli 
farmAl pro]>OA[ilft of mcdinti'^ii to Fhliico and England. In m 
ftntoj^pb Idtter, the king of Spain put :iside the inteiferenoe 
of the emprcffi ; and on the alxl^nth of Jnne hk amhasatdor 
In London (Trim-nil t" rorcl WrvniDndi n di^-lnmtJcn nf war: 

* w 

but neither hi thnt declamtion nor in tho inaiiifeHto whicdi fol- 
Ii>wcd WU8 Ihexe one wotd rehktuLg Ut the w&r in Aidcyicb. 

In reply, Burko, Fox, and their fncndc^ joitLc<l in pledging 
the homo of commons and tho nation to tlio anpport of the 
crown- Fifty thourtwid troop* defended the couftt«, and a« 
miDj TDoro of Che nailitja wero cnroUod. The oicillation of 
tho fundfl did not exceed one per cent But o^i^uioD mere 
and more denied to parliament the riji^it of taxing cmT«]>rc^ 
Bentod colonEefif and prepaid to accept tlic neooeti^ of roo- 
c^Mng thoir iiidopondonoo. In the oDniDioDfi, Lord John 
CaToiidij^i, tnio to ^o idea of Chadiaxn> movtd for ordcn to 
vitlidr-ftw tlie Briciiih furoL'fl eiiijjlo^v^d in Amcnca; lo the 
lord^ the duku of Richmond pr«[io?wxl a total clunyi^ of mca» 
orcfl in Amoica and Ireland; and thcj wcro wipportwi hj 
bcreiuing nurnbi^n. The g:roat knd-ottnors were grovmnck 
of nttomptiDg to tax America; I^ord Mansfield was ready to 
eon£ent to the cutting of tlie tracofl tlmt bound the raftloM 
Dolonioa to BriUin ; Lord North was frvcpirntly dropping hinta 
ihat DO odTantAgif vthm to ln^ giLuit^d by contlnnitig tlie oonte*!. 

Bnt on the twenty-^M of Innn tht; king Rnrnmonod hie 
mlniKli'm Ui hxa lihniry ; Ami, ^eath^ them aU at a labki, ex* 
pieaecd to them in a i<pcoch of an hoiir and a half '^ the dictatce 
of hia frequent and aorere self-^samiiutaon." Inrituig the 
fnenda of Groirillo to the mtp|H>ii of the adnuiuatratioD, ht 
dc^1nro<l hi» nnchanging rexilutioa to eany on tlio war a^twt 
Amorioa, Franoe^ and Spain. Before Ui wonld Iwar of anj 



I 




IPS. 



889 



man^a readineea to oomo into o^^, ho would cxpeot to ec^ it 
Kgnetl unOer Li!« Uaud, tliMt lie v*ua reiaK-cd to l:e4>i> th(> ^mpiro 
Gtitirv. "If liU tnihrntiim wnnM ncd with vigor itrd flrmneBI^ 
be wouM FTipport tTtem Hgainat wind nnd tiiTe." Yet, far Fnim 
obtaining rticruitd from the frieudn of OrerivtU^ tlio Admliiirini- 
tSon vu about to IO0O its mcmbon f>f tbo Boiford coimection. 
Tbe chief mioi^tcr, incapable oi fonDing t plan for the con* 
Ootft of Ulo war, ropoaUsdly oficr«d hiit roAigiiation, not in oar- 
D«Ft, bTit that it might K-rv'o hitn ae on onoiuo f or n^maining in 
office vn'thout 3LseniniD^ the proper rc^pondbfUty of hb atfttion. 
Confiding in the rain af tbe fiiiaiaee« of the rcbeU ind in P9- 
miilitig ftiinvjuifull^ >vtUiiTi rJir*ir UmlinM, iIip king was certain 
Uiat, 1>ut for tlie intorTt'iition i>f Spain^ tlie provincc^A would 
hftta ftned to tlra iLOllior coii:itry fur pordoa ; niid *^ he rlJd not 
dcspur that, with tho activity of Clinton and tbe Indiaiu, 
the; vould oven now gubmit," i^lt lus demands for an 
Oneondltiixaal complinnco with hia AmoriGim policy left him 
no chofloe of mini^tora but nmon;; w^lc Toon. So tbe oflico 
mode Tioant by the deith of Lord Suffolk, tho reproientAtdro 
of tho Grcnrillo ponj*, wom reieired for Hill^boroagh. *' RU 
American flontiraontiT** wd tho kingj *^ nu^ki- him »cceptiblo 
to me." Tet It wonld have been barf lo find a pubUo man 
mora ignonuit or inoi\^ it&rmw, niorr <;oiifii«o(l m judgment or 
faltering In actioD: nor w&8 bo allowed to winter on activd 
Bcrvjce till liord WoymoiiUi had retired* 

To unito the bonee c^ Bourbon in tbo war, Franco h^d 
bound borself to tho inraoion of England. Trao to her ooto- 
Dont, «be moved troopv to tho oaoM of Komiandj and Brit* 
taoy, and ongaged moro than etxty tmiuport r«(f)cl« of eizt«<ii 
thouttnd tons* bnrdoit. Tbo king of Spain wonld not li«f«n 
to fl whisper of the hacird of tho nnd^rful^iiigj for which he 
was to foroifih oulj i\iQ ^jiinporBiy nee of twenty Hhip» for tho 
defeoeeaf tlitrFrvuirni hi t^roMtSng the ^hannvJ. I<1onda BUnca 
inA£t«d on an immodiito doAcent on England without rctgard 
td risk, VergOLDGe, on tho othor hiind» held tho landing of a 
French army fai Enghuid to be radh until a naral victory over 
the British ahonld haro won tho dominion of the om. 

Early tn J«no tho French fleet of thirty-ono ahipa of the 
Uue,y£ddjng toSpaniihimportanltie*, pat to sea ftom Brett ; 



141) AUERICA IN ALLIANCE VIIH FBASCE. v. it. ; cu. suii,' 



ani] \ut lltKy were ulvligtid to \rati oH tlia coaat of 8pdn for 
tho Sponianla. ^Vftcr a \om of two tnontlui in t^ best momq 
of thd year, a junction w^ effected witii moro tlaD twcDty 
ehip&^WQf uuder llio aepaiuto oojiimand of Ccunt Q^aCoa; 
and the cotubiaod Hout, tbo lorgtvt f<^rcu tUut had cxnr boon 
ofloftt, sailed for the Britiab ohaiinel. King (roorg^ loDgod to 
hoar tlmt Sir CLarlts Ilardy, with scarcely more than fortv eblp« 
of i}i9 Iluc-, IjacI liniuglit tim ntsw anrfula to WtUn. "Kvi^-< 
thJng,** wnnto MKrie ADlolnette, "dcpond* €ti the |>n«f!nt 
inotti«;at Our united fleets have a grtat enpenority; tliej 
an in the cLmmel ; Aud I ca&not tliink wltlicutt a almdder that, 
from one moment to tho next, onr dcftinv ^rill be decided," 

Tlio uuElet] tluot rode unmole«t<fd by the Britiab ; Sir 
Cbarlcfi HeltiIv oitliur did not or wonld not wo ibotn. On Hit 
d3lc€nth of Auj^uet th^y app^ir^d off Plymouth, but did not 
attack the town. After two idle daja, a strong ^nd drove 
Uimn tj ttir wmL Tniini ifin gale li;ul aliJit^^il, the alliiin ral- 
lied, returned up tho ehannel, and tlio Brituh retreiil4*d before 
tltein- No hanuoay exiated between the Freueli and Spaniidi 
officcn. A deadly malady rava^itd the Freitcli Khtps and in- 
f€Cto<l tliG Spoiiifji. The ccmbincd flooi never had ono chiof, 
Tho French rotomed to port and romainod there ; tho Span- 
iarda Bailed for Cadb*, exeetuting their idliui. Tho tvo powers 
hod not even Imrmcd Bnttsh mereba,nt v<«4e]fi on their home- 
ward -voyages The troope that were to luro hmded In Eng- 
land waMtod by 4!)jiiii<i; in N'tn^i.tfidy nxi<\ Itnttany. "Tho 
doing of nothing at u\\ will liavd et^t ns a great deal of mon* 
ey/' wrote Marie Antoluette lo her ntotlicr. Tberu wui nnth- 
ing but the captui-e of the Uttlo inland of Grfmada for vhich 
a To Dcum could bo chanted in l^im. *^ We ahall foci it very 
eenaibly if any offer of medmticn aljould be preferred toonia^" 
vrroto Maria Th<tre«iL to hor danghter, who answered i "Tho 
iiothinf^9M of the campaign remorea every idea of peooo.*' 

During tho attempt at an in^-laion of Enj*land the alliiMl 
ItuIligiTmitM enitsidpirwl tho Gonditfom of IreWd. *' To form 
Imland into an indeperident government like that at AmeHea/' 
wrote VergujUR-n, '^ I irinild not coont upon tJic Ortlinlic*. 
The^- form the lurgcfit and the mort oppr»8^ part of tho 
nation ; bat the priodpla of Ihdr religion attojchofl tbcm epo^ 



THE ARKED KECTBaUTT, 



841 



Diall/ to the iDiMiArcIucfil Eptom.^ An Amcric^an vhb MQt oi 
tho tgeiit of Fnincd to fona doeo n>ktioti£ with tl^c principal 
Freflbyicrians, copvdtiUy willi tlio ininiet'^re ; but confidence 
wna not oeUbliabod bet^oen Franoe and tJio protoatnnt Irish. 

Tlw wuitfiuj fni'iu Spurn to tbo IHal Cuttiolioi wu x Cutl»o- 
lio prio^ who wsA promised a bii-'lLopric if he ahould stiooecd. 
Ho could have no Buooegd, Aiter tti^ ^rst shedding of Ameti- 
oan blood in 1 77**^^ omt luimlmd And twritty-uruj 1nf}i Ontliolt^i^ 
profeaaing Ui speak ^'for all the RonmrL Ctttliolio Iruh," had 
uiode io tliti British ^ecrdar/ m Ircliuid "n tender of two 
DuIUotu of mta in defence of the gOTciniDCDt of the kin^ la 
a:ay part oC the world," The liiab osodatJcn aixaed only to 
extort for Irolaxid tho frao trade witli other nationt which had 
IxMUi gnmlcd to Scotland at tho union. 

Ai Boon aa th« oxUte&oo of war between Spain and Gr^at 
Britain was loaown at Xew Orkuiui, Galvex, Iho governor of 
lyniiAtirtn, At^v hjgcther all the t^oop^ nrwier hifi coinmaTid t» 
drive (he Irtish from the ]kTii48!e8lppI, Their jk»U were ]in> 
lt?ctL<d h/ Wh tlii[i fiVT! hirndrcil men; DeiUi'iiantrOoIonel 
UlckfiOiiT abandoiting Manehoc sa unteaable^ EU^tained a iilego 
of idne 6^ya at iJatcn Itooge, and on the twouty-Hnft of Sep* 
tembormadcaii hocoraUe cnpitulation. Tbc t^paniaids phcncd 
tho TflCOTcry of eaat Honda, Feneacola, and Mobilo* Tiwf 
ezpdUiMi from Hoodunu the British logwood cniton. Id 
Europe, their Cm act was the de;^ of Gibraltor. 

More important wcr« the oaoeequeDcee of the linperioTia 
manner m whieh Ore»t Britouit, Rnbuiliiting ita own will aliha 
for lU trcsitk« and the law of natloiu, rioUled the ri^hta of 
cteutnlfi cm thu lii^'h Auift. 

The inimiinity of Doatral flags ia unknown to harhtroos 
powGf& Tbe ueegM of the middle n^ condemned as lawful 
boo^ th« property of an eocmy, though under llie ^ng of a 
fritnd ; but »pand the property of a friend^ tfaen^ under tho 
flag of an enemy. Shipa, exe«pt ihoy belonged to iho onenay, 
WW& iwTer fionflaoftted Whon the Dntdi npTil)li« took ha 
place among tbo pow«n of tho earth, crowiwd with the honon 
of ma rty rdoau in tike fight against hi peredti on, thia daughter of 
tike 0ea« with a carnrifxg Inide fT<Tc<-(s!mK tint nf nny otlier tv^ 
tioor bccftmo the champioa of tho tuaritimio codor which pr> 




313 AUEmCA Ufi ALUAVCfi VITQ FBAXCK, vp, rr, ; <u. XXEL 

teoted Ibo nontra] tlitg cvt^ry-^hott on the gv^t de^ In tbo 
yonr l€4l^ thtOB princtplea wore imbodj^d tn & ooimnerdAl 
tnatj bctveon the republic and FrsBca WIkd CroiOTreU 
VAfi pTl>t4)rtnr^ wIictb Mtbim wiw J^iux »atm?ttry, Uia rigliU of 
noiitnils found tLoir ju»1 placi* i[i iho titntii» of EnglADd^ ia 
1Q54 vriiL Portugal m lC5:r witli France, in 16&l> wiUi Bwbdcn. 
AfteT itic return of tho Stiuirld, thej vera recognbedjn ICrT^i 
in thuirfullc«tcxtcDt b^ tho oaomiGrGaal ooimittion bctwcoi 
England and tbo If etberlnnda. 

In le^l^ufurUiO *tadlioldcr of thfi TTnitod Proviucct bad 
beon oWlod king cf Fa^^lftad^ bijt ov«rjKMreriug mfloonoedr^w 
tlio iS'«tberlBTida into an acc^nie^oeTioe la a declarfttlon tbat all 
»]iiji«^>liigti} fiT (Stnmiig fn>[n n Frc^iu'It ptirl wi'j^Tgcxid priii:*} 
but it vnB rocalled tipoti tfio rfrmouF^trHnc^c of riL^iitral ctatea 
T1i« H^lita of uoutnil fia^ were ccnfinncd hy I<Vaiu» ind 
EnglftDd ID tlic peace of Utreclii The baiefiu ct tlie ngrree- 
meat «xtctidGd to Denmark, ad entitled to ftU faTora graotcd to 
otlier powon^ BetwecD litoi and 1713 tbe prindple had boon 
aiboopuA in nearly tironty trcatju*. Wbon, in i745, Pmadon 
ahip«, ladan with n^ood and com, were captured on die hi^ 
sctti and condemned in EnglMi eourEfl, Frederic, wiibont a 
tiwttyi mrtuig onljr on thu kw of tialiotn^ indrniiiin^'d bin tsab- 
jecta for iheir W^cfi b^v reUtllaUonA on Kn^lajuL Tlie iieutraJ 
Ibg found protcicttt^n in tbo comtnrrriAl txvatj ni-go1idted ta 
17G0 bj tbe Itockini^Uam uiiniMi? witb RoBGla, whose interacta 
aa Uie producer of hcm^ r«fiuired ihx atHct^t defimtlon of 
eoDkraband. Of thirt)'-flcvcn Koropcftn t7«atica mado bctvccQ 
1715 and 17S0, but tvo have b^n f<«mid which contain con- 
ditionn Gonlravenin^ neutral ng]it«. 

In 1T7S Knj-lond dedrod an off^olvo and dcfeiudv* aUl* 
anco iftirJi "Rxnadx and w-itb th^ "Diiidt repnbUa To the »- 
tiovr^d oTurtujv, C-onnt PunJn, tbo ouljr KuMias atatearaan 
much lisU>n«id to hy the omprav in the diw^ission of foroign 
aifjiint, n>p1Tril tbnt HiiKKi^i iii-veru'ntiM <ljiiil4t«i advant^^ to 
Great Briuin in ita oonUst with lU colomca, and *'ncrer 
vould ^Tiamitve ita Aintuican doininioma,'' After the avoiral 
by Fruboo of tte trcatici \ritb tho colonics, DnrriN Uic Britiah 
tmEiater at Petenitmr; a^kL-d an andiimce of tlie cmpixfe; hia 
reqncat wa» rcfiiaod, ujui ull lifa Qom|)taint» of the "ooort of 



II7S- 



THR ARKED NKimiAtlTT- 



au 



Voreiuitu ilrrw fnjin her on\j civil nrortlft nruJ kkDwariti o:c- 
prea^ons of frii^ncLiltip/* But wlieii^ in tlie buinincr of 1778^ 
uTi Atnt-ru-^u jirivHlt^tTr Iioviiivd iJT Uio Ntntti CajJe and took 
eovetJ or more Uritinh v<wcU bojinil for ArciiAngil, P.initi in* 
formed liams uitmstcmlly that, eo long tA tbD ISritiflli treated 
^ AiDCfficsna ua rebults tlio court cf Fctornbur^' would look 
tlp03 tbcm as n pooplo not jct ontitlud to roi^ognHion. 

Lottj* years of peace bad enriobed iho Datch republie bj 
pTO«pcroiu manTtfaoturoA aiid comnieroe* It voa tJie loading 
ncntriLl povcr; liil Uw lionorof fbi lUg wu vouiongored tiy 
the defects In ite cout^icntiorif of ubidi tbe foriDH of proo^diu^ 
tciiidMl to nnon^liy. ItA nt^iilholdtTr, WlllUiu V. of lW licuxo 
of OmngCf a young nod incompetent prince, viUiout eelf-rcli* 
anee and witliont ueblencflB of nature, ivus haunted hy tbe be- 
lief that lib ovrn poBitiou could bo prwcrrcd oiily by tbo inflO' 
GQce of Great Uritain ; and from dyniLetic ecHuhocn followed 
&e oounaela of that potver, Kor w&a Km aenee of honor eo 
nioo fti to iare him from uklng cuid noccptiDg money from the 
Britififa crovm. Hu chief porvonid counsellor wu his former 
gnajrdian, PHnce Loola of Brunivlok. No mun eontd be hm 
iniltiefKXsl by motive of morvlity cr Jidulity lo Uto land m 
ivlioHB &rmy h«t MTTod, and Iko was always at the beck of the 
Bntirdi unbaoiador at tlia llagnet Fai^l, tlie lecrelan-, waa 
devoted to England, The grand pciuienary, Van BloUwijckt 
who had been the celectioa of Pliuoo LoqIb, waa a weak poil- 
tieian and inolined to Enf^-hind, hut never meant to botiay hU 
ecmntry. Thun all tlie pnoeipal executive effioen were at- 
tached to Groat Britain ; Prince Lohjb and the secTetary Fagel 
aa ohnqnloua Ya»eJB; 

FnncD }uu1 n E^mlrolling iiiflDonce In no one of tho prov- 
inciefl; but, in the ci^ of Amtlerdanif Van 13birV?7, ita pen- 
ftiiinary, waa her " friend.*' In January 1776» Wforo bur rajy 
turo witli Engbnd, the Frencli amhasaador at the Ha^ac was 
iUBtmctod to BOgg^ a eoureotion between the atattt^j^enctalt 
France, and Spain, for Uberty of narigatiou. Aa the piopOMl 
waa pat afkle by the gnuid peniaouary, VE^rp^cntioe aakod that 
the Ncthariaodi in the ooming contoat would nnnounea to tfia 
oourt of LoodoD their notttruUt}-, uid tupport it withont eon- 
cmuona* "Tin? Dutch," Vorgi^nmw obwrved, *'will find in 



344 AMERICA IS ALLIASCE VITII JTIASCE, kp. it. ; cw, KZZL 



their ovD bJstoiy m apoloji^^for the French tP«^wilbAjne^ 
icrt," FVom t!i6 fnieriarooodltiftrj of ilio ^Kt'iheriiDdft, Ibelrez- 
4*iiv>ivr Uaeh, t}i(iir wriilcnrvH »ii m^n nri<] tflTid, mul thi; pn^niriocis 
conditioa cif tbcir pintfeAsiouB iu tbo two Indio^ tbej fought 
acnipuloualjr tu uidiiit^u th^'ir iiuiitralitj. Aa E&|jAnd did not 
dugoiM her ■ggroni^o intcn^oiu, tho dty of Ajnvterdun and 
Van BOTckcl Bought to etreti^oii the j3Tit«h navy, but wew 
thwarted by Prinoo Xouis Fa^ol, vut tJio atodlioldGt. The 
I>nrdi wore bravo, provident^ Aod cnpihlo of act* oi mtg- 
naniinity ; bal they were hetrai'ed by their executive, 

III April ITT3, tlio Atiiurii.-iui oommiKaitHiurii ut Pun*— 
Frmtklin, Aitln^r Llv, nt^d John AcUinn — in ■ lAtUtr to t}i9 
^nvid |>ttitauiiitrj', T^n Blt-iawijolL, proposed a good imder- 
tlondiug iLttd ccinmerce Ik^ewi^ei llic two DatloiB, and prom- 
ised to commimicatc to the etatc^- general their commomol 
trttty with t*muce. The l>utcb povcnunont, tluongh &U its 
organs, met tbU ooily ovcrtmo of the Anioricund by total neglect. 
It wna tkoithijr anewcffod nor put in dclibcnCtoOb Tho Brltiah 
ftcarelary of state c<:iiild find do jn'onnd for eomplaint wh&IOTW. 
8tiU the mureli^mU c^f Ai[i>4L<nI]ua mw in tim btdepondoaeA 
of tho Unilwl Sut«s a vtitiial repenl of the Bntuh navlf^on 
aoU; jLiitl Ihi^miwt p]i_'LLiLughui(uriEu1 reLx>]ltw:t!oiuof ibe DtUdl 
people were mvived hy tin? riw of iho now ninilnlic, 

la tbo following July the Kng of Franco publiahod a deda- 
ratton protccCing neutral rthips, though carrying contmbaad 
gpo^ to or from ho&dio ports, tmlefiB tiio contraband osoeeded 
in mluo three fonrtlis of tbo cargo. But the right woa rcoerrod 
to reroko thcao ordon if Groat Britain filionlti not AdtluD riz 
moQtha ftrant reolproeily. 

The oommereloj treaty between Franco and tUe United 
St&tM w, nhnut tlw juim« time, detjTered to tlie gnuid pvn- 
aloDary aiid to Lbo peoEionary of ArasterdsuiL IlIm grand pea* 
ainnnry liiok no nutirw Crf it wintevrr. V«ti itdvkd, In tho 
tumo of tbo n|;oD(7 of Amstcrdaio, wrote to on Aincricaa 
oomspondent at the Hague: *' With the dcw ropoUio, clearly 
raiwd np by tho help of Pioridtnccs wc dcAino league* of 
amity and comtDoroo which shall la^t to tho end of time.** 
Yet ho aoknowlodgod that tliete wfafaoa weco the wishes of 
a unglo oUy, whicli could not bind oren tho profinoe to 



17TB- 



TIIE ARU£D NECTRALITY. 



^15 



which it belonged. Xot oqo protinco, dgt ono city ; not Hol- 
land, nor AmsUrdam ; iio^ not wen one «ngl« man, wliotlicr 
in Aulbori^ or tn humblo lif«^ftpp<utni lo bnvo «xpocti>df 
plnnTiLvT^nrwiehtd a. btYoicl) wil!i T^ngliLtu) ; unci to t)if> 1nf4^ th^y 
rejecTed tlie idea of it war witli t!iat jmwer a& an iiii|iosHlbElS(y. 
TIl« AuieHcaji onunuAuuuer^ iit Pa.rj^ Itelng indlrecU^^ iiivitod 
by Van lierckot to rcc«w Ujc offer of ii treaty of coinni«rc« bo- 
tvoen tho two rcrpQl>lic8, declined Co do ^-i ; for^ bs the f-mid 
peofiioiiaty had not replied to their letter wntttsn aomo months 
boforo, *^thuy approbondod tkit any fuitbiT motion of that 
kind oqa their part wonid not at pro^eot bo agreoable^" 

HeAndme, ono Jan de NenMUej an Ameterdnm merchant, 
who wihIiitI hiH hoiimr nynntmi^inW lo g(hid Amrrimui nmT- 
cbaDts and hqcl promiAcd nvoro &l.«out a^i A.Enrncan l4>iLii than 
ho oould make good, liud como in some w&y to know Willtam 
Lo^ in aldcnnaii of London tu< well t\» lui Aim^ncAn commit 
eionerto YiooDa and Berlin, and, with the leave of tho burj-o- 
masCcnof Aovteidani, met him nt AiX'ta-Chiipclb uud con- 
certed tonns for & oommomal oonvoation, proper in dno time 
to bo oatond into between tbo two repnbUos. The %v<t woa a 
nnlUtj. "When Leo oommunioat^ to thd camndnionon at 
7mA dm project of % eonvonUon, they rcmindwl him that 
the authority for treating with their liigh lulghtlneaiea be^ 
longwl €Xplua3Ycly to thtrmdvt*. Tho Amcdcan congTcN! 
took no notice of his intcrmoddlingr and in the followiiL^ 
Juno di^miMod lura from its BOnicc Aiiutordam dit^^humoi 
"tho abvnid dcd^ of concluding a convention indqicndcnt 
of thoir higli mightinceMe.^' '^ The burgonuBtore only prom- 
ised thdr inflaeoioo in iiiTor of a treaty of amity hetwoou tho 
two powiere, whon the independence of tho Unitod Ststtt of 
An^orica 4icn1d bo ncognlMd by tlw EngUaK" 

To ^t rid of OTerythingof wliic^ Engtukd could complain, 
llie offer made in April by FranldlDf Arthur 1^0^^ and John 
AH:uiT«, h) ni<griti'it« a (n^iiy of ucniiiiittnMi ^jetvroen America 
and iho NotherUnck, together with a copy of the contmcrcul 
treaty between the United Stttea aiid i^tance^ wai^ oe«r the 
ond of October, oommimioatcd lo tho BtaCea-gcncrriL They 
promptly coosgned it to roet in tho numncr which met c^ivctty 
the '*hQi>o" of tho Btjtuh MereCat; of stato. 



346 AKEBICA IS AIXIASCE WITH FEASCt lT.lt,;(Ttt.an. 



i 



Daring tho eutiuna-of ItTS, Britiili cnilien ind priviK 
teora fconrwl tlia <onf in 4jiii«t of iooty. Other notion* axJ- 
iered, but Twno like the Xetherlatids. To tlveir cotnplaiDta 
tlihi Hie (JeaireA^l Itiugiugt) uf tr^tii« wju dum^^rded, die «arl 
of f^udcrlk an^H'crecI Uint Uio Bnt.i»»1i aiDlxuvftdar «t the Ibgii# 
A<m\d bavo mAtmctions to n^^gctiato vitli the ropubUc now 
0tipuUtiotu for the fitturo ; but for the preoetit, tnotj or no 
treaty, EDgland wonld not eoSor motcnok for abip^bnilduig to 
bo takoD bytho I>utGh toany Froachport; and its cmieon 
oud iti adioiruity uroro inttniotod ueordingly- Tho ^dhoMor 
bronglit ill hif SnlluoDOO to tbo side cf England. Oa thv thir- 
tJetb of December 177^, ^^ states-geQeml aaseHed tlielr right 
fa tl«» fitimmi-rc.ml frewlcim giinnuitiHwi by lint Uw i>f niitinHA 
Bud by t.rcatkv ; and yd of thi-ir own c^oico voUxl to withhold 
coDTC^ya, whore tho tiM of theca woidd iurolve a cooiflict vitii 
(Jreat Bnt^un. 

In the winiG year the dn^ of Domnnrk, of Svrodeo, ftod 
of Prudfiia Imd been diare^i:ardod by Btitiah prinleen, and tbo 
tlireo powers severally denuDded oi KogUnd cxpijuwttoiii, 
YoigozuiOi HJxed iJiu opportntLity ti> dx tbo att«ntJOD of Count 
Pudn. *^The eniprow," so )ie wrote toward the etid of tho 
year U> iha Vnjuah uiiiiinler in HiuuiJi, ** ivill gins a grvut 
prw'f of hijr dtginty nnd c^jnity If »lie will mnko ooiiliiiou 
oatue vilh Swodon, Denmark, Holland, and tlio ld»|: of Profr- 
eua.** ^Siio would rcadc;r to Europe a gnui sarioe if nh« 
would bring the king of England to jnstor pnncai^os ou tbo 
freedom of navi^tion of central ^ipeL lIolLand arm^ its tc^ 
lals to o^mroy iu mcn^nitt iloot ; Orrnmnrk aunouiicos that in 
th» qmDf; if will Ecnd out a wjtiuiron for tbo eame object ; 
Swadea niU be obljgod U> lake the like reaoladoo. So many 
nmuigfiiiLriila <<4iii uuily ginr Hko to tJQiJjleaoutc UKidaEits^ and 
kiodle a general luarilinte war. It would ba ea^ for the em- 
preaa to amuic tlie proaprrity of tho criinm(<n<<; of Hiimiu by 
mi^rdDg with enclitic rrpticsmtations tbofio of o4l»r noti- 
tral Eiatiob0*'' 

TIi« Bwcdifth ouvoy, in on inten-iew wUi* Pjudn, inrUcd 
the ruEiginn court to j<^ that of ±>tookbobii in fcrming a 
oombined fleet to protect tbo trade of the XorUi< Demuark, 
he aald, would no doubt subscribe to the ptut, aad tlM 



ITtfr-lltft 



THE AR1I£D NErnULUT. 



MT 



conrunciGo of tlw tiirce coimtric6f now to initcraptdi, would 
DO loDgcT be iiLoJcatGii. Tho tiammoDfl wo* hourd irillisglj 
hj Pamn, vho. on one of tlio U^t days cf Uccctmbcr, ipoko 
to tJio Britieh mmifitor very plainly : *' Donmark, Swed€D| 
and liolliuid havo rwpoctivclj sultc^ilod tlio ijmprc«< to Join 
with tj]<?m in a rcpnMJcnUtioa to jou on tbl* «nhjcet; und 
$h(i caimot soe wHh IridMereDf?^ tbe ^mmercer of the Iforth 
m miicli iiioIihUhI b^ yuiir [invdi^iTr*. Tliu TUf^u oniJ un* 
ceruiit delinition given by you to L&vftl and tnu'Uki} vct^j^v 
c3&]>QWH nlinuit all Ujo im^duutioiis of iht^Q parta to be 60- 
queetored. It bccomoB the onipn:?^, lu a Ic^Iug poirtron 
tills flido Kurcpc, to ozpoetulato with you and cxpitw bcr 
doforo of aomo oltcntion in joiir rc^^alatioiifl, and moro ciroum- 
epoction la yoiir incdc of procGcdin|i agalnit tlw abipe of neu< 
tral statea." Tho Untlsh mmister dofoDd«d tlui Briijidi dtffla!- 
tion of "naval ator^/' Cbnnt Panin anawofed villi n »;tiitlc : 
'^ Ac<nJElnmi*jl lo ciinnruiiid al wui, yuur language du tiiaiitaiiO 
sulijtsrte is always too positJvu." IlaTTii d9preca1o<l aTiy formal 
rumoiLblraDoe 4galDst tho Ilritlfih trc^tnucnt of tKUtml po^Tcra 
&0 an appcnjsncc of dtfiutiioii b£CvM:n the L^vo courts Faain 
replied : ^ i am sorry to hc^r you «ay what jroa do, ai I hnvo 
ttic onlurd of UiQ emproce to pr«paf>> a roprwentaticn/^ 

Tbo plan of Rii^a for IVT1> oimud at no more than an 
agnomoBt with Denm^k and Siredon to oidada priratasn 
from tbe ECorth Sea no^ iheir coaste and from fho Baltic. Aj 
tbe HuRaan tndo vnv^ for ilii? mmct |xiri in tlus hauiU uf tho 
Kiigtiili, litis action of Catltulue would tn practice Iw Httlo 
mom tluin a aafcgiurfl lo Kngliit]; coianicroCi Th« oabuiot of 
France feaied that the ooviMildaled ifroap of northern eCata 
mi^t bv dnvn into ooonectioQ with England. At thie atago^ 
hj tlM «xplanatiou9 of tho king oC PruMiiH vho tbron^h tbe 
nedJalion of Buaua and Fnnoo waa jtut omo^^g from b!a 
AttvtriAQ TOT, cwry donbt waa rcmorcd £i^>tt the mind of 
Tcvf^noa; and bi^ aoswor totht BuvUn noT« drew from 
Piiniii the nmark to tJu.' Freneh minister at Pptombtipg : " Oncn 
moHT I give yon my word tint nx* fmre no en^jiif^enient with 
Engkukd whaierer'* 

TliG oppmmvl inaritinit! |K>were continncd to lay their 
complaints before tlic cinpne* of Kna^; to that the ctcd/ 



31g AMERICA IK ALUASCE «"ITH FEANCE. ir.iT - ov. xhl 



of tieutnJ i'ig}itit occupied her mind ttQ the cadio to con- 
frklcr hrri^lf singled oat to take the lead ia tLcir ddfonce- 

Wlien, ia tlie middle of Jnly, Hanla presented the SpoA* 
IhIi Oi«rl:mii(oii nf wur nguiiwt. Ffigliunl U> C*tnui Piuiiti, hn 
rcpliti.] minist<:riftlly : ''Givat Bntjun Fim bjr ite own haiightj^ 
ctmduct brought down all ita niisfortaoctf on itaelf ; (hey aro 
now at tlioir Lciglit ; jou miint cocmmiI to anj concctttoD* to 
obtUD |>caco ; and joia con expect neither afi^guinco from jroor 
fiiondi nor forbcanmce from your ottomioe." In subecqiuDt 
conversatiooa, Faiiin erer bold t)i« aamo kDj;;iu]g«. 

*■ Count Pmuii," wroU) H»rri*, "rcooiT^o* every idsa &om 
Ills Pni^Tin uiHJ^ty, and adopts it vHtlioat reflection ;** Uld 
the hidefait^Mv tn^oy, (?'^i"g "P "^ Ihhh? oi rvulaimTn^^ liiiu^ 
iinJerti>»k to clramiirciil liiin throirgli tlic infliKrncc of Priiica. 
PotcmkiD, who poffiofsod rare ability imd occupied a podtii 
of UDdcfioed and almost unlimited uuQuencti with the umj, 
tho <jrvck chorda, &nd the nobility, BydcMcoit and cbancter. 
ho vim a trao repnjeontataro of KasBian nationality. Leai 
the two cMof maritime pofrers of uresteni Europe, both 
whom wbhod to prmiiTrvu the Ottoman ompird in its iiit«gntj','i 
tty wnir ^suih otl^er ont, PotBtakin nwd Uui moment of the 
J^merliraii war to aiint'x lite Criirieu, 

iriuTiH profe»cd to U^livrc tlut for vigljljr t^ioiinuid ponndd 
ho could purcbau tbe iDflnenco of tbb extiacrduutry man ; 
but Pot«nikln could not b« reached. He alinoAt nerer 
pcorud at court or in ccmpany. No foreign iiiim«tcr coi 
eco him except by ookiDg specially for an mterrioir ; no ooio of 
th«a) waft 9Ti)r admitted to bi* domcutic sooioty or hU 
doDoOta Thoeo who knew him betl agroo that hu wm too 
to tako monoy from a foreign power, and be never deviated 
frum liiE RnmtiHti jmliey; wi tli^U tJiu monnr^iiK liriVuit whicb: 
were designed m ^iii biin were sqiiandeni) an hi» iDtimaM. 
At tlte ttum^ time lut ima aware how inucli lie would g^ by 
hiQiag the DHtLsb govcniincnt int<» iKN;iiic»ocoi» m Idt Ori- 
^lal echcmoe of a(!:j:fnindiEcincDt> 

UnUumt loea of timCt Harhd proposed to Potran^n that 
xht cmpr«M should mako a iitroTijr doclM^ti'^n iit Vcrvailtca and 
Marlnd, and eeoond it by arming all h^ nnval {f>rox To tlds 
Fotemkin objeciedj that both the Road^ii mluieten wlw would 



ro. 



TIIK ABKED KETTBAUTT, 



be ctmopmed in cxccnting tJjc prt>j©cl wauUI oppose iL TTv^ 
riEt next gainer) Ii^vq to plead UU cauee in p^nou befcte 
OBthaiiDC licniclf* On the Etcoond of Augiut, the forontQ 
of tlto timo conducted Lim by a b&ck tray into her prirnto 
rooin^ and immcdifltcly nitirod. Tlic cmproas ili4compo»cKl 
liim by uiikiog it bo wa» ftotirtj; under ittitmcdou*. IIo 
bftd none ; and yet ho ivncwcd hU roqnMl for her armed 
medlatlcin. She excused bereclf from pinning her empire 
into froJi truiibliiM; tliun di^t-outHml on llie Am^Tnam war, 
and h]nt«d that England could in a momcoit restore peaoe 
by ftuumiiciug iU cobiniefl. Tim council of «tatt% U* wliidi 
tbo quc«iion wm referred, im-inimoufJy refilled to clumgo 
ila iorei^ policy. To the count of Gocrtz* tho now and 
Tery able envoy of Frederic at Peterebnrg, Panin unfolded 
lUi innormoiil LboughU. "Tlic British imnbLier/^ taid bo, 
^08 bo malm do imprmaoa on mo by eonndin^ the tocdji, 
applies lo otb©i« le« well informed; but I answer for my 
ftbility to «[mtmn tny ayxleni. It wimld bu no hanti fi>r 
Engbuid to meet with eomo Icivl^* "The baliuice of power 
in Eurojjft* wmte Frederie, "wUl not l>e dinlurbi-d by Eng- 
land's louag pOMe«ii>jn# here and tbcro iu otl^r ports of the 
world." 

Uming tho samo year, I77U, tho Kctberlands continued 
to nitfor from tho condietin^ iggrcaciou of Franco and Groat 
Britain, FranceeonghttoiufluenDetheBtateft^ncralbyoonfln- 
Ing its eonceulon of eommerdal advonta^ in Frcndi porta U> 
tlie towTiM which roitid fur unliTuited conn)y. In the etntos of 
llonand it ww earned for all meirehaiit v^selfl destEued to tbo 
port* fit Fmiitv by a great luajoricy* Utitlttrtbun unil Oih ulhiT 
chief citice j<i:ning AniAterdam, and the noiblcB being equally 
divided ; but the tftatca-gencral^ in whidi Zealand iru followed 
by dlderiand, Groiun^en, and Qvcryaacl. from motjvce of pvn- 
dcnco rejootod the nwlation, KotwitbeUndiiig this modciu- 
tion, a memorial ftoto tho British ambaaaador announieed tliat 
Dntcli vetnelfl carr)'lng timber to porta of FtuiM, a» by trtaty 
with England tiif^y hid tlic right to do, would bo Mtied, ervD 
thoBgb esoortad by fihipaHsf-war, lodlgDatJon v^tldn tho prov- 
inces at Om mint <if jAt^'iotMii m ihtt pnnce nf Omnge mun- 
accd his preiogativra aa stodWldcr, and ctcq the uuon itaelf. 



AUEHEOA IN ALUAXOE wrrn FR^CE. ir.rr^tai.xiiiL 



Oq one oocflBion 6rc iGvms voted in tbo itato of lloILuid for 
witLholding the quota of their province, 

tircot iJritain, iii July 1TTS>, dcznaudcd of tlKi sUtco-goneiml 
tha ffQcoor etipilat^d in tUo trcAtioa of JGT8 aod tbo eepante 
orticbof ITIG; bntthojdeTiiodihat W5c&fietmd«rtbetrekd«e 
had ATiMCTn, iiij^i liiiiJF<i4.'d that Kn^lartd nii^lit ntit h£ vrill dU.nv 
gard one ti^sity mu) <'hum thtt heatSt of tiEliura. 

'^Tbil^ tii« Britiab were ccmplaimiig thai nine or Usii 
AnMrican mdrobaiit vciiodtf had eutered tlie port of Amstoi^ 
dam, n new canMt of irritation aroeo. Neor thi? cud of Juljr, 
Paul Jonce, a Scot bj Idrtb, intho ecrvicc of tLc LI micd Statu, 
sailed from rOricut lu eonuniuidcr of a squadron, Cduirting 
of the Poor Kicbard of forty gang^ msinj of tb«m uimmoo- 
ablo ; tbo AlUanoa of ihirf^'^ gciu, bodi American aMp»of- 
Wftr; tlu) Follaji, a Fiviidi iri^ia of tltirty-tvn^ ; vid tlio 
Vengeance, a ^>anch brig of twelve gons. Thej ran^d tbo 
woKtt-rii eoamt uf IrcUuKl^ turiitxl St^ntUxiil, m^d, cnjuuin^ off 
FlaiiiboroTigli lloadf i]ri«ri(7d die Dritiiib miWumt firet from 
tbo Baltic, under thi; coiiroy of ibe Sianpift of forty-fuor gmu 
aad the Countw** of Scarborongh erf twenty gone. 

An hour after eunsctj on tlio twcnt/-Umd of September, 
tbd fierapjfi, Imvtng a grc^t superiority in ftnsugtb, engagod 
tbo Poor Kicbnrd. Panl Jcnoe, aAor BuSering oxooodinglj in 
a ooDteac of an hour aod a baJf within miuket^hot, bora dom 
upon bis Qdrcrwiry, whrw anobor bo hooked to hi* cvm quap- 
tor. The muzzles of tbctr gm^ tonebed each othet^ft <ddes. 
Jonefl oould uao only ibnMf uiii«]i^uTiderK liwitU miifl1:e1a from 
tlio rcimd-topv^ but oombiietlble maltera wcro tbrown Into 
oreiy part of Uia Sempla, wlilch wuh oti Gre do leia than t«a 
or tvdvo timcN There vcm momciit» irhcn botli «bipi were 
on fire* Aft<^f a two-hours* con^ct in the first vratch of tlio 
nigbt, tbo Sorapid etnick ita dog. Jono* raiHNi bis pendant OQ 
the captcmxl frigato, and the next day bad but timo Eo tnnaCcr 
to it hie womided mon and bia crew before tbo Poor Riclurd 
went down. TIio Fntoclt frij^to wiipij^d and captured the 
Coi]iite« of Scarborongb. Tbo AMianee, which front a dia* 
tanco had rilce^l the Serapla dtirli^ the action, not witbont in^ 
jurln^llm PiHirTlirlmrd, had luit aman injured. On (IkofourUl 
of October the R^iuulrou entered the Texd with ite prixG& 



lTT»-lT6iX 



TOE ABMED NBtmiAUTr- 



351 



The Bnti«b aniliafiSfLdor^ of IiirnHilf anct ogmin under inetrao- 
tkmtf, reotiiiuiM tim captured Hriti^ Ahip4 and tlieir creveg, 
« vto lud boon UVcu hy tJic pirato Fa&I Joqca of £c<»tln&d, a 
nbeland ittrdtor.'* "Xbcy/' ho iiuLetcd, ^'mt; to be tivatod 
u ptratcB whoao kttora of m^no tia^'o not emauatod from a 
KOToraign povttrj* Tim gnmd pctD^onoiy wouM not apfdj 
the nsuno of pJrfttQ to officoiv bouiiig tho conunuuonft of coc- 
gras. In afdt« of tha Btadholder^ tliv tqitndron onjojcd thfl 
protection of A neatral port, Und^ an antedatt*d commUon 
from tJio Fn?ncli Iting, t!ie Aug of Ftiittc« wk* mind over tlie 
two pruEOb &nd or^y Blip but tLo AlUanco ; aa<I, four d&yB 
Woro the o&d oif tlio ye«r, PkuI Jonea with hb Kn^liah o^ 
tiLmlofttlioToxcL 

An Amoricon fii^tc, near tbo ond of Soptctnbor, en- 
tered Uie port of Bc^a with two rich piisea, YieMinp: to 
tbo BritUb OQT07 at CojienbagoD, Benutortf, tlie Daaivb ouiu 
leteTtSdzed tb6 ocoa»on to pnbluh an ordinance forbidding 
tbo ■ale ot ^siti^ uittil i^isj should bave beeu otnulemned So 
a t?oiirt of admiraUy of Uir nntit^ii i^f ibc priratwr; and bo 
]<]ip]iRd htU* Uie i>rdl[iaii0i« Uie di-tjaratlou tbat, oa Uiu ling of 
Dcnniark Lad rccogniMd noitlicr (he irdupendmrc nor tbo 
flaf; of America. ii« Tec«cls «onId not bo #iif!cred to bring tbelr 
pruw into Daoub bftrt>om. T!io two wliiob bad bvcn broogbt 
into BcrgOD wctD wt froo ; but, to nvoid continnol TvcJonutioDfl, 
two otkoTi) wbiob in Doocmber were taken to Chrutiiiiiaand, 
voro 011I7 fenced to Ioavo tbo hnjbor. 

Wrapt op ID cbe bollc^f tliat be Ihk) *^ bfon^it tbo emprm 
to tlic terga <jf *tuul:ng fi>rt1i ua tfie prufuFiHed friend of Great 
'BnCaiti,'* TIiirHii tbuiigbi- hi^ hail »iilv U) iniwt b«r objection of 
hla lu^uif^ act^ nitJiout in^tructioiDa ; aiid> at Ids nuteDCO^ 
(reofge IJf.* in NoviuuWr, lijr an atitognph letteTi entreatod 
her arm^d mediation agiiiut tLo bonao cf Boorboru " I tftl* 
mJie,'' 00 Iw addreaaod bor, '* the enuid«nr <^ jrooi lolenta, tbo 
noblooeoi of your ivntimcoti^ and tbe^^xtoit of jour InteQl- 
gonee.'' *'The mero d»w o< ntTal forco conld biwk up tbo 
leafpoo formed agotntt mo^ and nudxvtaln dio balanoo of power 
which tbia toagno aooka to doctroj." A writing frnm Uar- 
rla, in which ho vaa brkb of flatbyj, amitii|ttiiiHl ilw ]eU 
ter; and be cdiamJ, nnoaDdItIociaQy» an allioiKe vitb Gittt 



353 AMERICA IK AUJANCS WITH FEA&:C£. ■Kir.i«B.UlL 

Britaiiit ineJndiD^ «Ton & |;iiamitGG aguiut tbo Ottomaa 
Tone. 

TLo aoetvor wae prepaid by Pauin ^diout dclnj". Tlw 
umpra^ loves peace, and l!ien*fore Tvf(ue# an armeil interven- 
tion, wluub ctiuld onlj" ]in>1aii^ tUu- wiir. She lioldji ihe Ume 
m choevD fur a dt-futi^mi AlL'ancef sinco Knglazid ie imga^i) in 
% wnr not apperUuning to pofiacMioiiH in Europe ; but, if the 
OOUri of I/mdon will uBtr tennA whicU cm ttryt a& a buls of 
reooneiiiation between the bcll%crcni pawore, r;bc vrill cagcrlj 
employ her modialton. 

Id vcrv bod Lumor, Ifim« nulitid to Potcmkin for oocao 
lodon. " Whftt can bav^ operated ao «iD^1nr % rcvolnliofi t " 
demanded be, with ea^nieaa and anxiety, Potemkin, cajoling 
bim, repliul : " Cuuiit Pjmin Untcvt h\» uonnvdh vritli addrew; 
mjr infiuBnee L» at an did/* 

TUtf RuAUin enva^ at I^ouini, aud the eavoja of Sircdec, 
Denmark, tlic I^ethorljuidiS} and Prurvda, delivered mcuioHaU 
to tbo Uritish government. To dctacli Rujuia from tbc other 
ooflipkinanU, Harrie^ in Januarj 17SU, ji^v© a written promiao 
^'that tlio navi^tioQ of tho fubjccta of the cmprutu tbould 
novor be tTit4UTDptod bj vvoaLs of Groat Britain." 

The spirit of moderatloc prevailed in tbd counoEk of the 
KelLerlanda. Evuii the province of Holluid luid unmorrodly 
wididrawD Jta obnoxious demands iht the eTeoiug before 
the twenty-^eventii «f DawTmbtrr 1T7S>, hevcrnteeii Dulrli mmp* 
ehant tcwcU, laden vrith Lcmp, iron, pitch, and tar, left U» 
Teiwl under the escort of five ebipe-of-w&r, commanded hj 
tbo Coiml de Bykndt. In tlie £ng1i>Ii cltonoel, oo tbc mom- 
iDg of the tlurtietbf thoy desoriod a Briti^ fl«et, hy which 
tboy were surrounded just before nuucL Tbo Duloh adtuind 
refcfllDg to permit hit convoy to be Tiaitod, Fielding, tbo 
Britiftbcijinmuidor, replied that it would then be done bjforoe. 
Durbjg tL«[iajlejjni^itaLineon; arid twelvt? of the aovenceen 
ahtpfl, thltlfig iulv::uitjigi> of the dafknc»« and a fnir wind, a«- 
eapcd throLif;b ihe liriLiiib liiiiai to I'rtjueb jxirl*. The EngGab 
ahallop, wHch the next nioniutg at alna wiriild Iiave rifiturl 
the rcEoaioitig five ships, ^VB0 tired npon. At thL>, the Bnti&b 
ftag-abip EiDd two oUicra fired on the Dutch dag^hip, Tbo 
flhtp was hit, but no one wai killed or woundod. ^* Let ua go 



L 



JTBO. 



THE AltUED XEtTTEAUTT. 



»53 



down," eoid tlio Dutch civti:>i to one luiotlicr, '* mthor than foJI 
into a AfaaiDefiil captivity ; " 1>ut ih^Ir admiral^ ocouidering tiiat 
tho Brituh totxnt wu« more than three tlroei greater tWi his 
own, after TCiiiming tlir ImitulMiiJis "^i^""^ Ji'* A:^- Fielding 
CAtHhI tilt? tivd Eiiercluiit a}ki^>s a^ prizes? into Vorititnoxith^ 

Tiufl ontfBgit on tliij NoilierluKl^ teEided to roiivo oiid miite 
ftU jjartica and aJ pronaca. i(ut aootbcr iw>wcr bc»dc Kug- 
lotnl liud disturbed ucutral rigbts, X^canng that suppUes uil^ht 
be cainecJ to Oibrdtar, Spain hod {;ivea tm order to bring 
into Cadix all nciitjtd i^hifj* bound with pfovi*if)na for the 
Medilerrmdau, ajid to £«11 their o&jpoee to th9 IJgheet bidder. 
In Uid lR#t poK of the year 1TT9 the order had been applied to 
the ConconiiaT *"* R'W**""> v<v*u*I f^iurj-iTig whrat, U> TUrrplnn.t, 
Karritf, w)tu reoeived the neiv^ in advance, hurried to T'tjtt^iiikin 
with a pajicTt iii which he provuL from thb cxanipk vliai 
tfirTtlrld thiu^ Blight bo expected from the house of Bonrbon 
if they fthotild aciaire niantiuic nu])enority. On readin|f iJuB 
p^rographt i'otcm^n cried out; " Vou have the cto^jtcm ^ov. 
She abhcre the inqui^itioi), and will dovct «nffcr ltd |ircoq>ta 
to be oxeroiMKl ou the high «ea&" A ttrvug niemoriiil vru 
diuwD tip undor tha in^poetion of the empr^ffi bergelf ; and 
a rc'fvfvnco to the jual r^pr^ache^ of tha eourM of Madrid 
and VcrKullr^ [igaiTi?^t Ort^at Britain for troubling tho Hberty 
of coinnieTce va8 added by her own exprofi onltT. 

IJuxtljr had iht? S[«imt4i n-pnwimiiLive at Pefcnclnir^ f(>rv 
mirdcd the mentorial by a coorier to hie gOTcmment wheD 
letters frovn tlie KufUUiirt coclkuI at CudiJi annoniiiH^d tliat the 
St NichoLtf, bcTinag the Bnenao Sa^ and bound ^th com to 
Mala^ liad been brought into CadijE, itA cargo du^pottod of by 
auetioD, ud iU eron- tr^tcd with inhanuiuty. Tho cmpnw 
ieit thia Aeeoad aggrMflum og a deliberate outrage on li«r fla«? ; 
and, foUowioft the Impnboft of her own mind, tho Kised the 
opportunity to adopt, aecsniDglj on the urgen^ of Great 
I^Htftin, a general measure for the proteerion of tlie commerce 
of ICiMua AM a nriilnl ptrwirr ngiuri«>l nil thr hc^lli^'nTntH and 
OD OTvry eea. 8)ie pree^ded the mefimre by eigniiiAC an on^or 
for amung fifteen ahi|Bof tlic hue and £ro frigates foraerricc 
early in the vpnng. 

SbG further dgnod Jetten, prepared by her private eecro- 



W4 AOTBICA IS ALLIANCE WTTO FRAyCE, RriT.;aL 



Ittji lo btr cnvojra is Swrdciu Denmark, and CJie &gm^ 
Mem e1i9 informed her mui^lcr for forciffU a&ira of what 
hid bc«n doai«. A Baaftijuj ocnmtTr wok cxpodttod to 8tock- 
boltu, iLnd tlionco to Cc^pexiU^c^nj the HBgti«', Pari«^ and Mid- 
rii On the twentj'-*eoond oj F«brnajy 17S0, PotooikJa 
uinouiK<cd Ilt6 iiieii«iirti u» K«rn>s hy tbd ^[leetal o^ommand of 
the nmpitsn. " Tha Myn" sud tbs {iiin(<e, '^ trill besQp|)Obed 
to protect tli« Tiiuitiiaii tjude a^inst every power, liiil they are 
inOiDt to otmotiHt ihc Spuilurdtv wtoee insolence tJie omprcM 
cnn&ct brook/^ Ucuria '* toUt him thnt it W4s no more thui 
tho S70t«in of giving^ proti>ctioD to trodo, sugf^eetdd U0I jctr 
l)^ thti tJirco norU'uru «>iirtA, now parried Into oxcctition" 
Potemldn, pmfc^m;;,to be ^'almofil out of humor vitb tu* 
bllck^r:mInei« to admit the great adrintoge Eng^d would 
dcrivi' froitj tlie wtt^p," rejoined : '* I inn juKl eOTn« from ibo 
emprom ; it is her particulu' order tb&t I t^TI ft to yon. She 
coniiiiiuultHl itw U» lone no lime In finding jou tntt. 81ie mid 
«fao kni^w it vonld gtFo you plcaenre ; and^ bcndo myeolf^ joq 
are at tlds moment the onJv person acquainted vritli Iterd^ 
eij^," J!c ended by urging IJnrria to dcfpatch bia moaecngiv 
immcdiftfelj witli the ncwe; and accordingly the mcaflore waa 
rop6rte<l lo the Erittah jifovemiciont by ite own cnroy aa a 
frivndly act porformcd :it '\U own re<|ucAt 

Before the dlspatdiefi of Il^rm were on the rwid, tlio con- 
duet of tho aiTair iriu Intnuted to Pcmln, who wai milering 
fri^>in n disease n-liieh W3tfi lirin^ng him to tlie gmre. Thu last 
deefl of the dyliig atateflman was hia beau 

To Frcdcricj GocrU made liw rqiort: "^ Ererjlliing will 
depend on the n*ply of the conrt erf Spain ; at «o important 
a moment, yonr majesty hafl tlie ngbt to vpoak to it with 
fraaknofis/' "TJ^erc will rc«utt from tbo intrigne a matter 
^ «zeeutaen of which no power hoA thn« far t>Doa aUo to 
p«mnt itKJf to thmk of. All have bolievod It ndooanry to 
establifih loid to fix a pnblie law for Dentnd powiem In a marU 
time war; the motuout Uiu eome for attaining that end." 

Th<«o lellenf niichrd Fn^ltfric by expruK; and on the 
fcmrlcentli of Mrirch, by the swiftest mesenger, he inrfraotod 
hix miniKliir ni Pimn w followH; ** Iiiiutudiataly on receiving 
the pre»nt order yon will demand a pniticolar andieaioo of 



1TM, 



TBE ABUBD KEUTltAUTr. 



3S5 



flic mifiifltvy at VenailW ; and you wi El ^y that in my t>puuoii 
ovctTtl^ing dopeiuU on proouring iot Ruaaio, witbout the loa^t 
loflfl of timCt tbo satiefactioQ ebc oxocta, oiid ^rlncli Kpniii can 
tho lees T^fnae, beoatua it hax plainly acted with too much pno- 
cLp:tAtioD, Moko thd iuinlali7 feel all th& imponance of xhxB 
waroia^, Aiid tbo nbcoliito tieoc^ty nf Mdiirfylug KuR^a with- 
out ths Bllghtest delay on wi articln wlioro tlif? lionor of liw flj^g 

Vei;g«iiiiefl forwnrdod a copy of tho IctUir of Fnidcric to 
tho Fn^idi amhuaador at Madrid, with tJio icEtmctiori : ** 1 
fthomld wrong jonr pcnctratiim and tho eagacity of tho cabinet 
of itadrid, if I vrcro to take poina to dwmoiuftraio tJio iitipc>r- 
tbnco for tlio two ero?rii« to ai^ro noihinj; la ordor that the 
omprcea of Romn may not d^rport from tho cy^teiti of nentm]* 
ily which fiho baa ©luhniced." The letter of Frwiurio wni 
com mini it^tcd to Florida Blanca^ oiul It waa Impoasible to ro- 
slBt \ts aflvioe. 

Befnre a dispatch eoold have reached even tho Doarort 
powifT, CVnint Pnnin laM ht^fnm tho cmpran a phui for dednc- 
ing out of the |:iafifiing ne^^otiation a systeni of permanent pro- 
tection to ociitml fljipt in a mantime war. H« adrisod hor to 
pneeot hcrm;lf to Kuropo in an impartial attitude^ m th^ di> 
fender of the rigtjta of ncutrola before all the worM. She 
would tliuit gain a glorious mimo M tbO luw-gircr f>t tbo udM^ 
imparting to comtncrco in time of war a g^imry cuch ajt it bad 
Jii^svr jet enjoyed ; ahe would gather atx^imd her all civilized 
atalHi, aiid licr vifuurati.td by tho nationa thriagh comiugeen- 
tarin as tKo btrncfactr^fB of the humarL race.** 

The opinioai f>f htft miuiiiti^r mind ding vith her own, 
on the twenty-«ixUi of Fcbm^y ITSO— that i«,on the oigbth 
of March, now Btylfy— Cutii^uino and Panin set tbcsr naaua 
to the ckclarfttion, of which tho fixud pvinoipica arc : Nctitnl 
shtpa chall enjoy a &oe nar^atioD even from port to port, md 
on tl^e ccaitB of the bfiltigotnt powcn. Free ahipa free all 
good* except contraband. Oontmbaad bjo anna and ammimi- 
ttoiia of war, and nothing ebov Ko poit la blodcadM nnlen 
the etmmf*B ahlpi^ In adeqiialo mmiber, are B>ear eiioiigh to 



^6 AMERICA m ALUAHCE TlTn FRANCE. w.fv.i<«,xui. 

iu;iVe die enhy dAngerouf^ These pHndpleA diall rule ded- 
nionit on ilie legulilj uf |jrii«^ "Ilcr icupcHftL nu jc«^,** 6o 
nn the state paper, " ia punif«9ting tlicAC principles before all 
Europe, is iincly rcM)Ivcd to miuiitiUD thorn, tibc haa tUcrc- 
foro given an ordor to fit out & comeidGnblo portion of lior 
navd forces to act oa lior honor, lior iotcuwt, xnd noccdsicy 
may wqaire-" 

Frederic received the new^ of thd declaratloii £n wlruwo 
of otl]<Tf^AM] ^vitli all Hjfnnl i»od Lm inflticncu in itn b«ha]f 
at YetBftilTes ; so Uiat far ihe maritinie cod^ whicli came iijHm 
Orrjit Bntain u « aiu^n^, & wdoomd was prejxLrvd in Frni^on 
and MadHd. 

The emproa madd haato to invite Swcdon, Denmark, Portra- 
gal, and tbo Kctli^rlanda to uiiito witli licr in Bupjtorting the 
rules sffhieh aht^ bad pifocliumcd. John Adama appUadcd 
th(^ JTutioe, tUo t;riadonif and &o hnmamty of an aaEociation of 
maritimo j>ow4^rii a^uiih't viol^^OiGGa id t<UL, and added aa bis 
advicsQ to coD^rre^; '^Tlio abolition of tlit^ vrhol^ doctrine of 
oontr^lmnd uould be for the peace and happmeea of nuulctnd ; 
ant} I iloiibl not, tw liu^iinn reBMin ndvanoes inii mt-n conio to 
!« more sensible of tho benefits of peace and Icfs cntbu&iastk 
for the faragg glonee of war, ail DentiaJ nationa nill be alJoircd 
l^ oniTenal coDBont to 0007 what goocb tliey plcaao £q their 
own dii]j6, provided thej are not bound to places octoftUy i&> 
vested 1^ an enemy." .^.^ 

For the moment the atmition of Europo waa riveted on 
the 2!f othorlandiL 



ilfift. IVaB of DB1T4IS ON THE KErfiEULAITOS. ml 



CHAPTER XXUL 



GREAT BKITJU<f VAKES U^B 03t TIlBC yVTB^SiLAViD^ 



17SO-l7fil- 



TnE stieoeeaor of Lord Wojmottth waa Lord Stonnont, Uio 
late Bnli«!i imbundor fit PuriJ^ Ue had an unbounded con- 
fldonee in the epirit and rocourcof of hi> coantiy; but tliii 
GonfldcQce took the worn forme of hatij^ht/ blindneaa to moral 
dutiQctioDft in dealing with forefp:n powers. To oompUlnti 
by the Dntcl of tho ontmgo on tlidr flag, he RDSWcrod bj ni- 
tcrpretlng trealtw contrary lo their pldn meaning, and then by 
eaying : *■ W« plut i]«fti*rtniruil Ui pi^n^iMt hi liio linvi nf conLltid 
ve liave takBD, be tlie coiisOf^nencES what tliey may." 

Tiiu Itnliflh mlnidlry It^it the ca^e of the Oiitoh Encrchnnt 
reaftela that Jiftd bcco carri^ into Fortenjcnith to tko court of 
odmiraJty, where Sir James Uanott* the judge* thna Inid down 
tlw lavT! «lt hnj>orU little whether the blockade bo modo 
acToea the narrows at Dover or oS tho barber at Bieet or 
UOricnt. If yon ard taken, yoTi aro bk)ek«d. Or^^ot Britain, 
by tier iii«uUr pOMtion^ blocks natiiraDy alt th« porta of Spafai 
BDd FraooQ; She has n right to aTill herself of thli pomtion 
aa A gfft of ProT{d«Do&^* Bvrayed by tlw mom ^^t^atj 
mombot* of tbo ropubllc, the vtadholdtir addrewed a repre^ 
aentatioit to the enipren of Rumua fur oimTert hi the defence 
of n«utnl fltga. Before it vaa received at Pctorsbojgt Piinee 
Galii^n, the Ru^iaii envoy at the Ha^c, on the third of 
April IISO, invited the M&tc^-gcncnl to a union for the protec- 
tion of Qoutn] trado and navigatjon. "Tho came invitation,^ 
aaid tbe enroy, "ba^ been made to the oonm of Copenhagen. 
Stoc^olm, and Litboa, in order that by the jomt endoovori of 



3U8 AlJtRiCA IS AT.UASOE WlTir FRASCE. «i-. tr.; cilxwl 



aU iii^iitnd rtiiiritimo |x)ivt^ n natarTl *j*lt'm, fomt^l^d on jo^. 
tieo, iimy Im eH[iv\Ai*-]ivA els a nila for fiituiv i^eisj* Thi 

bolder, undor Engtisli b^ocnccp contnrcd to make ddtj, 

E[^Lm<I acted jknjuiptly. On tlio ec/ontccntb aa ovder 
of tlic king in council «i;K|icndc<l all If0tttie« botwwMi the two 
ooii]itnc& In cooBoqiicnco of thifl order, Dtit'Cli olilp^ worOj 
taktin into En^cliali port^ &nd oondenmod bj tbo admirilty, om' 
tlie aaiumptioti tliut, Frendt Larbon bcln^ noturaUy bloetcadcd 
b; ttictM; of Engbiid, Dtirc)i Miat liml no ri^lit tu ?^il Detkr diei 

Fnjico jielded lo S|>nin tijo (ilMinrti*«i of h*nng Uto 
In Hc**iit till* Riiftftliui p[xi|»oi!iaI ; uiid Fii>r«U Ill^utci cm tli 
€ighl€cntli of April did it to heartily tliat, in tlic juitobio- 
grapUc n^pi>rt wMcb he made of hiA adnunietratioa to Im Hng, 
lio roUtcA: '^Tlie hotior of thia euoocdaful proj^t boa bc^ 
fificribcd to Itiu«ia, which, in fnct, gnvo it support; but it had 
ita ongin IB thd caUnct o( your Duijeety." 

A wMk later Fritnco followod Spcdn, saving i " Tho war in 
vticli ttio king i« oogagod hat no otber objoct than the til 
of tLv lieaji. Tlie Icing believed he liad prepared aa 
gTorir)tm for h:f rri^^i, in fixing hy hU idxainplti this rigliU of 
nentrala ITift hopei hare not been rlccoivcd,^^ 

Oa til? fiftli uf October the irmtiyl SxhUa of Aroerjca in 
oongTMS, by a rce^lution wLich Robott R. livtng^ton 
proel^med the mmtituo oodo of tLo cmprcsa of iCueeJa, 
oftorwAnU includod it iu thc^ir tJ^^iLtiod witk tho Ncthorl 
with Sweden, and with rmfieia. 

Tho king of England and hie nUnisti^ wero of tho opi 
that t>j tolerate the aimed ncutndily was to confen dial Brit 
iah inpremacj on the blgb seaa wnd broken ; and they 
littbtHl twy poriits, fn>Ui ticith*»r of wblcl* they vrtrnM dif^nrt:^ 
the OHB, to attack any \etlicrlaDd« convny ■ tho ot1i€r, to pl^' 
Tent t}m BJMxuUiau of tlia K«tbcrlanda witK Knaeaa at all 
hatarda. 

Ereti Lord Shelbtime, tho chief of tho opposition in tho 
np|icr bouao, coautemnud tho Riwian iaanifo«to u on att<tn] 
by a ** nataoQ scarooly koova ae a maritimo po^or tfiirty 
DfEO to dictato lawB of navlgatioo to Groat Briuin ;*' and 
Camden denounced it as a dangerout and Evltttrary edict, mb* 



i7ao- 



WA!t or BRITAIN OH TTTE iTETHERLA^mfl. 



359 



TorsiTO of tho first principle of the law of natlou. Yet tJio 
BHtuli ^verDinoiit ^ivci^Iixi rxprvtiitngut/ oplaloa oq iha nile* 
wUidi bml liCKTR lnUX ilonTi. ^Ar Aml>igLKin« nnd Lrbuinmg 
Aosworms given:" io^ ia Uio uan^Uve of Harris. "W« 
Boomed equally kfrmld to aoct^pt iir diMuuu dm ncn--fangled 
doctrines i vna instructed eocrotlj W oppoec> bat nvowodly 
to acqiuoeoo in tbom.'' 

The Qcutrol povon on tlio ooutinfiat, from ArcliEUigol 
to CoiUEtaiLtiAoplCi ono aftor Ui« otbor, nccoptod tlio oodo of 
Oatharine. Bonutoi^ tboogh voiy reluctant to do anything 
not Bgnvjiblv to the English court wUb vlucb b« vha then 
cotiiTiii^Uiig A privian iifTg(jtjal.i(^n drfftiiiig rr>nLnilxiiii{, mx die 
ei^tb Ci£ July oondrmed the adlieuon of Dcmn&rk hj atrealy 
vtl\h Buaaift. Qturtarufl of Swodcn net furtli tu tlio bfiUigereutd 
tint the principJctf of Boana wcro hi« own, and on the twenty* 
tint his LdDgdoiB acceded to the treaty botwooa DimiDark 
and Kuffiio, and DocDuu-k to that botwom RuaaU and 8vodfiD, 
Tho Ihroo powcre a^rood ta gapport <mh ottior agiuuit ovorj 
attack by reprisals and oth^ nit^&iu. Each waa to fit out a 
floo^ and tko eowral coniinAndors woro ordorod to protect 
evBiy norctfntUe ship of the three nations signinet injury. 
THitTri tit imLumn ft nuiut to light that Bismeiturn tu a aejuinite 
trenljr wiih Great Itntain had conipronii>ed tho nilo rt^poct- 
ing coutnbatiil, tiib miuUter wud for the time dismuscd from 
office^ Oa tbo sevtcth of May ITSl, Fredt^ric of Pnuua 
jomod tbo armed Dcutrality^ Piro months Jjitcr, Jotoph IL 
aooedod by treaty with the omprcai of Btusia, from whom bo 
gaiDod adraotagoa for the oocnmcnio of Bel^um. The aceea- 
filon of Portugal took place in July ll^i; that of Naples la 
Fabnary of iIm followhig year ; that of the Ottoman Torto to 
Soptembcr 1785 by it* treaty wkh f!pnia, ooeifiraied iii Jmie 
17i^ hy iU tn^ty witti Ruii^ii. 

After tlje Orlli»h hnd ampondod erery ej»amenual trea^ 
with the Nelheriaiuift, Stormuat wrote to York© ; " The beet 
way to. bruig t^ Dutch around to their eenoce ia to woiuid 
thccD ID tlieir most feeling parti their cmyiog tnde. -The mo^ 
oese of oar enlaora has hitherto fallet) moch short of ezpecta- 
tiou/^ Bo OB tlie tliirticdi of May 178<\ b a time of tmintor- 
npt^ pooc^ Vorke vraa iastrueted to collect the KM inteV 



AtfrRtCA IK AIXIAKCHirrm FEAKCE. u-.ir.;c«.xxnt. 



Bgioe* oo tbo vx)j>gcM of tlic Dntcb akwehaat^ tint Bridih 
iintlioni n^lit kaov where to ^ for die ridMXt pruna. 

Tbi; lUAiilltiun of t]i« Nedi^rlactda was truly dUSonIt to Imi 
borne: tli«ir lionor won trifl«d with; th^r commerce pQhgodj 
tJi«j wen weak and without promiac of help from asy aidof 
tli4iir«(4i<lholcIordid not support them* They BiUE>Oi!fiIj awaiTx^l 
Ujt* nrriral of oach EnglJj&h mnil to learn hy irhit new auaannSj 
iIjv JFnLiih oabbet would abase their powor, sad how 
morti Dutch ihtpt luid boon leLeod. The republic hod iu» 
to ahooao t>iit aubmlM^on to Grgnt Briinin or an anodaCit 
witli ThiAfa. The draft o( the oouvi?Dtion, which the em] 
hftd di^!l^t«*l ti> bn i>iTcrt><l Ui BwhIvu. Deiiiuuk, Mnd tin* Kt 
erlanda, orrlTed in Jane. The gnnd ponaotmij and the 
try wiihtfd at oneo lo Acceda to the coofoderacy of the Ki 
lliit iho ttA<lho]dcr, who in ^Uny^ Acting in tho ii^tcnats 
EiiffluTiJ, rufuBcd to take a stop till the conduct of all the othetr 
Doiitnit powen should be thoroughly niidcmtood, in Jozio 
would not Uftton to any treaty with Rqma nnleee it should 
hu'liiihf n ^'ti[hnintoQ of the poMWioEitf of the republic in 

luilitxi. 

Tho cJHi>Tiii™ioni?n! for the Xeih^rkndfi found in Finln a 
atatL^inHii wlio iv^irilt^J tin* iridujieiLdi^ut'e of Ain^^rirx aa 
rctftilt verj' iulvHi:itLgiL'iiiifi for nil ttiitiom^ nnd mp«>cblly fc 
KuMiA, and who did not donbt that Engiand would be foroed 
to rooogni&e it. Itj tht' couiw of Septeinber he drafCod a 
TOQtSon which he hold to bo tbo only posdblo ouo 
KnAfia and the republic. Tho draft did uot inidudc the wished* 
for gnarutiKKf <ii tho Dnt^h pcwMWtfions in America, at tbo 
Oapo of CrcHxl llop^jf and io India; hnt, If th^ rt^publlo felioald 
be fittacked on account of tho coDvontion, tlie othor powen 
wert lo tnkis ln-r jwirt A »opaTatd article docliuvd tho object 
of tlio armed neutrality to be tha reAloratlon of ji^ace. At the 
aaiDO limo councni ymm drMpAk'iKH) tn tho murtu of fltock- 
kolxn and CopeobagcQ ; eo th&U ft^ninfit the rvturn of a i«ti 
able answer from Uio Hague, all tlitngn might be prepoied fc 
recelTic^ the Dutch republic into the tca^c of neutral poi 

Every step of this negotiation was waloh*^ by Englai 
Tet the miniftry, who were aU l)te time nocking on allL 
with RoKift, difiUkiKl tho oppearaneo of ^inj* to war with tbo 



ITM. 



VAR 07 DECITAIN OX TOE K&THERLANDS. 



dci 



rcpiMic ffolrly on nooount of licr iotontton of joming tlic tirmcd 
ncutTfLlitv. la Oolober, Hour/ lanrciiB, whom tbc Unilod 
Stutc0 )md aocredited to tlio NctborlandB for thopurpoeoof 
nwDg ft loEUL, vnu tiil^<Tn on liu pojwi^ to Ktirv)[x\ and unomg 
l^B papers waa found the TinauthorLc«d project for a trmtj, 
ooDOeilad, UB we have asen^ betwcun XiTufville and WitlUtn 
Ia«. T<i T^rd RtrinniiTit llw "tmnrart.ion nppturral tfi l«i tlio 
act of icdiridcialfl ; '^ and ILlUflboniu^li uwned '* that tho etatca- 
gcner&l had hud no klK>w^^r)^ d tli^ troAty, vrliiok had iierer 
been ^gncd except bjr private pcr0on&^ Biit the rc»oliitioQ 
was inatuitljr takca to use the lAoreiia papers so aa to '^ girty 
Qjo propcrast direction to the vm^.^^ To prodn^c npoii tho 
public triad a etran^ and etartlin;- aonsitioa, L'^urcn^ after 
an examinadooi at tho adinirallj boforv tho three soorotariea of 
stat«T was 9ioorted through tho etr^tt of London by ft Inrge 
guimlf and oonfin^ ts a it^te^a pHaoner in the Tower, wliero 
h(i wiui iI(iEi:irnHi frtiin al! mtfrrviiiirtn M^<\ fivim tl^o iiiti> uf pQii 
aud pajioT. 

l^jon liic ofiuricr from PHiTnihiirg tvrn^rd at \hc TTagoc 
with the tvoAy vrhlfih I'anin had d]-jft«d, Stormont ^w thoro 
waa no timo to to liO*t. Od tho laat daj of Octobw, Vorko 
announced that the tdatcA-gi^eraJ, At their mootiiig in tbo fust 
wook of Novomber, would diMTow tho transaction botwcen 
Ajoiterdim lOhd America, hut would dodde to Join tbo nortbem 

On tho third of November this despatch ^vsb laid boforo 
the king. Oit that taane day the tXaUst. of ! rollaiHl, af <cs- fall 
dcIihoTstion, coiid4>nmcd t)te conduct of Amstpnlam for the 
iwtti which Grcjtt Brilahi rrvimilnlf itxnl rm^lvi-d to gtre to Ute 
Itnti»h gpvommcnt cvory rcasouahlc sitisfactiDn, eo o« to Ickto 
not tho »Iigliti»t grrumi) for jiuit otjTnplalDt. Kven Y'oHce^ 
vho «k\r crcTTtbing with tho eye« of an EnglMliman, tboi^ht 
their conduct miher &ir. Yet 8lortnont wooh) brook no 
d*hy ; ond the British cabiDd, well hvhtq of (lie pcttcoful ift- 
tentJoDS of the Bta£» of lIoDand and the etotai^eiMral, uiih 
the approval of tbo kmg came to t detcrmiiution to nuke war 
Upon the n*pi]bli(^ anlesa ft fiboiiM Kcede from tti; parpOM of 
j<iinmg tS© northera confudcniey- Ik the Terr home In which 
thU detiMdu vna tokcD) Torko waM writing tlut a vnr with 



963 A3IEEUCA. IN ALUANCZ WVm FBAKCE. EP.tr.i on. 

t^o rcpij1>1ic wo:i14 1*0 a w&r wiCh n govomnicat vitliottt artil- 
lery, ** U want of otore6 of all kinU^ willioat fleet or anaj, gr 
to; one poaaefiaion in a st&to of defouMu" Thft memoriil to 
tlio etAf(.^J^g:c^«^al wm dmftcd by Konl Stonnoiit tinuotf, wad 
sroB icsigitoil to ooncool the roal motive of Great Uiritain 
undor L cloud of obloquj relating to Amet^rdam, and by d«- 
miiidn iiripo»u(il>1o to bo GDinplii^ villi. Tlie mcmcpriii wu 
Dot to be pn«er^ted if tho niii1»i^ttu]or liivl [»Hala infonQAiIoQ 
tljat tlie majority uf llie prt>vincefi would refuse U> join tLo 
muidmc l^<i^o af ti:o Nortlt *' Wo do not wUh/* wrote 
Stormont, *^ to ^vc a do^rp vround to oar old and oatural MeA, 
Oar object ia to euro tbcar madnoee by stiumii^ tiuem into 
tliwccnvw." 

Ontlie fiixtliYorko roprc^wntod to tbo «tadhoIdertkoo]K 
poimnlty of the repablio for t^^pe&ttfioe ami aiuoDdment. Tbo 
prinoo, Klirugj^iD^ hU «1iou1dcra, unitwt^rvd: "I fcireMo coa- 
S^ti8nc«<s which viay b« faul to my lionnu atid the republic^'* 
Yorke rvplit-O iLat tlid sUdbuMer uiigbt du u ttecuiKUry and 
paasvD ki»Ll of Kcrvice 1>y ^Lirling dLflk-uUic* and delaying die 
frfldi iiutmctioiia lo the nunUtcrt at I'etdsbur^ Tbo Htad- 
bolder aoawored : ^ England wuiot uTi]>iito a wish for var to 
thoeo who iffo for oondndiDg a ccntnU ^anoo vitb itnsaat 
nor blomo a Yoto of eoavoy from wldch masts and ebip-IJmber 
aro oxdnded/^ Yorkti uj^god that tlio alliimoo vitb tbo Nortb 
vru ]nii<liotl by men of warlike views. Tbo mdliolder aa- 
iWOK-d : *' Tbo rogonta in goneraJ bavo not that Tiew." Yorke 
turnod tlio connn^don to tlie nogotiation witb Aincnca- Tbe 
atadboldcr obwncd : " I liare reaiAoii to believe Holland will, 
ai It ougbt to dn, dijinvr>w and dimpprora tbai tnuuactioo.'' 
"And give satisfaction toot'* added Yorke. Tbo priiKoau- 
avorod: "I bopo they will codnronnicate their diMrowal to 
EngUnd/' But bo did not donj tbat tbo plurality of tbo pfor- 
iaooa ypas in favor of tbo oonnootion with Russia on tbo tons 
wbifib tbat «nipiro lud proposed. 

Just aft4jr thii intorviow Vorke reooivod from StoTmont 
an Enfjuby aa to where blowa ooold be itntok at tbe lepublie 
witli tkiQ mofit profit, and on tl:*j acrenlK i>f yi>^'<Ttjd»pr Ycrko 
fnpliiwi : *' TUIb connhy i* by no incnn^ jm'jmnil for war. It 
is tlib frntbiLHi fitill tu su^^M)M) a waragauiat Eu^laud bopenl*' 



ITSO. WAIt UF KftlTALN ON TUK .\E1'H£KLA5D6. 



&0d 



bl«i The; cx4>ciitivc port of He ^remmcnt haa boon &T«rvo 
to it all along. A« to tbo Dacdi Bt^tlomenU iu lLu> £«a atHl 
Wcct Indioi, th«ir cwa avowal proved th^m in a tlfiptorable 
state ; but St. Etutitiiw, ailx)ve all Sl Eiutatlos, li the gol(kn 
mino of the moment^ TbiA letter of Yorki* wwi novivcd by 
Stonnont on the twelftli ; and llie |iaAi»i>c relating to 3t. Kii- 
xtatiim wttji ■etirell^ tmtil furtliwitli to llio BnlLOi aduiiniJl^ for 

Alicady on tbe tenth York® h%d preaented to tine states 
general t^rd Stonnrjiit'^ meinoHoJ. "TLo king inmatf,'' §o 
rui itA words, '* (jl tbc cxomplory pu&khmcnt of tlu; pcncioiuuy 
Tan Barokd and hia aooomptiodB, ae fiigtnrbcrs of the pullio 
pence and vfolatora of the rl^Uta of nations. UU xonj^iy 
fl&ttdV liimmlf tlijtt the niiAvnn of yonr lugti nitghluic^Mat wiU 
be E^»i?«d7, and to the pur|iofie iii ©wry reepct. To paw over 
in hil(-nw vu jiuL :i n*i[it«it will tte i1n-tiM3il k ilcrTmlT lutd hU 
majcf^ will ihink Liioadf obligod to t«ko sacli aicpe ai bo- 
oome hia digoit j\" 

Tlirco day* afti-r llie dcUvtiy of tlio memorial^ Yorkc 
OBcacd it to bo phmod, Ic docmcd to tho patriota aiDguUr 
for die Englidi lo danand the punulimont of Van Bcrcki^ 
wlion tlury ibeinKclrcM OiO not cvon bnng Xmuoda to tnoJ, 
Peopio in tbo Xoixns under Knf^Liab iofloeiMe aaid: ^'Yon 
Bera^ and lils aocom |)Uci*d dutcn'u to be ' IVWittod .' ^ " If 
■foiijiH niiib,'* wnii« YorV« from tho Hague, *' i^eive tlie depa- 
tka cf Anif^rdam vhcn iltey next vome b(!n% tUt; nfTair vrlU 
be eoon deelded. IJut Iiow promin for work whL tLc tooU 
Iliftvel'' 

"The die la tbroim," wrote Storment to Yorke on tbo 
fourtocntls u ke Mked bint again for tbo beat uformatioB 
nspeodi^ aU the TulneraUe parte of tbo republlo. At tbat 
time there atill rdgned anong the Dutch confidtmoo in pcooo. 
Oa the twontj'tlunl tlie Btalea of Hollandf acting on « coto- 
mimicnli^iri fmiri tlie eta^Mldefr enttrely diiavoirod and die* 
approved nhiluvur Ind bmi dtino liy Ike hurgotnactera and 
re^euta of the town ^ AmEterdam respecting negoclationa 
witli eongrott. The staCee-genenl coofinncd die diMivownlf 
and declared Iheii wUk to preecrre a good nndcn^anding with 
Kn^latHi. Every poet bron^t to tho court of Lotidoo con*- 



3C4 AiLEJilOA ly ALLIANCE WITH FEANCE, feh cr. ; «1L im 




current pmofi tliat tho <M^ the poopLo, CTtrj branch of ih/b 
gcvcmniont, ftU tlio mtnittcrt, doi^roi] to eonttnno at poQO& 
Thci 6tidho!der, the gneat pnrti^in of Enj^loiui, tbonjfbt th&t 
tlie Duloli gOTt^rameot had dooe enough to iwmo/o from Itaelf 
awry tnKpiciuiL 

Yetf ciD the ftfet of Dcccmhi^, Btonnont rencworl the de- 
nund for tlie jramedki^ jJuuitLluQi-'Eit of iLa Antdtahlaia dSoiA 
en ; and on Uio fifth hu culci^l of Vorkv nome tdcu for m mK»> 
fe&to^ for he vma prcEpanng '^ to fi«Dd eccret ord«n to eetJto the 
Diitdi aettlemonta iu tbt^ Wc«t Indiea.^' Tiic-n, on tiio fix* 
toonth, before ho evon know that liiscccond mt^moml bad bocat 
presented, hfbnnjp- been informed that on tite aftemooci of the 
cbvcnitt tlio ibitce^ncinl Imd re»oWed to imkt tho dechuik 
tion reqiiirod bofora Admission to tbe ttrmed JtcixtrtViiyt h9 sont 
orders to Ycrlce **u soon aa mtght he to ijult Holkod wil3^■ 
riui tilcJng h-nvr," 

^A'llUe Yorko wa* alill negoti.ttmg at lie II«gne^ Britiah 
crui»erB jK>u»ced U£>on the ti:uiu^>ectiiig mf>rcliaiit<nen of tboir 
nlly of n hundred nrdraxjcArc^ uidcnptiircdtwohimdrcdchipe 
of the republic, canylDg corgoee worth tifiecn miltkws of piiJd- 
er& Four da^n at Jnurt before ho left tlio Hugue n e^ift ent- 
ti^rwnfi eont to Uodnoy at Barbados with crdere^ foondod upon 
the nmhofiBodor'i letter of the acrenih of NoTembeo*, to flkta 
Bt. FiwtntliiB, 

Suddenly, on the thJrd of Tebmary 1T*^1. the BriH*h West 
Tiidtk Hmt luid ftnn/, iifu^r a fotuF. im llni injxslIa uf Miuliiuijiie^ 
Hppi>ared off the island and demandi^d of DoGraat> the gov* 
enior, its Biirronder withm nn liuur. " TIju EUtqrrUo iitd &*dot^- 
ishmont of tho inhabitantfl wiu ecjirccly to be conccircd.-' ITu* 
Bble to o9cr reoitasoo uid igootwt of a ruptnro bet^vx>ci] Qreu^ 
Britain nnd the rcpnbliCi the governor ^vq up Ha poat nnd ita 
dopondencit*, involriiig clotnoncy for tho town- The wealth of 
the idUndf which waa a free port for oil nalicnB^ afltotuehed ©r-on 
tliotc ^ho hod expected mcitt, 'Hho wliolo of !t being one con- 
tinned storo of Fi^nehf Amerlean, Dntch,^ and nlw Engliah 
" proprrty." In the wonl« of Rcdnej* '. ** AH the mi^;audikGi^ 
tite tloroJiou?^ ar& filled, and ctcu tbc bench coTt^rcd, with 
tobacco and Augnr.** T\m value of tha uien^handlfer ^t ^ naod- 
ento ettuDotOi ooomdcsshtf exceeded three niUlIoni of pooodj 




im. WAR OF BBTTAiy ON' TUB KETHEftLASDfi. 



34J5 



atorltng, BeaidiB this, thara were tak^ in tbo bay upwards of 
one liiiii^InHl nnJ fifty lucrchnnt vv>be^ & Dutoli fngitc and 
five emnller vewcU of war, all coniplpm htkI n^july for t^rrlce. 
Tliirtj' riiJi!y fn?ighli!d ftltiiw, wluolj liaii left tbe Ihlarnl nlnnit 
Uiirlj-rix bwiinj In^fori), wi?r<? on-rUktri liy ^ <JcUrt:iiiinmt from 
Rodney's fioct> &nd capttiredwith Uic ibip of «ixty guna wliich 
wftitlieir convoy. The Dutch liagvaskcptflying on the EsUnd, 
luiU di'COycKi no lotsn thun ouvl'uIoqii TOflBcb into tJio port ^tor 
ite cq>tui9^ Throo largo ehipG from Amstordun, lad^jn with uU 
kinds of nav^ atoree, were taken and cnm'od into St. Chnt^to- 
phor. At St EiiJitiitiiii,inthuorTlurof nulo^ Eugliili vtj^ro^ were, 
for form's aake^ except^ ; but all property wrm «?fxed, and the 
rtfiniim?iUujiiu'H-4g«tu-ril, w l tl^Ottt di fieri m Jna t joii \fv t whtti fritmd 
Olid foe, IwtwuuD ucutnd poworv aod bclligcrcnltf, bctwvwu Dutch 
ftnd Bridab. A romomtr&nce from Bnti«li mcrchAota, written 
bj tbo kin^B solidCor-geciiCTal in St> UhrUtoptier, Rodnegr 
BOomcd to road, and answered : ^' Tbo iBliuid of 3t Emtntios 
IB Dutch ; OTorytUinK in it iB Dutch ; cvoiydiin^ is tindor tho 
pcotootion of tiio Dntoh £ag, and ob Dutch it ihall botniatad." 

Besides St. Enstacitu, all tho Fottlomuob of tbo rapnbUo in 
South America were talcen during the neafon. Of the Dutdi 
ponesnoEis la AfHcn luul Anta, tlit! uuilcft-micul Oi^iv nf Gttod 
Hope, aa the half-wi^y houso od tlie voyage to India ; tho feebly 
gVTttODod Negapatdm ; and the unique harbor of Triiio^innloo 
on CcyTon— ^worc held to bo most dctfrablo objects for Orcai 
Britain. 

The Dutch republic wnaTclatiTolywcok; yet,ifherfituincca 
wero itDpoirod, it was by debts controotod dunng hor aUiohoo 
with England and in rondorlnj; servlee to that power. The 
admixiistTation of Lord North loftt its remaining indutnoa on 
the continent of Enrope by this cruol »nd nnjiiKt war. With 
no nation had it any coTniet^clon on the ecow of prindple ; to 
not oDo was it df&wn \>y rrg:Ln1 for tlio h^hvr inbjrKiita of Im* 
maoity. 



a^ AMERICA IN ALUASCE WITB FEAKCE, ip, rr. ; CO. liw. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



T&i VA& Ef TBB Mnrm. cLcrrosr ±sn> iDtoour. 
1T7&-1780. 

To trac« events intolHgiblj in thcrr oonnocHoTJ, the war of 
GnviL Bribuii uit Um Nttlh&rhiXuh luut \men carrivA forwiin] to 
(lie niLii »f thmr conimerce in Uic Wort IndicK* TW plaa for 
the BOutUerD campoi^ of 1775 was prepflrwi bj Gcnnain wiUi 
p'oat miuuhmcas of dotaiL Geor^a and South Cu^liau were 
lo bo Reduced by dotachmonU from Iho nrmj uf Xow York 
&fid be held bj the empl^yrDent of tbcir owd militii ; the up* 
laud settletaenU were to be aepanLted fTOm tlie plant^tB of the 
law iuitintn^; ibc oiir tj> b» nHliicx^d hy the l4?m)rof javiigtt 
WHrf&iv, the otli^^r hy tlie f«^r of their tlavce; thiB dtf of 
Ob&rleatoii w in due time to l>e taken, and, on Uie appfianncd 
6f ft tmall corpv ut Cnpo FcoTf " Urge numbcn of the iiUubi- 
tante," it was thought, " vroiild doabUcee flo^ to tho 0t«ndard 
of tho Mu^/* wLocw govcmrniMit n'ould h^ rcfttorod bi N^orth 
Oaroliuft. Dut, for wmt of troops, tho RimiDor nt tlio South 
pa^^ away In idlonea^, Wlien in aiitumn two oxpedltione 
of rcj^iLiTtt and vjivdlcttve refugr;^ were Kent hy Brigwlieiv 
Gimeral Prevost from t^aat Florida, into Georgia, the ono was 
atop|M>d lit Bunbrny, thn ot.hiT nt the Ogeef■l^e■^ The latti^ o« 
it4 rctom burned the nbiirch, ahnoet evi^iy dwellin^hoiifie ]& 
Mid^YLy, asd all ricu nitd otlior cercale within tlieir reach ; aad 
they bronght off ncproe*, horecs, cattle, and plata Iscrcvien, on 
Amerioan othcor, bvIoi>'cd fur Lia vtrtTiea, ^ud killed after bo 
bocnmo n primitori 

Robert Ilowe, the American oonumnder in the soatben 
district, rctumud from an fixpudittOQ ogtinvt St. AngusttiM 
aftt-T ihu Io» of one quarter of hie men. 



irrS-lTTO- WAR IS TUE 80CTO. OLtXTOS AKD LISOOLH. 2ei 

Ir Dttcombor, throo tbtnuftod men. d<ifpatcbod from }^cw 
York under LicntonantOoTonel Cimpbellj npproaebod Savon- 
fis}^ Bdljriug on the difficultidf of tKe groojidj Howo ofl^nd 
naliluiCd to % disciplined vorp*, ably commnnded, acd more 
tlmn lltree tltiies aa numeroue aa Lia own ; but^ on t1i« twenty* 
ninth of Dccenbcr, a Bnfiidi porty^ guided by n nc!gro tJin>itgli 
a swamp, mAd« % nmnltaaoooB attack on the AmoricauB m 
front and rear, and drovo tbciii into « precipitate rotroaL 
Wilb ft loM of but twentyfatir in killed iicid iroimdod, tho 
Brideb guned tho oipitU of Gcor^& and more than four 
hnadrod pHaonors. CtunpbeJl pronuBed proteodoa to the in- 
habitants, ba: only on condition that "they would mppoit 
the royal goTPrnTncDt vithtbdrnnna.^ TIib oaptiAre aoldiere, 
rcfu^ng Ui Guli*it in (he British aerWce, wero crowded on bftanl 
prisciii-«Lt[s« to bo awept away by inflection. Mai^ ciWIianB 
atibiTiitteil ; determined repubUcaua fonnd an aajlam in the 
wcetcm porta of tho ittoto. 

At the rcqiicat of the dclc{^tc« from tionth C^rcilina, Rob- 
ert Hrjwo wufl raj^racdod in tiio oonUiom command by Mivjor^ 
QoDcrai JJcnjomiD Liaoolo. In prirato bfo tliift ofSccr was 
ooiit eotlmribft} ; qb a floldi^^r ho waa brave, bot alovr in peroqp- 
tioQ and in will. Toward the c-iid of ITT^ ho had ropoirod to 
Waahtogton'a camp as a major-g&noral of mititia ; in tho fol* 
lOTribg Febniaiy ha waa tranaferred to tlio contln^ntcU aen^co, 
imd pened t.hn vnirU^r at ^forrijiUiwiL In tJjr spnn^ of 17TT 
be wsa Bnrpimd by the Driti&h. and nanowlj o&aiptd. In Uia 
ViiiTiiiicr he waa *>ciit to tlu^ Xortli, 1hi£ not-ur took yciit in my 
battle Wovnded by a Britt«h piny vhom ho mistook for 
AsMdoana, ho left tho camp, having bwn in activo acrrioa 
loia than a year. Ho had not fully rccorored when, on tho 
foQTth of Ddoombcr I7TS^ hoontond upon tho oonunand in 
Char1«ton. 

Early in JantEtr^' 1779, Provc»t marchod to Savannah^ lO- 
dndng Sunbnry on the way ; and Campbell took poeceaaloa of 
Angnata. Tim prcjvinoeof Qeoqpa ^jiearing tn ha natori«I 
to the crown, plnnftcr becono the cbii^ tbon^t of tho Brit- 
iih army. Lincoln took poot near ronysbnr);:, with at Srat 
•caitely more tlian elcron hnndred men. The firlttah do- 
taebcd two hundred men to Bcoofori Uoultrii^ icnt ahooet 



36S AMEBIOA IN ALUANOE Wim FCAh'GB. v, m; CB.2xn. 



alooe to ^loUEiterict tJie uioretnent, rallied under Iilfi 0Un^ 
tirtl slioiit nit 1:41^11 nutiil>crijf titililui, jliliI niito ODnUi£iTQUl& 
TbcLT cDcmj hod the advo&tago of pontioa; but, under a 
tender ivliom thoy trusted, on dio third of Febm^y tbcj 
'^ drOTc tLc iDVjLdcm -with gtcat loaa to their ahip& 
^ The coDtinoiltd njgitnontfl of Ktntb Cuolhia wore vith 
WaehiBj^a ; ita le^n^^ro piomptlj eent, vjtder Adie and 
Rutherford, two thoiwaud iiM^a, though wltUoiLt omii, to »erro 
f^r five iriiinUkji. Tlio scuaty ttoivs of S<)utli CaroJina were 
dxhftDflleil m anning thein. In the Lvt days o( Jmiumj 1TT9 
tbc^ ji>l»ril llifi (^mp i]f IJncoln. Tlti? juv^TmlJjr of SnuUi 
Carolina^ mpcrscdiDg Rawtina Ijovnidca hy an alnioet mum* 
moua vote, rooAJi^d John UuUedgo to be th«ir fovemor, otf^ 
dcrcd A rc^caunt of li^ht <lrv£Ooi» lo be luiaod, offered & 
botmty of tivo hundred dolLira to ovory ono who vnxM Gnltit 
for aixtticu months, and gave power to tho ffjverrxoT and coud- 
dl to dnh tLii oiUitU of tho tiaXo nud "d^ cwi^tluxig Deces- 
fiwy for the public good" 

T\m Bntiali, hftviTig carried Uielr amis Into tlia upper ooun> 
try of G(i<*rgi.i, wnt citiiwftHi.^ to nnnTuntgo jl rising tn Sooth 
Carolina. A paity of uien, whoee chief object waa rapine, |H]t 
thcmwlTc« in mctiou to join tlic Dritijih» gathering boo^ oft 
tho iraj. They vctc p'Eirsncd across tho SaTKcmah hy Ookmel 
Andn^v Pkkeus, ^-ith a1x>ut three hundred of the citisciu of 
KiaotySix; and, en the fourteenth of February, wcro orer- 
takoD, surpmedf and routed. About two hundred oeoaped to 
tho Briti^ linoa. Thoir commander and forty othe» fell in 
bottle, and many pTij;oners wetv Utkt^n. The Tcpnbtican gOT- 
eniment, u-liiL^h auioe LTT^^ hud imuntuiued fu juriadJcticm 
without dii«pute in every part of the common wealth, arraigned 
aoowof them in LTi&uivl) i^ourt ; itn J, by a jury of tfieir f^Iluw- 
dtixens, Hcvenly of them wen? ronvirtH^J of tn^^ia^n sad rebel- 
lion against tho state of South Carolma, Of thc«o» £vo were 
oxcctited- 

Thc army of Lincoln wna groitly inferior to tbc Britiab id 
nnmber, and far more 50 in quality ; yet be dotachcd Aeho, 
with f:ftopn tiundred of th« North Cartdi&a militift, oa ioparato 
service. Thie incxperienoed f-encrvl oroeaod the SanciBah at 
Augusta, which the BrlU^ had abandoined, doaoendcd the H^er 




.im, IVAE m TEE SOUTH. CLIKTO)! AND LTXCOLTT. 369 



vriib thd view to oonfinc tbo oaeiiij vitJiin tinirou*ur limits, 
and, following liia onlora, encaDipeil Iiie party at Brier creek, 

It^m fltroQ^. AS it had but Ode tpj^oadL Tlie British 
Jncob h^f ^ feint, wliOe Lioateo&nt^Tolouel PrevoAt 
turned tho poaitJon of Adht^ and on the tliird day of Mordi 
foil ttpoii liiit parlj. 1'hc few contincatoU, aboot cix^ i& 
tiomfx^r, alone made n 1>mvo dofenod. Uy wading tlirongh 
«w&rops aod BwlmnUiig tbo SaviuuiAh, four liundrod and fifty 
of tlw niUiUa ro]oiDi.4J tliQ Amoncan camp; tliQ rest pdriflkod, 
or werd nptured^ or retunk^ to their komee. So qolckly wii 
fcJUj'Ui ijf Uii.i LnNipH of Lifirolii Uidif'. After Uiin micvf^M 
PrcTont proclatmcd a sort of ciril government in 




Bciaforecil from the South Cjirr>|ina tnUitia, cf vbom Rnt- 
kd^ hod aseciDblod great nnmbeta at Uraagohnrg, Lincoln 
nadortook fe> load hJa troops a^oinftt Sivumah by way of Au- 
guta, leaving only a thoueaitd militia nndor Monltno at Por^ 
ryabur^. Provoat bad tho eboioo bctwoan aratii]^ ab article 
or ioviullng the rtolieal put of CoroliniL. His dociKii^^u wiui for 
the wdo vrhlrh pnimiwd booty. On tho tweaty-eighth of 
April. eup(i4.iHL*i] hv Luliiiitv hv vryWAvd tluj nver nilh throe 
ttioiwind mm atid drove Moultrie In^forv him. It ww rvpn^ 
acotcd to bim that Charleston was defencekea. Aft«r two 
or three days of dou{>t, tho hope of acizlDg tho city Inrcd 
bim on ; and npon tho ctovontb of May ho appoared beforo 
tho town. Ho oamo two daye too late. ^Vhilo ho Levitated, 
tbe man of Charte*toQ had profited the nock hy middoa but 
wmll-plaiiDod works; on tbo ninth and lentJif Ktttlcd^ arrivvM! 
with mllitii, and Mooltde with all of hU party that remained 
imo to hiin, ac wull «■ a dctnrb[iir>nt of tliiw hundred mru 
from tho army of LiiictiliL While the British rrciei^d the 
Ashley Hvert PsIvLi and a corpn vrrra icmotl orcir t1i« Cooper 
iDto Oharl«ton. 

In the oaoip oC Woahingtoa yosng LaorcDB bocamo unpa* 
tScbt to fly to hie native Mate and levy and oommand a rcfpment 
of bhoka. AJoxandor Hamitlon rooommended the pmjeol to 
thopmldCDt of eongTcaa in tbcoowonk: " Tho ncgroca will 
make tqij endkoC aoldieve. Tlxia project will bare to combat 




S70 AMfiSIOi JN AUIA50E Wira FAASOL mf.iCB.xzEV. 

pr&jti^llo^ anil fvrTf-lnT^roet. Con(«TDpt for U10 bbeb makfii ui 
{MSicy tiimi^ tlthi^ Uiat are fouudenJ ncitlier in nuon nor oip«y 
rlcQcc, TLcir nntiiml facnltiw tno Oi good u oun. Giro them 
their freedom with their mufikcte : thtd will MCiirc tbcir fid«lit/i 
&niru&Ui thi<ir ooumgc, and huvo u good intliicaioo tiptm UuM 
who remain, bjcpuiung tho^ooriorthQir<.*inaadpfttio]u Ha- 
manitf and tms police' equally iiit«reet mo m favor of tHi 
nnfortimiitc clatf of meiL" Two dajH later xhe elder Lmiroiu 
wrote U> UVuvlihigtoti : " Hwl vc luiui for thn^e thonKUid sach 
blark men a& 1 cinild select iDCntxiliiia, 1 hlionld h^ve no donlit 
of dnvEiig tlm nnlifih uut i^f Georgia auii Hu^idning tmvt Flori- 
da ^forc tho end of Jnly.^ To this ^ashiDgtoD aoEver^ ; 
"Shonld wo begin to form battalioiLS of them, 1 hare not the 
imAllctft doubt " the Ijritkh would ** follow qb iu it und juitify 
tbo moofiuro upon our owu ground. The cont«et thoo mugt be, 
who o&n arm f Mti^et. A iid wlicro aro our anm V ^ 

CoDf^rOM liKtonvd to Hugvr, ttiv ftgi-nt froin South CVolioft, 
U he eiq^lnined ibnt his Btato was weak, becanso many of Iti 
dtiiviiA mtHt r*!m«iu nt home ta previ^ut nivolts luiiciig tJ]« 
nirgm^ii, or Ihrtr <1<'M?rtioii to tho friK^tiij' - nn'1 it nvommvitdeid 
u n rciuedjr that the two toutlienunoBt of tlio thirteen statw 
ehould Arm tliroti thonMiud of tlic moat ^-i^o^>UA and entorpriji- 
ing of tbo negroes tmder command of whito officcn^ 

A few days beforo tho BntuJi cMne near Ctortceton young 
Laupciu omrod, bringing tljm ndvico of congrcsa. It w^ 
hdud in hJkfijer and rcjeet^. Tho Btilo felt it^^lf cflfit off (uid 
aIoii4>. Georgift lind fallon; tlt« ooiintry lictw<M;n Sftrannah 
and Charleston waa oTormn - the Briti^ conli«csted all no- 
groe« whom tht-y could sdlce; ihelf endittriai were tuf^Ing thv 
Ttwt 61 riM^ iigHiitHt tlurir ownpn or to nn nwnr. )[any be- 
gan to rc-f^jet the etroggk for mdepeiiilL'iioer. Movt^l T>y tht^tr 
dread of expoiung Oluu-Wton ttj be Ukrn by vtonn, nnd mto 
&t Ica«t of gnning time by protr^ctod parleys, the cxocvtiro 
eoyi^miiient (cnt a fia^: to a^ of the inraden their tenns for 
a ca|>i1ulution. In nn»wor, tbo firitiah general ofiorod peuc 
to tho inhabitants who would acoopt protoctioo; to all otbet«, 
Uio condition of pri»onei« of vor. The council, at Its next 
mooting, dobatod giving np tho town ; Monltrior lauriOM, 
and Fulasldj who were called Id, declared that they had imq 



VAR IS 



n. ax 



IFD LrXOOUT. 571 



enonf^b to beat the invadere; and yet^ a^nst tlio voice of 
Gaiiifdei], of Ferguiou, of Jolm EJwardit, and of others, tlio 
juiijority, irntiit4vl by Ut« nilviri) of congroe^ to a3UDdpat« 
ajid itrm hLivee, "proposed A Deutmlity juring Hit wht, tLo 
{pustlon wL<TtLcr tlie utita «1iul[ 1>c1ong to Grvat llrFlAlii or 
ricmaiii odo of the United Stato to b^ detemuncM) hy ttie 
trca^ of pcaco l^etwecD tlio two powew.** LaurcnB^ bdug 
cjlIIcJ upon to bear tbU mowigo, AcomfuUy rdfosed, 4Dd an* 
otlior nn^ sclock^. Tho Bntish gononl declined to trot "nTth 
tLechil ^vemmoDt of South OaroUnUf but mbdo utfiwor to 
Monluio tlut tbeguiTi^on muwt surrender xm prieonere of 'Kor, 
"Thee WG will ilglit il out,'' taid ifoultrie to tho governor 
iiiid (■ouuctl, luid tL-ft, thv-lr t«uU QudHdt?ji aiid Fm^j^uson fol^ 
liiwt**] bliii, U> vay: "Act aooordrng to yniir own judgmcji^ 
and ive vill support joa ; " and Moultrie vrnvt^ xhti flag from 
Uic gate oe a sagnal tliat t^ confcrreiLCD wof^ At an ciDd. 

Tho onomy bad i&t^ncvrptod a Jott^^r fram Lincoln iti which 
he charged Moultrio *' Dot to gi^a up the city, nor niffor the 
]>copli> to dCNpoIr,'' for Iw wu hnfltoatng to thoir relief. At 
day%ht the next mominjt the British were Rone. They had 
GtfCfiped an ^ucotiuier by rc'treatfng to the filoiid*. Tho Amen- 
enrij^ for wimf cf boJtU, CQold not prurenl their emktrkatioo, 
Dor (h^catablislilngn pof^t at Itt^ufort, TlieCaroliriaiciilitia 
rfitnraed home; LiiiimIh, who wna Ml witli bnt n]wtut ^ti^hfc 
hundred tnen, piHcd the great hoata of mminicr at SheldoiL 

Tho innuioa of SonUi Caiolina by tha aimy of Qeiunl 
Prcroctt pTOrod notJiing more than a raid tliroii^b tho nchcflt 
plantatiooa of tbo atato. The Britiah pilla^ almoet evtrf 
boiue in a wide eztoot of eountry, sparing in eomo mcatnro 
thoeo who profiMMd loyalty to the klnj^ ObJocCx of tbIqo itot 
tr&iuportaUe vero destroyed. Porci>]a5D, mirrore, window 
worn dMh«d \n piece* ; gardeiu, carefully plantoj witlt exotfon, 
laJd waste. Domestic BnimaLi ««ra wonlimly Rliot About 
ihrae thooaaud fugitive alavee poaaed with the army hito 
Georjpa. 

Tho Mmthenuuofit etatea looked for relief to the Freoch fleet 
in Amcrioa, but ill fortune einng to it In Scptembor 1T7S 
tho Marqnii do BomU^ tbo gallant gOT^niorgeiieral <A tbo 
f reoMb Windwaid Uands^ id a aingle day vroMMl 6«m Oraat 



dT2 AMKBICA IS ALUASCE WTTC FRASCE. ■ft.ir.jo^iw. 



PnUin the rtmiglj fortified island at Dominicn; b^it d^E«^ 
lua^ vit^ A gn!^y iacraased fleet and * kud-foroc of Eune 
tbi>nBuid man, como in ai^lit of tlio island of Bt. Lcda jiut 
D« ita li^t FroDcb lU;; had boen etraok to a corps of fifteen 
hundred Britbb uoopa, A bndlng for i\B rooovief; was r»- 
polsed, with a Iock to d'EKtiiing of nearly ^fteen hmtdrcd ihod. 

Early ill January ITTft, neinforceicenta ander Admu^ 
Byron tnumfcnvd maritiiuo eupi^i'IiirU/ to iKo Bnlidii^ mjikI 
d'EsUing for m monUis nheltiMrd }]JA fleet nithin tli« bay 
of P<»t JBoyaL At thd end of Jqdc, Byron haring left 8l 
lAicia to convoy a oompanj of linttfJi merchant ohipe through 
^ paaeagcai d^Eataing detached a force againat £t. Vincont, 
trhich, with the aid of the oppneaed and enalared Cahbe, ila 
iiati\-o inhjiljitaiiVi., wii eaaily takedo- Thii £a tho only ^^'^fip'Mf 
in tha VTHf wTitinf tnitui^^t «lav«« actod offidootly. On tho 
fonrtb of Jiiiy, Onpnadi gnrrendered at dbcrettoa lo ilie French 
wltniniL Two i!iij'ii !Al<;r ihn tlt-id of Bj'run arrivml wiUiin 
dghtof the Fmnch, Riid, though reduced in nmnbor^aou^t 
a general action^ whieh the Fmidi ku«vr how to avoid. In 
the niniiin^ fight thikt cnaiuxl, the British sliips mJIcrcd w> 
mnch in thcur tsA^tfl and Tigging that the Pn^nch reoovnred 
i\to sTiperioriiy. 

To a diroct co-cpcraticn with tlio United SUtea, d'Ectaing 
waa drawn by ihe wiah of oon^creo, the entreatka of Sooth 
Carollua, and 1i!a own novcr-foiling good*wi]J. On tlw dnt 
dny i-ti Si^ptiniitxT hv nppTO^f^.h^ Georgia ao snddetfily tlttt he 
6:>ok Ifj surprise four Itritish ahlpfrof-war. To the gofcnuoent 
of South Oorolinu lie niiiiouiicc^ his rcadincaa to aviat in n>- 
dncing Savannah^ but ho made it a condition that hia fleet, 
which consjsted of thirtj-thive uul, nhculd not be dctaiutd long 
eCE M) dangoroon a coast, in ten days tho French troc^ though 
nnaasiatod, efiooted tholr Lmdinf?. Koanttmo^ the Bntiah oosn- 
mand0 worked day and ni^ht with raUyi of btuidreda of 
negrooa to etrongthen hia defoncec 

On the eiTtoeTith d^E^taing sammotied General Pmv<^ to 
siirFBiider. IVllle Fn<Toet i^aincd time by a triple hita«rhanf^ 
of notoES MoitlAnil, n^antlcn of nuilanAi preemd tJimugh the 
awampa of the low country^ ani dufihed with a mortal fever 
caught m the march, brought to hia aid ciglit hundrod mien 



I 



IXTX "WAR IS TUB SOTOI. CLmtOS AND LISCOLK. 373 

from Beaufort. When ih^ &II bju] oniToJ, t]i« Bntish gave 
tliffir aii5ii'er of defioacd. 

It WM tbc twcntjr-tbini of 8c|vt«in1)cr vhca the Aiccncact 
vndcT Lincoln joined tbc Fronch ia iho mgc of tlic city. On 
the eighth of Ocrtobcr the reduction of Sarumah eecmod ctill 
to fur di<tA3t ihax the navrU officon iiud«tod on tli« nahntm of 
leAvtnj- the fioot tonf^or oxpoecd to autunmaJ gilo* or to ui 
■ttAck, vith so much of its eti^gth on land. An Bsesnlc waa 
tbcrafore rMolred on for tho next ttij-, xa lionr bufov^ ntn- 
Hae^ bj two f«<igned and two real attacloFL 

Tilt? mi\y ciiUhi^ (>( RiicotniH hy in the pn«^ execntSon of 
thfi jdan. Th« column trndo' Count DiUon, irJitch woa to bftm 
fttlackod the rear of the Bntuh tincfi, miswd its irajr in 4 
swamis of whidi it should oulv huro ekntod tbo cdgo, wm 
Wpl^ulj cxpoiod fo tho British batteri^*, uid conld not otcq 
bo formod. It tru broad dwy when tho p<irtv' with d'£«Uinj]», 
sooomponlcd b^ a p&rt of tliie C&roliniuis, advanced fcarloiilj^ 
but only to bcoom;> hndilhvl IftgcdiernMr Ihv [utnijid tiud«r 
&deitnictiv0 fire froED miuWry and udtiob. The American 
BtBndsTd w^Jt plAntnl tm iLi? fiun|iiLTtA hv Hurim iirid by Biuh, 
UenlCfl&nts of the Mcond South CaroliiLi re^^cct, but botb 
of them fell ; at their mdd Soi^eant Jasper was tnortallj 
wonndod, but ho Qf«d tbo Iwt moments cf his lifo to briag 
ofl the oolon Trhidi ht si^3p<ffted< A l-'Vonob fllaDd4rd vru 
plintod trith no better refolt. 

AAcr an obetinito 0tni{s*1e cf fiftr-fivo minntstt to cany 
tbo ftdOGbt^ tbo MttUanU ratrosted before a eharg;o of gnoMr 
djom nwl mtrinfS, I«d galhntlv hv MnJtUnd. Tlie injury «» 
lained bj the DrltUb wiu trifling ; iho lose of tho A moriciot 
wiw ahmit two hunrlrvd; of tbo Frenob, Uirioe aa msB/. 
D'EfitaJng was ttncs wonnded ; Pululd onec, and ntortaUy. 
^ The cries of the dying," so wrote the »et«rely wooodod Buoa 
do fitodmgk to bis king, OosUitis HI. of Sweden, ^ pierced 
me to the hcait. I deeircd death, and might havo found iE| 
bat for the neccsriey of thinking bow to save foot hundred 
men frt/ow fetieat ww stopped b^ a brotoi boridpe.^ Hie 
pttriots of Gdor^ who ha4 joined in ttM eiope Red to the 
i)9icWoodi or acHTw tbo rivtr; tbo F»neb idled for Fnmoe^ 
At Ptrii^ Stedingic, » he tnovBd iboot on cnitobai^ beame 




371 AMEKICA 15 ALUAXCE nni FBANOK ir. it. : ca. xxtr. 

tLfi ddi^it of tbe lu^lieftt Bodd circle ; uul At osra of tlie 
thc«lTC0 WM3 pcnOEuUcd on tbe fUge, Icftdiflg 4 itMiuiiig pArtjr. 

Lmooln nrpam^ to CbarlGetc«* aAd via foDowed bj iriut 
TcnuiDed of hift arm; ; tbo mUitla of Sooth Ckroluu rotctni«d 
boaH; iti eoQtiiwctal tvgiments wort mgltiDi^ twftj ; u\d Jto 
ptper mosey b«cuD* so iwarij wortUoas thai a boitt^ of 
twenty-dve bondred dollan for tweoCy-one TnonUu* ferrioe had 
fid hllrartioti. TTui itwollf-nt UMmr tho vm IxTtvoeai CbultttoQli 
and SaTutiialj knew iiot where to find protectloD. Through* 
ont the tttAie tho people were diiheutowd, «im1 foreLoded iu 
d««olotioii. 

ISQir that the British hold ticoi;e^ and Bcatifort in South 
CAroUna, Ihej might have gained %n cnduriog mMtciy 
ODudpatuig 4U(J vmirig thci bluclu. Hal tbo idw thai Ai 
ffj vu ft iio iiguntt hamanitjr was nuknown to poflioniODl 
luid to thio minisDy, and ^ould have b««n boated at bj iha 
umijr. The Uiuiight of iinivt^rml i-nnLndpntinn IljuI not yol 
cr^nigtiC'R-d tlie cobvictiotis of the mliiif^ ehsb In Kngland. Th^ 
EnglUh of ttmt du^' noted in the lucnitivu tilavo-tmdc,' uid cbe 
ECft] of iho ((OvcnuDmt in upholding it lind been oina of tlin 
flUiMv that |>n>To1ced the Axacrioan wat. The edrioo to orgnu- 
Uo an oimjr of hbcntod n^roo*; though pcnicflcd tn bjr the 
n^aJ i^venukr of Virginia, vae cm^cd by tbo eegemc« of 
Uie BriUih oiSccn ai\d eoldiers in America for plutiilor. Id 
Uib tliuy wmo cneouragod hy tlie G0rUi4J approbation of tbo 
klnit aiM) hli mlntftten. The Itutinctlonfl feXD Germain au- 
Ihi^tjtud ihu c>oiifijcatJonand«^not(3nlyof negroMomployod 
ill lliit Anterican anuy, but of llioee vfIjo vnliintfirily follovoi) 
Ihe Dritlub trciopa and UtoV ntDclnary under Dntifih jurvdie- 
tion. Tliojr continuod to tic ihippcd to the slaro'mikikoU of 
the Wc«t indice. 

Before thu end of three montha after tbo capture of Sa- 
vannah, all the pn^pcrty, real and perBontJ, of the rebcb in 
Oem^ vaa diq)oeod of. For further gains, Indiani wore 
etinonraged to bring in e1av« wherwor tboy could find them. 
All famHiea in South Carolina were «ubjeoted to the vidta o( 
<tiier<<<Miiro kU of banditti, who met'ivM commuatoiija oa v'ol- 
ontoere with tio \aj or conolnm^nt but that derived from 
rapine^ and vrho* roaming ahotii at pleupuv, rub1>ed the phinta- 



17T9-1TO1 WAR m TfiX SOUTIL OIISIOS AHP liKOOLS. 875 

tlotu, alike of pAtrioto aiid loyalirte. K«gn>cfl were tlic opcil 
moAt oovetod; on tbo avcnffo^ thoy w«ro votaed at two hon- 
titod uid Mty AiJvcr dL>]luftt ulcL. When Sir Jamoe Wright 
retained to Uio govennDent of (i«of]-]& he found Moronl thou- 
ewdA of them awaiting dl^ballon amcmg cJiumanta. Er^ry 
hope of i^^ ti^Axe for eiifnuiuliiKCTncnt wiu» cnifllEtfd. 

Tha property of tfa« greatest pan of the tnlal^iUntji of 
BdEitli^un^Kiia wu coafiacatod. Families were dldddd ; patri- 
ots onttawi.'4 \n\l »v8gc)j a«adhLiiiite<l ; Louau liuraod, and 
vomen and cbildreii drirca dicll^rlcsa into tbc forc»te ; dia- 
tti«ta fo deaolftted that ihcy eeemed llie abode onlj- of orpfaana 
and ^dow«. LdTt moinljF to lior own n»ourciv, U ^raa timmgli 
tbo doptL« of iii7<)tcb«dneee that her aona voro to bring hor 
back to hdT place In tlie republic, after snffenng more, and 
daring mori!, aiad odiieviDg nuire tltuit tlio luen of any other 

Sir Henry CUatoDT who had «o coaafdetely failed befora 
Oharleatoii iu 1776, rcaolrttd m poison to carry out the order 
for ite redaction. In Aogoat an Engliab ticct» oomnundcd by 
Arbntbnot, an old and Inefficient adtniial, brooght hiin rein- 
forccmcnta and rtor»; in 8optcnibor iiftoon hundred men 
arrived frcm Ireland ; ID Oetober tho troopa which had ao long 
been ataiioQod in Hhode lalond joinud Ida army. Ho atill 
waited till \m becuoo aseui^d tbajt tho nperior fleet of d'£»- 
talng had oailed for Europe. 

IdoaTLiig LI11.T rtinuiNUiil in Xnw Titrlt to tW rr^trnin Knyp* 
liauaoD, Cliuton, with etglit thousand five Londi^ed officers uid 
men^ on the day after Chmtnuu 1779, aet aaii for the oon- 
qnoat of South OarolisA. Tlio adminl led tho van tnto the 
adrevwcorreotof tbogulfHStream; glacial etorma scattered tbo 
fleet; an ordnanoo vceeeJ fonndored; American privateen 
captured »ome o£ the tranaporta; a bark, cnrying ITcaaian 
troopi, loat ita maei/^ w» driven by gales aoroee the ocoao, and 
broke In pteeea Jnat after ita famiihed paieengen landed near 
Bt. Ttw in England. &fi»t nf the lioneN peruilMMl. Fow of 
the transportfi urived at Tjbee in Goof^pi, tbo pUcs of nm- 
doETOU^ boforo the end of Jtmunry, Clinton iniuicdiately 
ordered irom New York LonJ Rawdon'a brigade of about 
three tiiomand a»r&. 



L 



376 AllzaiCA IS ALLIASOB WITH FKASOE, tr.tv.;ccL 



Chfirlceton vnts an opalcnt town of fiftoon liwotrnd in- 
bobitaata, frea aad alavd. Ainon^ tbom vgtg lrad«fa and 
othcr^ who wore the repreaemativeB of Kritiflb interegts. Tli« 
pkjr, whirh i*S)4 not fliw-rti^] by it* jirivuti? faniiliEss b*ul no 
great store of jjroviiiioDR Tlic p&pttr money of Uie pravmcti 
wuM vnrtli hai firu per ostxt of ito nominid t'ala& Tlkfi town, 
like tLc country around it, wu flat and btr. On three cidca 
it lay upon the water; arid, for iu oompbto uiToetmait, an 
enemy wbo ccniniandfid Uie aca Deeded only to oocapy the 
neck bctwoon tlio Cooper ami iiio *\*blcy rivcre. It had 
neidier dtadvl, nor fort, nor Rjnpang, nor maieriob fi>r build^ 
ing an^-thing more than ^eld-works of loo«c tand, kept to- 
gether by bonMu arirl Ing^ Tlic gr»iin<] to Itc tlrf^mdi-H vdtbtn 
lite Uiulu of die city was yary extcitsive; and UqcoId com- 
manded loM tlian two tht^uAand effective tnun. On tbo ibird 
of TVbruiuy 1780 tb& goneral aeeenibly of 3oatb CaroliurL 
intrusted the exacoliTe of t^ fitate with povp-er "to do all 
things scecagary to si^iiiv itn hbcrty> aafoty, and bappuMfl^ 
dxoept tokiof? tho Life of a citi^oii Titbout legal trial" But 
tho defeat boforo Sa\ajmab bad didbttrtaned the pooplo. Tbo 
aoutbcTT] part of tlio state noadod all its man for its owb pro- 
toctlon; the middle part wjts dliiaffect^; the frontier* ware 
menaced by lavago tribes, Y^, without taking (Ki^aii«d of bia 
oflloorA, Linoohi, reluctant to abandon public property which 
ht- luid not tiM'iuiA 1(1 Lmnnport, r<<rTuifitL-d In lbi< city. 

On the twcnty-eizth tlic BritUb forces from tbe eastern 
aide of &t> JobD^e bland ^»Ed a viow of the tovru, i!a bar* 
bor, (bo ffca, and canrfiallr cultivntod plantations, vfaicb* after 
their fatignca, socniod to tbom a poradue^ The bort defence 
of tbe baibor was the 1>ar at iu outlet ; and already, on tba 
tven^-«oront1i, tbe ofl^ccfr of tho contincatd «qundroD, whiob 
carri^ a hundred and tifty gnns. reported tbdr inabili^ to 
guardit. "Tbon,** mOu; opmion of Wjubingtou, *' tbe attempt 
to defomd tba town ought to have been relitiquisliaL^ But 
Lincoln, IuLkuL unly iiti Hire ngllu-o Ing lU fortlilctUoua, was tbe 
fiivt to go to worit on them in the monung, and vroaU not 
return till late in the cveruinp:. With tbe guna of the equadron 
and ita Momen, be manned batterieA cm ehort ; and thipa vera 
ffunk to close Ibo entrance to tbe Acblcy river. 



ITW. WAB IS THE SOrTFT. CLWTCWAND LDTCWLS- 877 

CItEiton, trvtin^ nocliing if> h&sud, movod ilcwly oJong a 
eoQfit iutomctod by cr«ek» and tJiockorod with ulandt. LIch 
oofai tiMd tlie time to dnw into Charleston fill the forao Ln iho 
soothirm (li^portini^l of which ho eoulil dupwuw On the lov- 
enth of April the rsnmitt of the Vii^u lino, xTen himdred 
vetemiB, entered Ohirkstcm, hiring !n lirentj^^tt di^ 
marcbcd flrv huiulred miles to ccrtnia captiri^, 

Oa tbo nintlu Arhnthnot, talmi^ adv&ntftf^e of a gecitla 
CMfc vind, bKiBf^bt hiB £hi]>9 into tho harbor, vrithoot miScnog 
fmm Fort Uoultrio or returning itA Rro, Tbo noxt day, tho 
first pomllel bein^ complotod, ClintOD and Arbutfanot eum- 
inoMd the Cown to Eurrender. Uneoln narFcrvd: ^Fhim 
dntjr sold inclitntiori, 1 itiuW iiu]>|)Ort Hw town 1u th« hut es- 

On iha tJiirtc«3ith the Araerkao iifficen fadrted tlut Oat* 
emor Rutlodgo ■bould irithdnnr tiom OlurlcirtoD, IcAiing 
GBd«l«A, tho Houtctiaut-i^voiTior, with firo of tho coandL 
Od tho outio morning liacoln for tho firat time called ft ooon* 
cU of w and enggoRttfKl an OTaicnation, "IT'c fihouH Dot IO0O 
ft& hour," add Uftddatofth, ** ia attompti&pr to icot the oonti- 
iwnttl troopi orer tho Cooper rWer : for on their osifotj dty 
pandfi tho WLlvAtuiTiof the Btutv.^ But lincola only invited 
thuni Ui (.<oiuJder tlie nicafiiiiie maturplv til] Le ^onld tftad for 
ihimi i^in. Brfnm lie e«l1cxl m ttxwnvd otmitHI, tliv AmenrAD 
caToliT, vrhich kopt up eomc connection botwoen the town ftnd 
the countij, hfld been sorprieod ftnd ditp^r^d ; Comwollid }t^ 
ftrrircd vitb ncttrlT three thonMud men from Nov York ; and 
the Briliflh hod ocenpiod tho poninmla from tho Cooper to tho 
WtDcIo; BO that on ovMnutJon was no loofrcr paanbi«. On 
dw «th of ibjt Fojt Monltrio nuroDdered icitbont firing a 

On t1i« tirelfth^ when tiM Britiah w«ro rmAj to tsmiK the 
town by land md nCer, Unoohi m^ned » ctpitnlotion. Xhf< 
contuMintAl triHipe and Mihira Iwovno prliDiieti of war nntO 
oxclioaged ; tbo militln fn>m tho cotmlrv wi^ro to rctnni homo 
oa priKOMra of iru on p&rolc, uid to be flecaro in their proi>- 
ort7 M long tt their parole abc^A be oboerv«d. All f reo maiD 
adolls in Cbarlortoni indndiag the iged, tbo Infino, and tfrm 
ttw lojftlial^ TOO ooonted aad paroled as priioDGi% of whaax 



ST8 AMKRICA IK AIJJASOE VTTT FRANCE. tr.lT,j wlxjtit. 



Clinton, in iVvi vAirigbriotie w^j, ni«ccl tiiv ntmilHir lo Gvx; 

Tliu value of the npojl, wljidi vru diMribated bjr Engliflh 
A&d ILesuaft commuMrics of captoroSf amounted to about Uueo 
handrtd thouiand ptmods etcHing; tfao div>d€i»d of t nujor^ 
goacnU oxcc4;(l«<l four thoiuftnd guuiov. Then tvh no ro- 
etmnt on private mpiito ; the sWvi^r pbte of tho plniiti^ vns 
curfed off; alt negroes tlut hid Won^od to rebeU vere 
Mizod, o^H^n though thuy UxJ tlmnwlvm »oiig)it an flAjrlnok 
wlttun tbo UritiHh li[iE« ; nnd ftt one eiribarkntior two tliouaRnd 
of Utem vere riHp[^c<l to tLo Wi^t Indian foi eil«. Briti^ and 
QcrmiiD officeTB tJjcoigbt more of amoMiDg forttuie« tUvi of rcK 
ttuitinf; the ompLro, Tho patriots wero noibUcnrcl to Appoint 
uttoniovd to manage or to tfcll tlieir cetatos. A eeQt«tcfl of 
Gonfigcntion Imxtfi over tho knd, and Sritisli prot*etioai ivu 
grontod only on tlie Qneonditiona) prombo of lovaliy. 

Fnr «ix wvcrkit all i>p[x>Hi1ion cuDiwd i» South CortiUiUk 
On© i^xpi'diiiiiii wiM ftiiiit bjj' Clinton nji tin* Suvnimali to en- 
courage ttie lo>a] aui) reduce the diWTvctt^ in the Di^ghbor* 
hood of AugUflta; anotlicr proccfwIwJ for the Hkc purpose to 
tLo district of Nitict^'Si^ whoro WiLiianuoa eurrcndcrcd Ma 
poet and accepted British proloGdca ; FiokcDfl was roduocd to 
Cnactfrity; ulouoof tho Icndcn of tlio patriot mtlitJA, Colonol 
June* ^iUIaTtifl eecapod pumiit and prwerved his froedom of 
action. A third and Lu-ger party under Comwaltk movod 
jit'nwH tiju ftuidn! tiwjinl Cfitmttjn. Tlui rrjtr uf t!i« «ld Vir- 
ginia line, comuiaitded by Colonel Bnfoj'df ornTing too lato to 
reinforco tUe fn^rruMiu of (niorli^sbioi, had retreated loiratd tho 
DOrtU'O^of tljc ftatc. Thi^y wcro pamiod«flDd on the twenty* 
ninth of yi%y ^oru overtaken by Tarlcton with aoron bufidiod 
cavulry and mounted infantry. Buford luniidf, a few who 
ware m6un&:d, and nbcut a hnndrud of the infnntiy, tavcd 
tliGmMilvf.fi by flight. The rest^ making no r9ei«tnnc(^, vainly 
aned fur yuartor, Nonw was gnuitt^l. A hundred and tldr* 
tcon uT^rn kiltifd on the spot; a hnudivd nnd fifty vroix) too 
badly h^ked to be moved ; fifty-three coily could be biroTight 
into Oomdcn a« priaoncn Tho tiding of thia iiiaa«aen>, bofne 
tbrougii tho sontbcm forests, excited horror and angor; bat 
Tarleton reoeivod fr^in Comwalli^ the highest aDOomiiiiDa. 




irftO, WAB IK THE eoCTH. CUSTOS ASD L&'COtS, 8t9 

TLe cjiptiira of Ctiarleeton EOBpondod all rauttticcto Hm 
BritUli aroij. Tlio mftn fjf Br-^tifort, of Ninelj-Six* and of 
Camden capituJatod andex the prontiffC of security, bclic\'iiig 
tiiftt they were ti3 bo treated ub noutrals or aa pnfioncrs on po^ 
role. The attempt wu noin* tiuido tj> i^roi: the men of Olto- 
Im into activo eonrico in tVio Ifritu^h iLrm^, lukd H> lo becomo 
tho iastnunente of their own nibjocticn. 

On th6 twTOtj-aeeond of Mny cocflsefttion of property and 
other jniniKlinic^TiiK vrcro dt^Tioiinci'd agiiiut all v!ii> nhould 
tlu^reaft^r oppose llie Vin^ in aniia, or hinder nny oni' from 
joLuing Ilia fort%K On tlie Qni of June a prcpt^kuutUiQ t>jr 
tiie commisnoncrs, Cliitton and ArVuthnot, oficrcd poidon to 
tlio penitent, on their immediate Totam to allegiance ; to th« 
lof &[, tho prt;uuio of their fonocr political Immsnititfl, inelad- 
ing f roodcjD from taxntion oxct>pt by tlioir o^n logiiktura. 

On tho third of June, Clinton, by a prooUm»ition vhiob ho 
alons dgnod, out up Brldah autlioricy In Cartjlinii by the roots, 
llo required all tbo inhabitanta of tba proviuc<i<, cvt'n tltofo 
oufriMo of CIuirIy*fton ** w!io wi>re now priwmen on parole," to 
Uiko iin airti%'c pari, in «*c;inng tho rnynl gfivitnirit?iit- "Shm^ld 
they neglect lo return l^ their all^iauoe," ao ran the proela- 
tnatjon, '^Uiuy will hi? tnmtinl tut n^Ms t<» thfi govuntiucnt of 
tho king.'' Ud nerer reflected that many who accepted pro- 
tMtioQ from fear or convcnicnco did m in thi^ expectation of 
living; in a stato of neulmlity, and that thoy might eay : "If 
nv most %ht, let ne %bt on tho eido of onr friends, of onr 
coaDtrywan, of Amorioa." On tlio oro of hl# doportnie for 
Xew York ho rt^rted to Gi^nnain: *• Tho inhabitnnti; from 
€T&ry <jiiarter doekre their aJlegfanee to the Un^, and offer 
thnir Mrviccm in nntw. TlLrroarr f«w mim in B4>nt3i Carolina 
who are not either our priflooere or in anus with na." 



[_ 



S80 ASlfilUCA IN AIXIAKCE VmU FBAKCX. omt.; OR-nr. 



OHAPTKR XXV. 



niE WAR I^ TBB 50VtB* COSSfVlALlJA ISO OAtTS- 



178^ 



KtVALKT bdtwoon Clinton and Corn^&Uia altoady gloved 
under tlio a^rc4. Clinton had ^iTittMi borne moro tnatli than 
WM wiHiuglv lUtvncfl toj and, tHoitgli fio ultirj)^ with Cenadty 
to bL8 iwiiiratwi^n, intmiatei} a. wi^h to Ix- recjiUeii Gennain 
t4»ok Itim m> f^ U hin wonl m I» givi< Inrn knvn lo Irxiufer to 
Comwolli.) the cluof command in North America. 

In 17S0 oH opposition iu South Carolina wad for tlio m<^ 
mcnt at nn <in^ when ComwalliA c&tcrcd on hiit ecpamto com- 
mand. Ho proposed to koq> poflceeeion of all that had becD 
gabed, and to advance aa a oonqncror to xho Cho4apoak«, 
Clinton hnd left with l^lm no mony xli^n tlvu thonund cffecdvio 
troops in Soudi Carolina, and te3» Than two Thousand Id Oeor* 
^Im; to llitMf wrv. Ui ha added tlio rKi^iiiitniU which hn waa 
det«rmmed to orgaDi^o otit of the «onth«ni pcophx 

As ifitt ju the difltncta aubniitted. the dqw commandar 
cnrollGd all the inhal^tant^, and appointed iictd-o£iccn vith 
oWl a« well a» nuHtAry power Tfeo mon of property ahoTo 
forty j«arB of aj^ woro made rospDHfiiblo for order^ but w-ero 
not to ho called out except in caio of iumrr^tion or of actofl] 
iiiviuLion ; th^ yonrigiT mt^n who compcvt'cl ths second claim 
were held ll^hle to serve aix loomlha in eAcli jrear- Hm>drvde 
of coTnittiminnfi wcnr inmicO for the miUtia icgimeBts. Ikfajor 
Patrick Ferguson, known &om Us eervicM In Hnr Joney and 
greatly Toluod, was deputed to ri^t each dtcdrict in Snnth Can>- 
lina, to procvm) on tlic qwt llit/i cf the militiEt, and to aoe *hat 
thd orders cf CorowaJIia wore earned into exeontloo. Any 



ITBC. WAR IS THE SOUTfl- OOBSWAtXlS A>T) GATE* 381 




CikroUtiimi Uiere^fter taken m anim u^iduU tlie king might bo 
Huittunccd Ui duatU fur iJi'^rlitru mul trea^ju. PropoaaJd of 
lho*o who oUcTcd to nuwc provincjal corps were accented; 
and mon of the provinc^t void of honor and compoMioii, »- 
ccivtil cotnuii»»ioEts, gnther&d ubout thi^m pl^>t]^:ut^ ruifiana, 
and romnwl tJiroiij^h tb« sUto, indtdgtog in rtpinc, ntid rundy 
to put patriots to death ai oulkwa. Cornwall^ nevtr r^ 
gnrdod n di'M^rU'r, or imy one? wlinrn a iv^irrl-titiirtiul iiiiii> 
fenced to dc&tb, sa a svibjecL of mercy. A 4|UBrTerin aster of 
Tarlot(iu*H h'f^iun cnterwl tliu lioiuw of ^^Jit«l Wyly near 
Catudcn, and, bocauac ho had acrrcd u a volunteer in the do- 
1tn<M of Charlcfiton, cnt hun in piixoa. Tho X'roebytcnana 
eiipportod the canao of iiidu)>^idc7iicu ; mid iiideod thv Ameri- 
can ruLvolntion wiu hut tho up)dli*iitioii of Lhti principles of the 
reformation to ^^iWl govtrmmcnt Ono ITuck, a mpfwn of 
BHtlrih nillltfa^ Brtn) the library and dvelling-houw of the 
elefgymui at 'WilliainK*:! planliiLuni ui tlio iip]>or part of South 
Oarolinaf aad burned CTcry Bible into which tho ticotti«h 
tniitfhitioa of the paaluiawaa l»ound. Under tho immodiato 
eye of ComwalliES tltc priiiontitftwho had cepitulat*^] iuCLiarlo& 
ton lydro the subjects of perpetual p&rsectitioa, unl^^m they 
would Qxehoii^ their paroles for oaths of allegiance. Median^ 
ies and sbopke^jx^re could not collect their dnec, except aft«r 
jiromtiieH at lujaUy, 

liOrd Kiiwdoni whii luft tlm vi^ry important command on 
tlie Santcf, ra^-cd equally a^^inet dceortcrs from Ids Irish 
n^^in^nt aiid ^v^nat thd inhabitants To ICngely, at that 
time a major of militia in tho British service and an aspinint for 
higher promotion, he on the first of July addneeod the sever- 
est onlers for wouring tm^ling soldiers, adding : " I win give 
the inhabitants tun ginitcaa for the head i>f any destirler belong 
ing to the volunteers of In?hLnd, and five guineas oidy if they 
bring hiiii in alive.*' 

The di^D of poftts for holding Bonth Carolina eonaiAt«d 
of Georgeto^vn, Qiarlestoo, Beeufort, and Savannah on the 
K« ; AngiutOi Nincty-8ix, and Camdun in tho Intonon Of 
tfaeeo, Camden was the koy between tlie North and South ; and, 
by a smallt^r ]>ogt at Hooky Uoont^ it kept up a eommiiDica- 
tion ^th Ninetv-Six. 



3S3 AMEBIOA IX ALLIANCE VlTQ FaANCE. tp. iv. ; co. ixv. 



At tU9 end of Juno, C{>nivnllitf ro ported that bo hod put an 
ond 10 dU n^taD<?e in Geoifpa ftnd South C^roliaB, and in 
Seplombvr, after tho iarrc^t, would iimn!li into Xooib Om>- 
Him to reduce thui pnivinrt^. On liwiririg of the violence of 
die Critkli, Iloufiton, the dele^^nLe in eoDgreffi from Georgfa^ 
wrote to Jttj^ ; " Onr inigforliiiictf an?, andor Owl, the courtw of 
our safetj* Tbe enemj have OTcrrau a coaaidembte put 
of the atate in tlio hour of ita nakvdncea and debililj ; but> aa 
their measures &com as -asuid to bo djctntod b7 iu^ktontiou, 
whoa they havo MTought up iho epirit cf tho pcoplo U> fury 
and ^t*£peration Hk^v will be expelled from the country','' 

Pnitrioti^ of South CumliTm VjoV rufngo in tbu Ntat« on tbcir 
north. Among tht-m wrw Sumu^r, who in tho comm.-uid of a 
contLUciilid regiment had fhotni courage aiid abi}itj\ To 
pmiLflli hie flight, a TJiitinli detaohiikait turned bis wifo out of 
dooTA and burned his hooaa with cvcrjthing which it coo- 
taincdn The cxilt-N buiOiu^ thenuelvci together, dK>Ae Hm 
for tlioii^ leader. I'or theii- Ufto, the eaaibs cf tJi« oo]{libor< 
night iron tools iiito rude woapoufl ; bulleta vrtai> oat 
;r, Golkcttjd from bouackoopcrs. 'XTiUi •eareclj' tliroo 
rounds of Gttrtndp:^ to a man, they could obtain no more b^ 
fi-om tli(?]r focd ; and ^dtb t3iG arm» of the deiid and voun^k^d 
in ono eng^^cnienc iboy muHt equip tliimR'tvc^ for ibo next, 

Ou tbo rumor of an advancing Amencan anuyf Baii'doQ 
callod oil nil tliiT iTitiJiVitiuit^i niinid Ciunilcn to join bim 
in anria. One hundred and axty who refused bo crowded 
diirhi|f tijc heat iif inlditiuumer iuto out priaon^ tbongh Kinic 
of them were protcctod by tlic capitulation of (^lariutoih 
Moro tliou twenty were loaded with cbaina, On tb© tvelfth 
day of July, Captain Huck waa eent tmi with thirty-iiTO ditt- 
gooDfi, twenty iiioutilcd infuntry, and «ixty uiitlt^a, on % patrbL 
Hla tn>opB wore poat^ in a hine at the village of Qroat R^iadi^ 
nvur tho aonrce of FhJiing eroalc ; luid women wero on tlioir 
knees to him, vainly begging mercy; wb^n suddenly Sorater 
aiLiI bin [iirUt tlmTi^i lufcrrlfir b: nuinbur, danbinl intu tlin hinn 
at both QniU, killed tlt« commands, nnd di*»tn:jed nmHy all 
}d« party. Thiti n'^&* Ibb fint advantage joined over the royal 
forecA ftincc the beginning of tbe yetr. 

The Older by wMch all the mat of Caroliiu w«re euroUed 



1790. ITAE IN TQE: south. COBXWjLLLI.S /lSD QJiT^lk Z3Z 

tn Uio militia dravo Into tho Britkh eorrico prisooets od 
parole and all who liad wlahed t/i reinaJn ngutn). Oim> lidi^ 
vbo thna cnfferad oompul^oD in tlio <liMtricU horderini; on 
thn nvi?nn Tjgi-r mul Knorn<, wnittHl till hia 1xitt4iUon wna 
siippHed vitik aniu aiid ammuEHtioD^ anil tlien oondutlvJ it 
to iU old conizuuitd^ who wu wttb 8:ujit?r in the Cotawlia 
ecttlcmcnt. 

TIlus fitivn^honodf Sumter, on tho UiirtioUi of July, ntodo 
a epiritcd tkoo^li nnsDC^Bsfat attack on Rock^- Mount ilav- 
ing repaired \\» lutues on tbo rxUi of Aii^st te SBrpriaed 
th« DritUh poet at II&ii;^iii;» Kook. A re^oic-Qt of rcfu^ow 
from Xonli CaroUna fl^d with precipttition; tlii^r panio 
epmkd to iho pmviiiHM n'gTTnrnt of tlie prince of Wdo, 
which Buffered fleverelj-. In llit? be^Iimtngof iln? nution not 
one v{ tho Anicricfuin Iia^I more than U^ Imllofa; before 
lU end tkojr nsod tbo tums and anununiti-jn of tlit? fjJIiTn. 
AmoDg tbe paitiaona who were pre^mt in thU tiglit wu An- 
drew J&ckson, ftn crpluut boj of ScotcJi-InAb dctoont, whom 
hatred of opproadon «Bd lovo of couairy impeliod to docd« 
l>eTond his yoar^ Sumter drew book to tlio CatawbA eettlo- 
moDt, ftad from all porta of South Carofina patriots doakcd to 
bbMtndftrd 

So far tho South liad re«tod on EtA own oxcrtiona» Eeljrlng 
on the tntamal stretigth of Now England and the (.'outml tfUtiM 
fur tlitdr pn)U<<'ttoii, WRahiugton h';i-*< willing to im-iir fLSLxard 
fcr tho relief of tho OaroGnu ; md, with the approval of con- 
gt«as» from liia arm_7 of leea than ten and a half thouiiikQi mon, 
of whom twcntj'Ctglit hoTi-ired irvro to bo diachar^^d in April, 
ho doticbcd G^ncml i\alb with tlic Unryliuid dlvisioQ of 
nearly two thousand m^n and tho Dolairara rcf^Unont Maroh* 
fug ordore for tho aonthvard werd givinn to tho oorpit of Uajor 
Loe. The movomont of Ealb was elow for vr^nt of tho meana 
of ttanapottntioe. At Pietenbarg In Ylrj^nia be added to hii 
oocmmmd a ragnntmt of artilli^rjr witb twi']i-R cunmin. 

Of an the atete«, Virginia, of vbicb Jefft^raon wu then the 
gorenKrt-, lay moat eiiiooed to ioradoB from the aca, and vaa 
in cooatant dai^;or frcm the saragot en the vest ; yet H tba 
nnmindftil of !ta own pedis. Ita Icgulatnio met on the ninth 
of liay, Within ten minute after tho booM waa fonned, 



$H AMERICA Df ALLIAKCS WJXa C£A:\CE, xr.vr.; at. £XT. 



RlcfaafO Heoij Lee proposed to ralM aid «eihd twcaity-fiv« 
Imadred taen to serve for three moatlu lo OuoliiUf mud to be 
paid in tobacco^ vbicfa had & real value. Kajor ^tclsoD with 
aixt^ Loree, ind Coloael Annaiid vilh bia oorpe, were alnadj 
moTiiig U> tha aouUu The force uM>mbbd &t Williumbuig 
fer tbo pTotoctioQ of the oountrr on tho JuDoe riT«r oonsuted 
of no moto than three btindTed men ; but tbev toe were seat 
to OuoBiUL befOTd the oEid oC the moatk North Caroliiu 
mailo a nj(inI»tioii on Vtrginia for «nn«, and rccviwd thma, 
Willi ft nia^aiiiiDliy whleJi knew nolhln^ of fear, Virginia 
kul lLcr*t1f Wt! f»r the probention nf tlirr Ciimlbun. 

Tbc ncWB Cbiit CLarlcstoQ had capituhtod ioond Kalh atiU 
in Virginia. On the tvreatielh of Jime he enCend 24ortli 
OoroliDA, and at ililLtbennigh bolted to repoee bia mjvom 
aeldieiB. He found do mAgaxinoe, nor did tbo governor of the 
state mnoh head hie leqiuaitionB or hii remoiutn&eea. Caa- 
-mO, vbo vaa in eojumand of the iDUitia, disngajdod hta or- 
ders from tlie T&nit; of acdag Boparately. Tet, tutdar all prt- 
rntioiu, tlic ofl^ven und men of hw onmniand vfed wlvli rmcb 
other in in:iinUii]iiig order nntl IiArmurij. In hw oanip lU Buf* 
f Jo fard, ou Dee|i river, while he wan atlll doubting hoir to 
direct hia morclt, he rcceiTed nevv cf mcanurcc adopted b^ 
eongrcas ft>r ttio eoutboni campaign, 

Wulilnj|[ton vi^hod Grceae to auecood linooln ; ceagrcei^ 
not A«V:iig liiK ntJricc hut not ignonu^t of hia opanion, on the 
thirteoTLth of Jtme unanimou&ly appointed Gates to the inde- 
pendent GomitiEitid of the aouthem onoj^, lie rocoired hie 
orders from coti^*?** said wm to make his rojv^rt* dirwily to 
that body. He lulglit addfeia himiitflf difwtly roVUj^'uiui lad 
tho BtAti?j( boyorid it for Ktippliui ; of Iiiin^lf n^f^nff a]i]x»int all 
atalF-ofilotTfA ; and uAta euch u>0a^ura» oh bo should iTiliiV nwmt 
proper ftjr tlic dcfcnire of tlie South. From ]iiB pknCnCiin in 
Virginia, G&lea cudo hie acknowlcdf^cnt to congrea» without 
elatiou ; to Unechi he wrote b medest and affeetionate langugo* 
He enjoined on all rcnmanto of continental tnx^ in Vii|inia 
to repair to the aouthcro amajr vith all poeaible diligenee. 

Upon information rooeivcd at IlUisborongh from Diiger 
of South Carolina, Oatee formed hla plan to inaieh dsreedj 
to Camden, asured of Ice eisj- capture. To Katb he wioio: 



4 



4 



iTM, WAR m Tin: south. oorstalu3 Aim gatea, z$$ 



baa boon loot in a Tvn defence of Clnrloeton ; if 
Baarliload, tbe soutWn atatee ate uudona; aad thU 
nuiy gi) fi«iir1y to undo fpTin nst.*^ 

j\jTmi% in the c:unp of Enlh, the firftt worda of Gotoi 
Offered tlie troopa to b^ proparod to march at a tnomeDl^e 
v^imiiig. Tbe fi&fost rotite>, reoommegid^ by a mcmodal of 
Ifao principal cfflccr«, wn* by wnj of SalUhTiry and Cliarlotto, 
tbroiifch a moflt fertile, aalttbridafl, and w«ll-caltivat«d conntiy, 
inlmbitoil by Prc«bytoriaiia who were boartEly attoohod to tho 
ovifie of indepoDdoDce. Bnl Ostein on tho moming of Uie 
tvontyvaeraotb of July, put what he called th^ "gruid army** 
'CO Its marcli by tint jthorU-jit nnitct to Oaindi^ri, tlirongh m 
"tmrrm oouoDy wkich could oSct no food but lean cattle, fnut» 
and varipo nuiiA. 

Oa the third of Aagn#t the army croswd tbe Pc<!oc river* 
taakii]^ a juDcltoQ an ite Mttthem bank with licatcnant- 
Coloocl Portcrticld of Virginia, an cxeellcnt officer, who had 
boca sent to tho roliof of Cbarlceton, and had found mcaiu 
toiubdst hltsniiaU cenumiid on ^e frontier of Soath CarolinL 

The forctt of which GntcN could difpoce rerivod tbe hopes 
of the South Carolinians, who were vHrhing under tlie lueo- 
Icfncau uf lui nuiiy in wLicli every sliMIjt wilh UeuiuHM] to plun- 
der, and oveiy offip^r outlawLil peaceful citiziru« at wIH. Tho 
British cominander on the Pedoa CHliod in lua detadimentiv 
tbacdcHiod hia po»t on the Ofaeraw ITill, and nrpalrvd to lA>Td 
Kawdon at Camdfm. An eacort of CaiotiaiinB, who had boon 
forced to tako np arme oq the BHt^ eid&, roee apainet their 
ofiioon and made firieoncnc of > Hondnxl iLnd rix BHtish inva- 
Uda wlio were deeoendi&j; tho I'wlee riv^rr. A boit from 
OeorgotovD, laden with etorca for tbe BritUh at Cberaw, vaa 
■eiied by AnioricanR. A rarvoU in the pulilti? miin! agaiint 
BrKkh authoHcy invito QuteA onwanl Mbded by faks in- 
fmrniat^ni, fmm liia flunp on (ho Pi>dib ho onDMUiieed on the 
fonith by a proclamation^ that their late triiuDphant and b> 
Buhiag fo«e bad retnated with precipEtaUoo and dtflnay on the 
approach of his namdona, wcU^ppointcd, and formidable army. 

On the BOTcoth, at the Croes Rooda, the troope with Cbtoe 
made a juncdon with tlio Kotib Carolina miBtia tioder Oae- 
lUf and proceeded toward tho enooiy at Lynch*! creek. 




3S6 AMERICA IS AtLIASCE WITH FftASCE, Er.m;«nLSST. 



In IliefoDowiEignJgfal tliat post was 4bttidi>iMd, tod Lord 
B&wdoa oocnpiAd another on tbo Aouthem bank of Little 
Lyn^B creek, utum^bblo from tbo dixip, moddy cbansol of 
tbo river, find witbin a da/d loarcli of CamdeiL Hero be vu 
joinud bj Tarleton villi a nnall dotftebancnt oi ^araliy, who 
on tboif V9y hkd murcili^tjr mvAgvtd tbo cauntiy cm tbe Black 
river as a pnni!?hirenf 10 if^ patriot inliabiUDts, And m a teiror 
to thi: di^dlen iiu ilie WaU^ree &iil1 ^anltM?. By jt focmd 
iBUvb Qp the itrcom, C>nte« cotild buro tomcd Lord Tliwdoa'a 
flank aad nude lUi co^y conqucet of CamdecL ^TU»ng Ug 
opi>ortimttyf on tbo eleventh, after a tiddutn luUt of tvro digmt 
ho detilod by tho right, luid, roArdiiiig to the noitb of Cam* 
doD, on tho tlurbeotitb encamped &t Clermont, wliktb tbo Uriv 
lAh lud Jtut abandoned Li the thoc thiu ullowcd^ Ravdon 
BtreogthoDed hlnuu^^f hy four eompaiuot from Niikcty-Six, ai 
vgH u bv the ttwfpb from CLennont, and ihnv up redoaba lit 
Oamdeii. 

On ibo crT«niiig of tfao tenth Oomwallis left Chftrloktaa, 
and arrived at Camden before the davnof the fourtecuUi. At 
tvn o'clock on Uio ui^lit of tLu fifteenth he ect bia troops in 
motion, in the hope of joinicg battle with the Ainetiaini at 
tho break oi day. 

On dio fbiirtocnth Gntoa bad been joined by ao^ea hundred 
VuginEa militia under the oommand of Stereoi. On tho umo 
day Snuitcr, appearing En cainp ^th four hundnxl men, aaked 
for afi many nior« to ini«rce{>t a eonvoy with i(« stores 00 tb* 
rood from Cliarleslon to Camden. Gates, who beliutcd him- 
Mclf lit the luuiJ rpf »cvon tbcrtiund men, granted his requesL 
Sniuter left tho ca-m^^ taking with Kim eight huodrad men, 
And on the ne^t morning captured the w»gvn4 and their cecort. 

An exact licM return prorod to iMw that ho bud but threo 
thouaand and liftytwo rank and file preeont and fit fvr doty. 
" Tbc«D are cnongh,^ ndd lie, " for oar purpofto ; " and on the 
flftoonih he oonamonioatod to a CDuneTI of offieeifi an oi^r to 
begin thvir mareh at ten o*eIock in the evening of Umt day. 
He WM liKitmod to in mlenat. Many wondered at a nif^bt 
mAri-^h of ail army, of which moro thiin two ihirdA wl-t^ militia 
thjit I];ui ii(-vi*rvreu hvcn |)9irauled to^i?lhi?r; ImL friili^ whn 
bad iho '* moat aanguine confldeoce of victory and the dl^pci^ 



I 
I 




1T80. WAB IS lUE flOUTH. CORXWAUB AND OATBd. 8^7 



t!oit of lite eaemy,*^ aj^jioiutvJ no |i1ace for r«Di]ezvoua, .irid 
bcgui liin mELTch before Iiie boggo^ wwi Kufticicntly in tlic 
rear. 

At IiaU po^ two en tbo mominif of t)io auctccEitb, nl^ont 
□tue Tiiilea from CiiiudeQ, t]i« ftd^Bntfe^^anl gf ComwalUji felt 
in with tht.) iidvanc^^uii rf tli<t AmericAnaf to vbom the 
oollbion was a snrprSee. Their cAvalry was In front, but A^ 
mftnd, tU coiTiiiiariilt-rf wlm i)in1ilcf-«il hiH iinlrnt^ wtut inKulxtnlU 
nate; the lionwnic^n in hvf. i.^kitiTii.ind tnmi'r] eiiddvaly and tTod ; 
mid neillier ho nor tbcv did aiiT nerrioe that night or ihe next 
dnj. TLo rvtrtat <.'i Ammnd'n legion prodncfid confiuion ia 
the firEt Mainland brigade, and epreod conetcsnAtioii through- 
out Iho army, till tho light infactry on the ri;»Lt, under tJio 
oomciAnd of Colonol Porturliuld, llirvw huck Ukt purly that 
mftdo tboattAckand rQ6ton>d onlor; but at]i^rn>nt pric«^ for 
Porterdeld received a wound wlilob prov^i fara!. 

To 11 <iui]icil (if thu Aiiirniun gimtin] ofTictini, hild imntiv 
diatfity ID Iho rcur of tlie Imec, Gates roiTimnturalod the report 
of a prijtoncr, titat a Ur^ re^tlar force of DrltL^Ii troo|Ni ui^dcr 
Comirallift ^tM five or bU hnndrcd ynnJtf 111 their front, and 
eubmittod the qnootion whether it wonld be proper to rttmit. 
Stevens dedarcd luntwlf eager for batth^ tapng th^t "the 
informadon mtf but n etmtagom of Ilawdon to cheapo tho G.U 
tswk," No other adTice bt'%c offered, for cvon Kalh fvinoined 
fdlcni, Gutu doiirod th«m to form fn tiuo of b^ttlv. 

This position of Lord Comwallis tcjl8 tnoet favorablo. A 
Hwamp on caeh Aide fleciir^d hi* dankA a^ilmd tlit* ttU|)erior 
nnmliciY of tlm Anwrlcnnn* At (liiybrpak Vw Iwt <Iij>[>cwi Lions 
were nude; The fnJEt line, to which wev^ attaclied two eis- 
p4Qnden nnd two ihroe-pounderi, wui comnundcd on tlio rigtit 
hj licitctifmt-ColoncI Wcb*tcr, on tlio loft by Lord lUvxlon ; 
a balloon with a ^ix-ponndor yna poecoi behind each wing as 
a mervo \ tho oamlry woro In tlio rettr, roady to cIiat^ or to 

plUfUO. 

On Uie AtDCtiam side, the sec^ond )faj7E&nd brigade iritb 
Gbt for Ita bdgtdEcrr tnd tlw men of DeUware, oocnpled the 
ri^t wider Kalh; the Xorth Carolicui divinon vritli C^nridl, 
tJie eentre; Ks)d Stt^ven.^ with the oewl}' amved Vuguila 
militu. tbc left: tlie best troopi on tljc aido rtmngect \^ nab* 



S$S AJK£Btt]A or .UlUlt'CE vita FBAfid. v.m;CB. 



tur«, the worst on Aft weokeft The tret VvjIukI hrigada 
At Lhe head of vriiicfa Snullwood should hftre ftppeared, fonned 
■ ffcoond line aAxml tiro hnnditd jArdt id tl^ n:ar of the SrsL 
'Hw utitlciy \n» divided botvcca tbo two brigede*. 

(ijtt4)e took hie |>l«ee ia the nor <4 tin eoeood GnG. He 
gave iK> order till Otbe WQUinu pcopoted to hhn to he^ 
the attftcl: with the brigMt^ of SteTeai^ who l»d been with 
tbe amif only one day. StercBs gavie the word ; snd, u 
Uie/ ptvpunsd to move funrard, Comw^Ilu Mdon<d WvUtler, 
whote divinon aittUiiied hk hnt troops, to tsul ihom, 
while liAwdom wa± to eogt^o tha American lifiiit As th* 
Biitidb with Webater mdied OBf firing artd ahouth^ hiuza, 
Stcvcais iccEUBded Ida milhu that Aey had bojODOtt; bcttbej 
hod reodved them otdytbe day bef ove, a&d knew not how to 
lue them ; ao, dreppong their iiiiukc<ai thej oaoapod V> the 
woods with snob Fpeed that oot more than thie« of them were 
IdHed or wounded 

Cjowl-H aud Hiv uuUtja of Xortli Cnroltnn, oxcl^ the few 
who bad Omgory for tbeir brigadier, followed the coomple; 
neatl/ two tiurda of the aimjr, Qat«e himaelf writea thia of 
them, "nn like a toiteot,*^ Mxl he, their geccnl, ran with 
thorn. Thej took to Iho wooda a&d diapetacd in 0T<>r7 dire^- 
tion, while Gatee disappeared tiom the aeeac, taking no thought 
for the eontiiieatal troop* whom bo left at their posts in tlio 
Scdd, CLod flyiDj*, or, as he called it, relirin^t as ^st as poanble 
10 ClaHoCte. 

Tht* niiltiu having bcicn rented, T^ebster came round the 
flank of tlie flrvt Mainland hrigsd^ ami alt*ekcd them In front 
aiid on ll»-ir lode^ Thon^i Snullwnod wm nowWie to ba 
foruid, thc^ were sufitninod bj the re^rre tUl the hrig>dt» waa 
outflankod bj groatij supenor narohcn and obliged to give 
groond. After bctng twice nUicd,thej Snalljr retreated. Hie 
division which Kolb commaxided oootiiKied long in aetioOi and 
ne^'<T did troops show greater eoonge than these raen of 3b- 
fjliud luid IMawam. Tbe hone of Kalb had been kiJlod oa- 
der lunif and he had been hadlr wonsdod ; y^ he ooatinned to 
flght on fool. At last^ fn the hope of victory, he led a charge, 
druvt: thit divLuuii under Itawduu. Untk fiftj priiwinvt and 
would not believe thai he was mot about to gain the dsj^, wbea 



L 



.mL 




ireo, WAR IN THE soirriL oorswallis and gates. 



^ 




w 




w 



CoTTWulUfl poured a^nrft him n pnri}^ of dmgortiijf und m- 
faDtiT. Ercn then lie did not yidd mitil dinbled b^ many 
wovnda. 

Tho victory ooat Hus Britinh about five bundred of tlicir 
beet troops; '*tbcir great locfl" wrote Manon, '*is equal to a 
defeat." How many Americaiu perUIied on tha field nr mir- 
tendered U not aecuw!e!y Iai*>wn. They wrcd dotw of llieir 
srtnicry unci IJtilft of tJii'Sr b;iggiigt'. Erwpt one litmdred con- 
tin^ntfil Koldiers wbom Gist cockdnoted ai^roa^ Anrampfl tlirough 
i tlie cavaliy coald uol fi:>lltiw, pvtrry c^rjrps vraji dii^Jeiwd. 

c&nc« uid Qudcnrood that hid tiKm ^nj tlieir puiBuera 
Bcpft^at<^d thorn irom one smother, 

Kalb lingcnxl for tliroo <Uj^; but, before ho cio«cd Lie 
ejofi, bo boro an ofFcctionato tostimoDy to tho oscmploi^ con- 
diwt of tbe div^MoQ wbicb lie bad ccinmandoi}, and of wliiub 
two fiftlui hud fallen tn buttle. Opukitl, and bA]ipy hi hiu wifo 
and children, bo gnvo to ttie United StAtm liis lifu &t;d hi& ei- 
«inpl«u Con^ren dwMwd bim a rnctnnment. Tbe Britjsli pa^ 
liAmtint votj.id tl»ml£i to Coniwidlu^ 

Gatea and Oa£vell, leaving tiiG army vrilLout oniera, rode 
in &11 hftMe to Cl^nnont whkb tbey readied ahead of all Ute 
fugitive*, and tlien prcwcd on und fftill on, nntil, bte in tlio 
niifbt, tboy escorted each ether into Charlotte. The neirt 
noniiiig Gates left Ouwell to rdly socb troopt u might eome 
in ; ami himf«If ppc^ to I!iI3#l>oroti^bj wboro tlio North Caro- 
legtslatoie was sood to meet, dding altogether more than 
hundred lailtw in tlirvt* dnya oiid a half, and ntiiTiing «way 
from h\B ariD/ co fa«t and so far tliat he knew notlung sl)out 
ita oonditioflL Caflvrell, after waiting one day, foUuw^ed hb 
cxtmple. 

On the ruQeteeDth, America officer^ coming into Cb&r- 
lottCt placed thc£r bopoi of a luippier turn of cvcntA en &nmtcr, 
who eemmandod tbo larger Amoncan force that nnw renminod 
in ib» OueUnaa. Hi^ difUchment had, on the fifteenth, cap- 
tuitA moro thin forty Erititth wagnm ladea with rtoroa, and 
Mcnred moi^ than a hqjidred prvnner«. On hearing of tbo 
mirfortDnofi of "the grand army,** SQmter retreated akrwly and 
earelewly ajk the 'Wttj^H?. On the aeveailiieintli he iviiiained 
tbrough the whole night at BocIej iixnmtf tboQ^ be knew 




390 AMERICA IN ALLIANCE WITH FRANGE. mp.rr. j vh^Xxw. 

that the British were on the opposite side of the river, and m 
posseaeion of boate and the ford. On the eighteenth he ad* 
vanced only eight miles ; and on the north bank of Fifihiiig 
creek, at bright mid-day, bis troops stacked their arms ; some 
took repose ; some went to tlie river to bathe; some etrolled in 
search of supplies ; and Sumter himself fell fast asleep in the 
shade of a wagon. In this state a party nnder Tarleton cat 
them off from their anns and put them to rout, taking two or 
three hmidred of them captiTe, and recovering the British 
prifloneis and \ragorLB. On the twentieth Sumter rode into 
Charlotte alone, without hat or saddle. 



178a C0RSWAL119 AXD TOE BOCTHEES' PEOPUL g&l 



CEAPTER XXn 



THE WAB Ur TAB SOUTH. COR-VWAUK IKP TAB PTOFUt OF 
Tllfc «OLTU-WE*T- 



1780. 

Tkoh the moment of ht* victory near Camtleii, fornwaUi* 
bt-f^inm.! r.lif! jirinfMjia! Iigiirt? in tht^ Britivli frrvif^T in Arti*»rica 
— tliQ pnde uid di-li(;:Iit of Genuain, thu dcfiii^ed couuiiaoder- 
in-cUUif, UiA one niitn tni wliom n^^^d tLo liopeA of tLe iniab- 
trj for the mccc^^l tcniiitiation of the war. 

VCq biq come lo ilie Beriw of cTcnta which clo*od Uio 
American coiitv«t and reftoj%!d i^vaec to Cht; world. lu Kiuopo, 
tJia vOTOruTgne of Anfitria ftiid of I^ua«ia were offonug Ibeir 
mediation ; tlie XdtbcrUmdA wen> «tniggUiig to pra^tcrve thoir 
neutnlitj ; Fnnco vsu idnunini; every Turrvo to capo wttli her 
nvA\ in tho fonr quarters of di& globe; Spain was eihaust- 
ing her rvhoun^(*i for tlm RuEiijuiwt of OITindlmr; Iml iUb iiid- 
d^ilB whldi orrTtlircvi- llie mini«tr^- of Nortli» luid n-onncilcd 
CiTtat JtntAin to America, bad tbeir aprioga in Sootli Ciirolma. 

ComwoUiB, elated tritb raccen and hopo, prepajMl for the 
northvmrd nurcbi vhich w&» to conduce him from Ttctorj to 
^ctcn-^ tOl ho £hould restore alt America eonth of DoUware 
to lu aUcgjaoce^ Ho appciind to l>cliuT€ tliat Xortli Carolina 
wottld rug to voloome him ; aad was attended bj Martm, hs 
formpr goTBrnor, oag&r to re-onCer OD bli offiee. Ho reqaeel^ 
CLmtoii to difUtrli ilirrv thonmnd mffn to cvtahlUli a p^Mt <m 
the Cimapcake hs^ - and CHnlon knew loo weU the wislies of 
tJio Briti«h f^Tenimait In n<nliiro to icfuao. 

In carrffn^ out his plan, tho fint meaforo of OomwaIU« in 
1780 waa a rd^ of tenor, i^rofceeiog to r^;ard South Carolina 



3d3 AXEBIGA HT MLLLSOB WITH FEAKOE. ir.iT,: i 

BB ratored to Urn dominion «^f Gi:-x:.rgo tH., $nA tceoptiiig Ills 
raCgefltiona of Mtitin and T&rleion and their likc^ that amrily 
WAS die truo modo to bold tlM reoorered prorbkce, ho id- 
drovod the iDort ^ringent ordera to tljo conuoiisdimts «t ffine- 
ty-Six and othor poata to imprUoii all who would ool toko ip 
ums for the king, and to solfo or dMroj ihoir wholo pnp- 
oity. Ho niotit positively ^ijt^nod thut ovory mJIida-HMJi 
urlio bad bomo anm wiih tlie Bntiili aod had afCervanl 
jolni^ ilm Amcru-mw Hhotdd ho hwigbd tmiiufdmlij}^. IIo 
sut up tliu gnllowf ut Cuindcii f>ir t.lm indii>crtininato eiocntioa 
of thoee ainoDg tua prl^ucn who had fonoerly ^ircn tliejr 
parol r. 

Tlio dcetmction of property and life aseomod atiU 
tiidoond forms, wbon tho pcromptoiy ordcre imd exuoplo of 
ComvaUb v^^ro foUcwod hy vuborditiateA !ii romoto difitricts 
nvrity from miporvUicpii. Cruol measure* look and find cruel 
HgenU ; officers whoso delight waa in blood patrolled tho e<yjn* 
try, buni«»l Luiimv, luviigwl twUitttf^ niiil put to tWUl whom 
tbc^y would. Tlie wivi?« And daLightere of the opulezit wcro 
lefL with no Hi cltiihlngj no Mlielr«r but hovtJfi tiHi tnmn to 
utiroct tho dcotroycr. Of a soddfrQ tlic woodman ut hU caibis 
wDuld find hi£ houFO Buiroiiadcd, and ho ot hta ^cel jiij^lat 
le di'jij bocauso ho wiu not iu usim fur the king- If o cn^igo- 
mcmt bj proelnioation or by capitiaUtioQ waa roQ>Qotod. Thoro 
Ta» no qucetioQ of proofs and no triaL For tiro yeatB cold- 
blooded aatnwinatiOTtf, often In tlie hoiue M tho victim and ia 
tho proiwnco of hid wife and littlo GhJldron, woro perpetrated 
by men holding thu Icing'ci coiiimia^ioii. Tho onuny werv do- 
tcrniinv<l to brvtdc ovi^rj^ moii^H Hpiril, or to take Ida Ufe» 

ThoruthleHa udiniiuBLration of Cumwallin attst thti hiiajty 
and repeated applatuo of 'Lord Gt^rge Germain, who doelarod 
hiioaolf convinced' ^lat " to puni^ robellioQ nxnUd hare tho 
heat conaoqucDcceb^^ As to the robola^ \m ordcm to Clinton 
and Comwfiiiia woio: *^ No good faith or jiuticc ia to bo ex- 
pected fri>m thom, and we oaght m all oar tranaaetLona witb 
them to aet upon thut anppodtlon.^' 

In violation of agroomoiit^ tho continontal loldieta who 
capitnlated at Charloaton, ninetoon Imndn^ in nmnber, were 
inuieifi^rT^I ffDin buiUliugH In the toHH to priNinWitjai, wbaro 



lT0a COBXVALLl^ AKD THE fiOl;TIi£JLN P£OPL£, 898 







they were joiaei by ftovora! hundred pHeonore from Camdon. 
In thlrtoea months oqo tliinl of the wholi; nuiubur ptfrkhod 
by maligniuii fui^en; othore wero impraesod into tho Brjticli 
serdee as mnrinora; several Lnadred jonng men wer^ taken 
bj vSolencB uu buard tr^ji«i>arti( »nil foro^ Ii>iii!rrc la a BtMdi 
re^merit m Jatnflic% IsBving wivce and yoimg diUdreD to 
\fanL Of more than three thc^naaiid coufliied in pmm4ljj|N^ 
ill but ftbOLit MTCQ litiadn^d were midc nwnr witlu 

On tho capitulation of CliorloAton, eminent prktriota re- 
mained pmooero on parole Forainoet among Uioae atoi^d tbo 
aged Cbnctophcr GruMcn, who«o ttoAclliAli )otc of country 
a confitsnt enconra^cemont to his conntiytnon never to 
Their silent example reairilned tbo timid from e& 
:ging titirtr ]T(trc>1r> for the |irotoGtion of nriliNJi «ubJ4iCtiL 
overcoirte dii§ ictfluejioe, eleven ^ys after the TicUirj at 
dmi, Uk nm\ ihirly^U of hU nicnL reMi]ulo tLdtut^btf^ m 
t dkrcgnrd of the conditioofl on trliicli thcjr hod sur- 
reuder«d. were «arly lu the mornliig laki^u from their honsM 
and t>cdfi unrl tmnAportcd to 64. An^netlnck Q&dAdcn and 
others, refusing to ^vo a now parolor vr«rd inmiared in lli« 
oaBtle c^ St Mark. After »onie wDoka a like OU^ woo «lu]^cd 
totlion&u) pitoo. 

The Bjrtem of alAveholding kept aw&y frovn dcfcittiro •a^ 
not only tho fOavot, but nnmcETouii fi-liilu oiMxIed to vsldi 
timn. Thiiin.\w«ry some of Ibo naeti deriving their livelihood 
fraiu the hibor of davo^ bad not Umi i^viin^i tu fMw t)i<! M«-Ji 
of porerly for thctnialiret, Btill Uw for their vsivvs and cliU- 
dtvn> Muiy &itttod at tbo hard option latween submit 
eion and ruin. Cliarbe Pbickney, I^vtcly prc«Ulont of tbo Sonth 
Curolina ftcnato, cIomii^ bimMlf among thoce who firotn the 
btmy ind oonfneion of tbo tinica had hotm nulled, doeucd to 
•lu>w «rery mark of ilk^:iane& Bavlins Lovndos vIm> Imt a 
fev montbi before had boon proetdenl of zh& slate of South 
Oaroliii^ uccnaed himflelf for having reluctantly given vay to 
noooflnty, and aaeuitCfil any tiut t4> 2>r(jvo tlmt, witli thu unr9- 
stmincd di«lato» of hia ovd mind, ho qot attached hinudf lo 
the royal gorDmiDent. Henry Middl«U>n, prvaident of Uio firat 
AmeiicBD eon^r^u, tbongb rtiQ "portul toacanee for whfcJi 
ho liod boon io loog cogaged,'* promiecd to do nothing to keop 




aw AJIERIOA IS ALLUuSCE WTtiX FEA50E. 






up tbo ftpirit of inikpejidencG, jLnd to dcoioaa liimsclf m 
But South Cai'olJna wm ne^er conquered- l^rom iho mo- 

I1l«nL of lli» fill] uf <^1i]kr1tHt'JlT, CLiloltel JjLlllni AVlllJUJUKy <iF tfao 

diRtrlot of Nin^j-Six, did not nnt in gsktlMrHiig iho arm^d 
friends (*f tlw^ uukhi, Frtjui fLt rt-ijifjn aboT« Oundeur Smutnr 
and bi.'i liuTiO liovcrrd <tvcr nil Bj'iliriU movemenla. *^ Snaitcr 
certainly ba£ been our grcat^t pt/^o in this ooaatay^'* wntea 
Cornwall ifl. 

In tlio ewivmps between tlic Police toid llic Suitoo, >[tfiOD 
and Lk moD kept wtttch. Of a delicate ot^omtioni AOi»tiTo 
lo traih and bonor oJid Hgbt, liumaiio^ nv^ree lo bloodftbod, 
nGver wrca-kiii^ vetigeiin<-e nor Kuilt-riug tlnjnc sroond hina to 
do eo, acmpalouaty mfipRt^tini^ privitto pnripf^rtY, he had th« 
Icivia uid :Mnfi[l*"iii'c of idl ju Uuit jmrL of tbu wnuilrv. Turlo- 
tonV lrgii:*Ti liiu] laid H wwrt« li> bif^pin? U mir ; vlih\ rolimteer 
partisanfl g»tliered round Marion to redeem tlicir land. 

A bcHi^- of three bandied rcjftHat tniUtia and two hundred 
rcgnUr tnx»pG bad ctftabtiftbod a po«t «t Mmgrovo'^ Uilk on 
tho Enoroo rivor. On die oigbtoonth of Aogiut tboj wero 
ftttaeked by inferior nuniberH under WilUama of Xinutr-Sijc, 
and rontod, 'mih sixty killod and mora tJmn lliuE nnmbur 
wonnded. TiVilllanis lost but e}crven« 

At 4Uiwn of tho twi5iitiet.li n |»nrt_v, Miavoj^iTig a btindk^ 
and fifty pri«>nora of tlie !Nrarj''land linCf i\i:n- rrut^ing Uia 
grcAi ftavanna ntiiir Nelion** ferry ovit tlie Santee upon iJin 
route from (^anidcn to Charlatoc, when ^uion and bu men 
eprang U|K)U tlie gnard, liberated tko priaonera, and captwed 
tirenty-riz ol Uio «cort- 

•* Colonel Marion" wroto ComwalH*. "w>wTOiigbt on tlio 
mhid& of tlio people tliat tbero woe 9<-^irQely on luhaHtant 
botwov'Q thd Pixit'o und tliu Siuitee tbatwaa not in arriu againat 
na. Some parties even eronwd tin? Siintirc nnd carried terror 
to tbo gaiiw of duirI*«ton." Balfour^ tlie L-oiuiniujdaut of 
Cbarlefdoin, wiritr lionrn: ^In vnJn tra cxjtectiKl loyalty and 
atlaebmtTitt fntm the iotLabitantfl ; tlicyare tbo same atnfF aa all 
Amcriouti^^* The fintivib birtorian of Ibe var, vho ira» Ujcn 
in South CaroUiu. raiatca Ibat ^* alsiott tbo vbolo coimtzy 
scorned npon tJio - v.. t, ' 





COMWALLIS AWD TOE SOOTnERS TEOrr-E. 3W 



In til© H?coDi] wwk fjf Soptcmlxa; wlvn tlio hj^it* nf stiiii- 
mf^r li/tc! almted, the eftrlier certJii ^alDsIiad boeo liarrefrted, 
ftnd ihc mau^o iru neftrly ripe, <\iniwuUiH hvfpm lua projeoM 
tuorcli, lio roLicd on tho loyi^iftt^ of Nortli Ciirolinn to r«- 
cruit Ilia army. On his lofi, Alajor Tatrick tVi^ptiBoa, the 
Mf^ JJrlHul) pfLTti^on, ivo* tjaiit vrith Uto htmdivd of tbo bwt 
troops lo th4? iiplji&dA of Soutli Cnr^liiu;, whvtro lio ^nlietod 
YOiuig RiC'Ti of tluit eoimtTy, lo^iisU wlio had iled to tlie moon* 
tains for »octiritj^, mul fii^iliviM of the \vi>r<t olumcU^r vlio 
iougbt hifl atdiidanl for the cLaqom of pluiidtiring v:Uh im- 

Tho Cherokee^ Lad bocn encoiirogcd chinng tin: mwrnxot 
to join 111 mraging the American settlements weat of tho 
monnUiiu oa for OA Ctudweira load mhtoe. Againrt thU dan* 
got Joffordou organbod, in tho swith^nMtvni conntioe of tho 
etute of vMdi he was dio f-ovcinor, a rofi^im^t of fotir hun- 
drod hncl^woodimon iiDdur th^s oo:iimiLnd of CcJonel AVtULun 
Campbell, brotlier-io-law of Patrick Henry; \u an mtorviev 
vilh Willkm Pn^toti^ tlm ileultiniuit of W^iiik^on cuunty^ 
at tho ftoulh-wcvt 4if Virgiriiii wnx iKun cnllinl, h« Uwi^lt on tho 
laaourooi of tJie CTjualry, the s|iirii of coLgreia, and tlv iJiimii!- 
tvr of the pt'oplc; aiul for hitnwclf aucl for hlft stntc vrould 
admit no doubt that, in spite of all disaster^ a continnjcd vigoi^ 
oitt raUttJico would hrii^ tho war to a happy i^uo. 

At Waxbaw^ Oomwi01i» halted for a fovr dny«, and, that 
ho mi^t eradioata tho spirit of patriotism from Sonlii CaroUna 
Won he paased bt jond iu borders, ho, on ttie slxt^Qlh day 
of Soptvmbcr^ »«<[tii«tOTod hy proclamaUc^n jM uilalM belong 
ing to tho fneods of Amorics, and ap|)oinred a commieaioner 
fur lh«t H'ijcnri! uf niit^i rvtiUkiH IhjIIi n^) and jmniaiuiL The 
conoealn^ent, renim-iJ, or injary n( property doomoil to conii^ 
coUoD waa jvuumhable aa an abotting of rebcUioo. The eoq[tie»- 
trotion extondcd to dcl>t« due to Uie pcraoii vhoM poweaiioQa 
voio connsoated ; and, to provont colltuivo j>nicticc6, t great 
rewanl vaa oHei^ to thc«D who ahould make dieeorery of i}io 
coneeabnont of ncgrooe, boirc^ catllo^ plato, bonsobold fami- 
tui«5 booka. bond*, deeds, and otlwr property. To patriota, 
no aitoraatiTo wa^ loft bat lo figbt against tbdr country or 
to fDConiitor oxilo and poverty. 



3^ AlEEBICA IS AtLLUCCK WHS FEAXCrE. BP. rr. ; OH- xm. 



Tlio ditefs ci the Clierob^^B vrcr^ at tlut vwry tiiDo oa 
their WHV tj> AiigUMia to rt?**div4? tli« j^irtisentfl which tatq to 
stimtilAte tln-'ir scUrity. Amutv :>f tlu?ir matii^ CWk, z f u^* 
tin? fniEu (3iM>r^a, forced hie w»j badi with one knodradril^ 
men ; liarirg jolxitd to diem & body of woodainetk, he defeated 
the Bntiah garriAOU under Oolonol Drown tti Aiigutrt, md cnp> 
tiLTcd the cofftLy proeonta dcelj^ied for the Chorokoo& Tbc 
moment waA cnti^ial ; for Comwallii, la hlfl eoff/ai/BU to di4w 
BtretL^ to bi« owt3 iirmy, luui not kft n pofit or » coldlttr W 
AQ;^la ajid Savannah, sud the aHansted poopio bad 
imutl iDcAt reluctantly to a 6(uU> of obudieDoe. With ft 
eorpe of one humlniil prorindalM ntid obo Iiiimlrtid ClicroWeefl, 
Erfjwii iiuiataiued ftpoaitian qe GurdcD IJiil for ue^rly a nt-Mnlc, 
whflT Iw waft reioued hy Onjgrr frcHn Nincty-Bix, Al hk 
approach, the Americans retired. On tbc pujcait, some of 
thom ^x'T« acaJped and enino taken pHdooera. Of th<! latter. 
Captain Afilil/y and tvrdvo ctlicrs were hanged unUcr tlio cyca 
of Btowb ; thirtocn vrbo were ddiTCLTod to the ChoroheQe wore 
by torinres. or hy the tomohaurk, or wwe thrown into 
llj-bcy iii all u'cra put to deatli by tha orden; of Br:»wiL 
Cniger dt«imd io xvaylay and capture the retreating party, 
and Ferguaon eagerly acc^ptiMl hia iiiviLLtlim ti> jnin m th« 
oatoqiriie:. Cnigcr moved witlj circiiTnEpectJour takJn}^ eara 
not to bo Led too far from the fortreca of Ntuet^^^ix ; Fergt»* 
son nraa more advcnturmUf having alT&ya tho army of Coni> 
wallia on his right Near the Bro6d riv^r hia party gdcooii* 
tered JiiaodoveU with cue hundred and aixty mililia from 
Bark and R&therford eoutititt't in North Oi^tina, panned 
them to tho foot of tlio mouniaine, and ]«ft tham no 
aafety but by fleeing beyond the AUugl^anu*, 

Ihmttg lliiws uwiiIj* Ci>ni«rH]1ia nirotinterod no pepHoniT 
impodiment till ho upproaohod Cliarlolte. Tliere liis vun was 
drIrcsQ liacic by the lira of a mall body of nKiniitiH! men^ oaaa- 
mandcd by Colonel 'VTilliam Klchaixiion Darle of North Carcv 
Una. Tlio pMioral todo np in person, and lUe Ametican pftrty 
waa diAlodg<.Ht by WobAtiir^B briga«le; but not dU the votEDled 
AmoricanAf «carcoty forty in mimbcr, had for covoral mintttos 
kept the Britiah army at bap. 

From Charlotte, ComiraUli pnieii^ hk eonrvo toward 



4 

I 




LTSOl cork ff ALUS AND TOK fiOCTHERK PEOPLE. 387 



I 



Eolidnuy. IIXcaDttnio, tbo fc^tiroA im<lor UacdowoU rocoimt- 
6d the aorrowB of their f&miJIes to the ^migwit freemen on 
tbo WfttatigiL, amon^ whom tlarfiiy wa> flcaroolj known. Tivb 
'bfiokwood^in^fn, tiLotigb rvmcti^ fn>m iUb world, lorp llwir f«l- 
low*mfiii. Id tlie piirB uir anJ life of tbe TiioiuilaEii &Dd llie 
foru«t tbo>" joiiJ Bi-rcnitj with eunragCL Thojr f«lt for tlioiro 
vrlio bad fl«d to them ; with oao hcait, tbcy Pis^lved to restore 
tho mppliaiitft to their home^ ami for tbat pm^n^ec fonned 
tbcDUcLTui mto^^girtlcnt9 under Jnooc Shelby uid John Sevier, 
Skelby do6patcbc<i a moenngor to Willicun Oomphell on the 
forb of HoUton ; md Che field-offlccn of BcmtJMr«ei«n Tir- 
giiua uujuiimoiudy mvitcd bun, wit}] four hundred men, to 
join ID the expedinon. An express waa sent to Colonel Cl^avo- 
knd of Xurth Cimjliua ; aii<t uU 'wvrc to nietrt at Ituric oountj 
court-houM^ on the lA^tcm of tiic CjiUwba. 

The three re^oraDtA from tlie wtst of the Allcgbaniee 
under Campbell, &he3bx> ^^^ Bericr^ and tlie North CaroHna 
fngitiTce tuidcr UiLcdowolJ, asscmbJod on tho twcntj-tiftli of 
Septeoiber at Watau^ On the nvxt day, cocii man mounted 
OIL hit own horsCi armed with hU own htlc, and carrying hit 
own etora of jiroraioiUt they bej^ tho ride over the moun- 
Uina, whore tbo pOMM throng tjio ADcrj^kainic^ ore tlio liif^ 
eet Koc eren a bridle-path led thro&^h the forest^ nor wa? 
there a bouite for fotty tuileH between tbe "Vt'otaiiga aud Uie 
Catawtia. Tbi; mrn Ii'ft tlii-ir famili«ut in wKOtidi^il vulh-yj^ 
dlaUat ODO from the oiber, eJcpoAod Dot only to partioa oi 
royallita, but of IiidiiLii&. lu tht; evening r>f tlie thirtieth they 
tDnaod a jaiKtion with tJ;e it^'iDCOkt of Ooloael Benjanin 
Glearelaadt coiuieting of thno hundred and fif^ men from 
the Korth Carolina oountjee of Wilkce and &urr>\ Tbo neitt 
day Uaodowetl waa dcppatchcid to rvKguMt Gata to eond thorn 
m gemenl officer; '* tOl he cLonld arrive, Campbell was chosen 
to act ai oomEnaudanL" 

Fcipison, who h.iJ pni^netl tbn p>rty "f ^Inrdnwi^Il U* llm 
foot of thb Allegbutiiixt, uud lud bpre:^! tliB ivartir of invaaioo 
bcyoiul thinu, moved o3«twnjd1y towvd Oiniwnllifi by a road 
fivm Buffalo ford to Kin^a Mounbun, which o3cf«d groond 
for a rtroDg enaunpincnt Of tU partiea agaiiut bim he thoe 
wrote to CoiBwaUifl : ** They aro become an object of cooie* 




395 AMERICA IS ALU.V5CE ^HTn FRANCE, FP. rr. - CM, iZTt. 

qnaoco. I etioiild bope for fiiicce**; Rj^nft iitem tnj^elf ; but, 
namben comparftl, ihni wiitfti Lg doul»rful Tbreo or four 
humlnHl gixxl Ki^^ilknt, [wrl ilmgi-Hio]?^ wiiuM Jitmh the bast- 
new. Something mufit be done fiooc. Tliifl u tbcir luit jnoih 
ia tliifl quarter" 

Oa receiving the li^ttor, Com^'allia ordered Torlcton to 
mcLnJi tvilh tlic liglit infonUy, tlio Briti:<li legion, find ft tliTM^ 
pounder to Lb a%ietan<<i^ 

At that tUuo Colouel Jomea 'WiUianu vru Jhboul eoront^r 
iiiilcft from Sulubitrjy i» thtf fork* of the Catavrba, with dmt^ 
four liiindrvd and tiftv liort«inen, il pujtiiiil uf Fcr^puoa. 
Wirte aiul vigil;ui(^ lii? kirjtl inU mhiliU dii entry ^de ; and, on 
tho s^oodA of October, cnc of tbcm '*n>joic<?d hU Uwrt** bjr 
bdngJDg him tlio ue^vfi tLmt cne half uf thu wliolc? malo adult 
popnJntion bt^yond tlio mL>imtmnv were drawing near. 

Following n XjatL between Kin g'ji UoimUiu and the maiD 
rid^ of the ^yi*>ghanieej *' the weatera flntiv/' «» tiwy c^Ued 
thcniMlvte, uud^r Campbell, Klmdy tncuQ tlmiL thifl^oD bnn* 
dred strong, niarebod lo tin* Covjicaie on Broad river, whoro^ 
oa tho ^veniDgof tlio feuUi^ ihi^y u'i-rt> j^ui4?d hv WEUiajns 
^^illi fnir htiiidn^ me:!). From AVilliu-tnft llivv Iramed n«arlj 
wheru rvtrgii^on'a party vaa caiGampod; a,Qd ft couucil of tli« 
juiiicrijKd o^icrr« decided to gq that vtry ni^ht to «tnku them 
by siirpri^. For thi« «iid tlicy picked out nicie handrcd of 
tlietr iHHt horsemon; at ci^Iit o*dock oa that auno e^eRLDg 
tJie fctcctc^i men l^gjin tlivir inarch. Riding oil night, vnth 
tha moon tvt> dajB past it« first <^iiartor, on tho &fteinocm of 
lIiQ Mvontli tJwj were at tho foot of Kipg'i Monntain. 

Tho littlo tirook that ripplM through tho narrow rallej 
flo^A^ in an oaaierly direction* Tbo mountain, which rboa 
a inihf ami ahivlT Kntlh (if tho lino of Xurth Carolina, iatbv 
ten'iioalian of a rid^ that brandm from the norlh-weHt to tbe 
nrntli-oajit fmm a itpirof Uio AUe^haiiica., TIui Bnluhf in 
monber eleven hundml and twenty-five, of whom cue Lno- 
drcd and twcnty-firc were rq^fulais, were poeted on Ita munnut) 
^' coniidont tLat they conld not bo forced from so adraDUh 
gGoiu a po*t,'' to which the approach wiw prooipiioutly etcop, 
tho daty rocic ci'oppiii^ out in cTo^^gy cllffjt and Uynmtig oat* 
nral breiuiworkfl along \U eidtf and on iu Luigfai^ 



.Ui 




17S0. CORXWALU3 AXD THR aouTOERX rp.opt.i:. 



899 



Tlic AnicnciuiA ilimnoiintctl, and, t!ii)Ligli iufmar m Tiiin> 
ben^ funtied tlieiiUL'lvL'A iiito four columns. A jiarl of Cli^v^ 
loricrd TvglniBnt, huwlei] by Mnjiw 'Wiufltoii, mid CuloDel 
6ovior^» rr^tnciU, fcimcd ai Urgu colLtnin cu tlic nglit Tbe 
otlier part of OlcaroIaQd'a regiment, Lcfuicd by OJcaveltiid 
himself, and Ute rc^^mcnt of Wiltiooie, conipoMd tlio left wing. 
TLo port of cxtromo danger was dMiguo*] to the colama 
fomied by Catnpboira Kgimont on Ui« nght centro, sad Sliol- 
hfa r^imwt On the lelt ceDtre ; eo tbat Beriei'a right neatly 
adjoEncil 9!n-Ibj''ji left. Tlio rlglit iitid I*-ft wh^ were to jmim 
lh« poB;ii<in of Kergii win, anil frimi cipjuwitc tiiflfn? climb t!ie 
r£%o ^11 l^i^ '^^r, wlultf Uia tu'o central columns vera lo at- 
ImIc in front In tl^is order "tlio n^ttriem anny" adTmiced 
to witiiin a qnaitcr of a nulc of tbo cucuij^ boforo tb^ ircrQ 
diaoorerod. 

Hio tvro centre colnmnji, beaded bj OunTilnAll and SboH^i 
climbtng tbe mouctaio, be^^ftn tbo ftttaok. Sbclhv, % niua of 
tho bardidit m^kkc, stitT i« Iron, oiDong tlie daimtlesB ^ngl^d 
out fi^rd:LnntIi?Mintiia)&j went ngbt onwurd uiid iipwurd lilco n 
nkan wLo 1ia<] but one ibiiig 1o dL\ and but th** one tbon^bt — to 
do it. Tbi: l^rll.iitb rt^guljm' wiUi fixed bayoueb tOturpHl C9in]f- 
b«ll ; And hh riflcTnorit wbo h»A no btiTonot*, were obliged to 
givo wajr for a abort distAoce ; but *^ tbc/ were Booa r&QIdd by 
tlwb guLLmt onimandcr uiid aoTno of bis active <^ocns" and 
** retained lo tbo attack with oddittoiuJ nrdor.** 

Tbo two ooltunna, with &o aid but from a p&rt of Sevier's 
regiment, kvpt np a fnriouii aud bloody battto witli tli« Hfifr 
Sdi (or ML mlnDtes, when tbe right and left Tringd of tho 
*"*"^'™* advuieing up»u llidr flank and rvur, '*lbv ^re 
became goneml all aT\>imd." For ^ty-flve miititcft longer tlio 
tire oil IhiIIi mdm niu buuvy mid ijin-.i^t inoawmL Tbo POgU- 
IdTV V itb tmyon(<^ cauM only innlo a niomoiiLuy uDjkreasion. 
At last the Anierioan rigbt iring gained tb« soiomit of tbo 
cmbiGDCt, and tbo pocitioo of tbo Briti^b ynut no lot^r teua- 
blo. I'l^rgmoQ baring been kiilcxlp tlio ^ncniy attompted to 
rotroat along tbe top of tJie ridge ; bnti fiwUng th^Dedvee 
bold in obocfc by tbo braT4> men of WiQioici and CIcavdandi 
Captwn Depoystdr, tJie commnnding offic^^ of tbo Britkh, 
boated a flag. Tbo&ingimmcdlalelyceawd; tbeenem/hid 



400 A^IE?.ICA IX AUU^SCE VITD FBAXOE. Kr.lY.iGU.UTb 



doun: thi^ir armn und mirr^ml^z^d tliemselvea prinoem at dl*- 
crelion. 

The k«M of tJae British on that ixymA st least eleven 
Jnmi^lrcd ^nd fonr. Four bnndrod and fiftj-ox of them vert 
ilthcr killed, or t<M> Aovoralj- w^mnclcd to leavo tho groimd; 
the number of prieoiiere was eix hundred and forty-^gbt. Ob 
tlic Amttrtcan elde the rt^imont of C£.TDpbQ[l eofleiod moM 
than OUT otlicr in tlio action ; iho total loaa was Cw«ittj-cdg^ 
IdUod and eirty wounds, Amgng t3ioc« who fell was Cclotiel 
Janma Williamtii of Ninety-fnix, a nian of an eialted cbaraeter, 
of a earn*!!' hnvi Init. glorinuA. An uii^Tii*roiiA enrmj' mvon^iad 
theiuaelvca for Lis riitacs hy nearly cxtirpfitaig his family; 
thciy could mt Uko fiw^y his ri|:lit to be remenLboitd 1>t hu 
oounCry with bonor and afiFoctioc to the ktcet timo. 

Among the captivce tboro were hous&bnmcrE and mnamitAn^ 
I'nTAto iK>Idicnt — wJio hod iritcio&flod the aorrom of ohildnc 
and women, robbed and ^vrongodi «bo1torI«Ci, fftrijvpod of all 
cIotliM 1»tit thoiio thoy wore, nottlin;^ abont firei kindled on 
t^o gTonnd and mouminp for thoir fjitb«re 3J\d hmband^— oxo- 
ciut<Hl i^ne ortwi £n i^tuliaEiou for the fn-^iutiil and Wbarotu 
Qim of tb» ^llirwH at Ojuiidim, yinAty'8itt nf^d Angnsta; but 
Cainpboll at once mt4>rTeRedf and in genenU oirden^ by tliniaU 
eiitug the delinqncnto with €«rt»n and eSedud puitidim^nt, 
eocurod protection to the fTlaonenL 

Jurt below the f irk?* of tbc CUAwba tlic tidings of the d«- 
icai roocbod TarWton ; bia party in all haflte rejoined Connnd* 
lia, Tto victory at King's Mfmntun, which in tho «piril of 
the American a<^dlen vru Uko the riosf* at Oonoord, in ita ef- 
tvcU Uko iho voooMsoa at B^ncdogloB, <ihangcd tho Dtfpecl of 
tlie var. The loyally of North Carc^iiu do Iguji^ darwl ni«. 
It Gn-*\ ilw jKitricita af the tvo OaroUoaa with froiih srcaL It 
eneonraj^«d th«r fingments of t}m defeated and ffcatten^l Amer- 
ican aimy to iei*k otch ot.U^r and organljco theninolves anew. 
It qjoiokeaed ihc Xorth Carnlim li-^i-iUlitrc- Ui i^sinwt pITiirt*. 
It inapiHted Virginia todcvcitc licr rownrccfi to tbo coaiitry 
eonth of her border. The appearance en tho fronticov of a nn- 
mDTciiA cDomy trom aettlomeiiCe beyond the mountaina, whoeo 
veij naiD«a hiid been uuknown to the Britiiih, teok ConwoUEa 
1^ surpriae, and tbufr ancooai was £atal to hi< intoadad gatpodi- 



i 




COTINTTAIXIS AND THE SODTHERN TEOPLR 



401 



tion. He liiwi lioped to fttL'j> wJtIi mm from one Cnralina to 
the otlH;rf Htid from tliiwr U» tlm ron^inct of Virgitiiu ; and he 
hid now DO choice but to rctrcut* 

On ihe erccou^ of ^o foTirteentb lu3 tr»ope began thAtr 
march back fn>m ClutrlotU) ti> tlw CuUvba ford. The men 
of Moekionbtirg and Hownn oountioft hod deputed hie advance ; 
tho/ &0W haraaaed hU farA^nf; pajtiefi, intercepted IJe do- 
tpntfihoA, und eut oH till coguDwaicttiopt. Soldkm of tlic 
inilitia hang on hi* ww. Twnty wsgoni were captured, 
lad«in willi itoreA and the knap^cLoks of ihe li^ht luf^itry 
It^iun. 8ii>^1» men wuidd ride witliiu ^uftJLf>t of Hm rvUvat- 
tng ^rmjy dischnigc dwir nllc«, md Mcapa 

Tho CaUnba ford waa CTOefiOd witli difilculty on ftceount 
of « groikt fftU of rain. Fur two djij« tho roj-al foreo* remained 
in tko Cfttavbft coCllofncQt, Comvollia snffonng from fover, 
the unnj fK-m want of fora^^ aad proviaione^ The command 
oa tlw rotnuL-l foU to Handon. Tbo Aoldien hod no tonts. 
For Mreral days it ninod incwnai^tly. Wttt^rs and dc«p mild 
I'holcei! tlie roads. At ntgbl the Mmiy yvouacked bi tlia 
ifoods in tinwlioliwrimc air; MKtiHinit* witJimit mr^t; At 
otlurrs vilJiuia bread. Once for fivo dfl^B it lived t])iQu Iix- 
dian com (rKtiionl frc^ni the fields ^ve e&n b<^ng tliu ilnv*j» 
ftDowancG for tvo soldiers. But for tho pcrvond exertions of 
tho militia, mrtft of whom wcro mounted, it wculd not havfi 
been SDpportcd. After ft marob of fifteon daj's it cnonnpod 
111 Wuui«borE>iigb. an intermediata ttAtioa botroon Otmdflii 
Bad Ni]i«t}'-$ix. 

AH the while Hariom hnd bccm on fbv alert Two liiuMtivd 
toritt bad be«n icnt in September to miqfrt«i^ him ; and wirh 
ilftT-cltreo men he firet xirpHflvi a partuf bia puisuera, und 
tbeoi drovQ the main luidy to flight. At Blnck iHnffX^ on tho 
tweoty-i^I^ttli^ bo mode » mcoeaafol AtCeck on ft goftid of OJCfy 
milttift, wjd took priaoncfB tboM who itcre under ita eeoort 
The BritiBli ^rtrt bnnung honaoa on Little Pcdce, ftnd he por- 
initt«d his mea of that district to retom to pn>tcot tbcir wires 
ftnd fiunilioi; b«t be n^onld not evfEar rataliftttoB, ftnd wroto 
with tTDtli : ■*lli«fio if not one bonso bomed by my orden 
or by ftnyof my paoplfx It U wbaC I deteet, todisirefte poor 
vomeo and <rbi1dn-n.*' 



402 AMERIOA IS ALUANCE wrni FKASOa »,>r,;aLXXTi. 



■'I mctft fttiic«r«1y Ii6po you will gtA u Ur, JIuion/' ynctb 
Comwallls oil iho fifth ol Xi>veuibcr, itf bo dypatdxjd T&rlo- 
to«i in pui^it of hinu Hhk ofScur and hU coqi* nt liro to til 
Uie hooftOii, and destroyed all ilie com from Camden dovm lo 
Ifeboo'e fenr ; bo bvftt Hiu u^idov.- of a gi^udt^ odleer beciuutc 
ithio eould rtoi l«11 wLoro Jklarioii was tmcamped, IiwiunI tief 
dH-i.>11iikg, hU\ vifl-^u* e^trtjthiiig atiout iu aitd did not leave lua- 
u duu^ of Rumcut. TLc Hue of tb«r mmh conld be tncod 
bv gnnijiri of ltotJM;le«A vromeu ajkd children, cnoo of ample 
fortune, wttiag rotind lircs* in the opco air 

M for Marion, after hanajj- kept liis movccncoto ttexvt 
ond Turltil liid ent'Oiupmcnt every night, liiA Dombcn ia- 
creo^d; then Fclocliti^ a ctrong poit*'tnthia Um dark uu>- 
rasa,*' he de&d &n attack. Dut just at that moment Eiew dun- 
gi'm iriL[XMtd«r<l from aibotJter qtiftttcr. 

ki^unilcr hwd nilliod t?ie patrirjts in tlio country atbore Catm- 
tltrri, mid in rn*i|ueiL( nltirinmlim );t-[>t iJii: HrKL MtmnUt^ hia 
|>artiMJi?^ he iiitcrcc]>U'd DritiJ^U »iip|»Ue» of all sori«, and wnt 
p&rtiee within fourtoen tiiitea of AVtnufihuron^li. Having as- 
certained the nutnUer oiid poution of Lis troc^ ComwaJUfl 
dcFpatchcd a party under Major Wcmyw agoinet Hia- Aftor 
a ui\xroh of tweuty-four mihsd vdtli mounted infantry, Wemja 
tV!;u<hvd Fiilidain on Urood rii'cr, tlio camp of Ooncnd Sumter, 
nnd at the head of hia oorpfi eharpod the fdcket. Tho ottaok 
nrai repelled; he hluuelf was uiiund<id »md taken prucowr. 
A iin^rnomridiiTii was found npon him of hoiuea burned by hii 
ociiniiaiul. IK* had hanged Aikni CtJKiick^ n Cnmlininii, who 
}\m\ nrihht^r givni hiAparll^ nor a/^^epted prot«4?tioQ, noreerrod 
in the patriot anny^ yet bmcapiora wmdd not liiirm a man 
who vaa their pridoacr. 

The pojiilion of tiio Jlntb^b In tUfl upper country becamo 
ptcGoHom. Tarleton woa suddenly recalled from (he pmvuit 
of Marion dd ordered to toko the ncutet path Atf^uDft Sttmtcr, 
who hftd pa«M>d the Brood rircr, fcmnod a junction irith CUrb 
and Brenntui, and threat«nc?d Xlnctj-Slx. One Tvgiinont waa 
Noiit for^t'nrd to join him on his nxorch; auoiher foUow^ for 
hifl Ba|>port Appt-tM?d of Tarleton^i approacli. Samt4.<r poctfld 
hlm?4?lf Ktnnigfy tin thr |i1aTUalton of Blnekstfick, At five In 
tltc afternoon of the ivrvntloth of Xoveu^Wr, TaHt^ton draw 



I 
I 



L 



im, CORyWALLIS AND TE1£ SOlTriEERN PB0P1£. 408 



noar in advuico of hu light infovtiv- nrui with t^o hundred 
jLud fifty moimted ineo he m&de a precipitate attach on Sumter'a 
(it^>cri4kr forei:;. Tlitt hDlsfdo la fL\>tit of the Ameriewn w&s 
Bleep ; thdr rwtr wa* protoctctl hy tho raptd rivtr TygcT ; tLe!r 
left was covered l>y « Ini^ l»arii of logey betu^eeii wlucJj lJw» 
riflcmcci could fiitt wiUi mv.urit/. The UAtjr-Uiird BHIihIi regi- 
ment haTiDg Wt its Gonmundiiig ol^iGer^ two licntoiuiDUr and 
one tltlrd of itd pnvato, XVIctoD relreateil, leuviiig hU 
ironndcd to the mercy of ti:o rictor. The Jma of Sumtw wa* 
rory fiuiAU ; but, boii\g himsolf di«abM by a eo^cro wound, he 
cTMBod the Ty^r, taking tJa vonnded men with hun. 

Byilic luvkL di»tril>uii<iD of piwooits, the Indian ng«nU ob- 
tained promi£«« from the clnofi of twi^ity-Hvc Innidrpil C1jf*ro- 
Iceec, AUid ft TiTiiDeroiu liocly of Creeks^ to lay v»Mg tLe tettTe* 
mofiU on tJio WutottgM, IlDlHtoti, Kcittticrky, yaul NoUdiuckj, 
and eron to extoad tboii' rara^^ to the Cumberland and Gremi 
rirfni, that tlic att<;Dd(^ii of tUo inountAineere tnig^ be dlrert«d 
to their own immediate conccm*. Comwallitt gSTO ordcn to 
the rubforeemont of three tlionsand «mt by Clinton into tho 
Cbccopoako to emhark for C^po Fear nver. So ooded hia 
fifrt ktt^mpt to penotmt^ to Vir^nJa. llo wad tlrivun bad: by 
tho frpontoneoua ri^n^ of tbo southern and eouth^woetom 
pooplo;«od tlio nTiwholncorae exliahEiona of ftutmnn *a-ej)t 
nien from every f^rrlwn In the low country fwtvr Uwn Qrvni 
TinUdn mvild nrpI^K^o tliem. 



4M AUHRICA IN ALLJA^'C^ Wim FRANCE, ip.it.; en. 



CHAPTER XXVn. 



TiiE iu«K or rKbx oimtoHwiui.Tfa. 
1760. 

FitBiJv>u h of fill raoos and of aU lut^ozuUitMi. It is older 
Hum 1m>u<]]l^c, and ever riaei ti^om Uw cnalavconeiiU of violeuoo 
or oufitoni cr ubuiM of poirer; for tlio riglitu of mtii spring 
from etertinl k% iire kept alive by tlio pom*^9nt ener^ of 
COriMUut mtim?, uutl b}' Un.*irowii iiulmmw-lSbilllj |>mvb llwdr 
linea^ flit tb(! chtMrm of oiiLiiipot^iK^o. 

In an t-dict of the eiKUtli of August lT7d» Louis JCVL an- 
nounced ^^ bitt r<^reil tbut nuuiv of lua Mihjoctt were aiill witl> 
out pergonal libcrt^r' and tlic proro^dTce of property, attadiod 
to the glebC) and, so to mj, confoimdod wiUi it," To all ecrit 
on tbo O0Utot di tlie crown ho tliorofovo gav9 ImoIc thoir free- 
dom. Uc bnd done Avay wirli torturo. a&d ho niched to e&oe 
ovoT}' vcifti^ of a tigorouft feutMUin ; but ha vac redtinlnod 
lkyhmrwp««t for Uic biu-sof propcrlT^ ft"ldch ho btld to bo 
the ((ronndworb of ordt^r and jiutloa. VTIille tlie delivciii]^ 
lip (if A mmiway ^urf ^uh iei all rii^w fiirinddt'ij, for «uii4iua)ii^ 
dcQ outsido of hif o^m domains be did no lucro than giro 
loni'o to other proi>rLeto» to follow bia exaitipK (o wHch even 
the dcTgy EJcclincKi to coofonn. But Ui« vrordi» of tho king 
e]>i>kcn to all fVonce deoplj tjtmidcd Iho wrong of koopuig 
FivTi^mcm in bondage to ^"oaehraon. 

In OTOiyBeoli a province of tbo Xetlborlonda, Batoh t&h 
dor CapeQen tot d&n P<y\ the frierui of AmerioBf eorrowed 
owr the aurrtral af tbeaiidtnt itvfileDi of vllleliii^; an<l, In 
spiUrof tb<i n<Ai#fiiiiH- kTid Hwoni liatn^d of »IittiuL all l]>o fkih 
blee, be, in 17d2| brought about it^ cniiplcto ^liolitioci. 



I 



ITIW, 



TTO Pira OP FREE COVMOSirPAITnS. 



405 



ITdnT tlie inOTMncfut for cmnnciprttum cluriiig tho Amorican 
revolntKin c^^Aml for the Old AVi.ir!l. '' He tlial feaya AUvery 
iat u[ij)<»«tl t<) ClinHtiniiity tn n liiir,'' wnitt? T,iit}i«r, In thv. mx- 
tCPiiUi ccnttiry. "To contlctnn ulavcr/ is to condemn tlie 
Uolj Gho*t," Trere tho worda o£ Boa^uet Dear tho end of the 
acvonh^aith. In tho lutt <iuarter of tlie cighti-tmlh ttio owo- 
ornhip of vrhitc mfrti by vrhito m^m ^11 blighted tnoro tlian 
tho half of Knropo. Tho evil fihie1dit<d itaeljf under a ttew 
p1«&t where a dift^rence of skin ^t a vlaiblo murk on tliti 
victims of comnujrda] ftvarioo, and sercngtlicncd llio tioo of 
Belflahnes by ttie pHde of race. In ITSO Edmund Borke 
Ijudti-rl hinLM^If (ii fiut\ cmt ulmt InwK inmlil i'lni-k l!i« luiur 
form of errvitude which wrapt all qiiarters of the globe in 
ita bdvfnl Indu^nnea ; yet he did not eee a gUmmerli^ of 
hope crcii for on alxilitioD of tlic trwle in »1atoi^ nnd od^J 
aimed at cetablifihing re^lAtioca for (heir oafo and comfort- 
ablo tmiitportattoii. 'El<s vrita certain that no one of them 
wu oTCf eo bcneHoiAl to tlio n^^tor w a freonuui who de&lfi 
wicli liim on equal footing by eonvention ; yet for slave plan- 
Ution» ht; iru^^ited cothlng more than some mpervLcIon l>y 
ibe t4at«^ and wim*? mitigation of tlii." power of tlw mttttiT to 
divide familloa Ijy partial aalea. AlHioitgli for lilrnnelf he In- 
dirwd to a gnbdiia) €niimrE{uli(iTi, Ium c<r(ln for (ho nii|frocH 
waa fdtind«d on tho ooqvicIjod cbat slavery was "an incurahlo 
evil.*' He eouglit no mero than to make that eriJ as email aa 
pOfidblctp and to dmw out of it fonio eclUtcml goo<l. 

QeoT|i;e ill, wm tho ^rm fritmd of tho slaTfritudo; and 
ThurloWf one of hii lord chancoUon, ao lata a« 11&& inalBted 
that the proposal to tfrminato it waa *' fl!tcg<ithgr mLBcra1>1o and 
GontemptEble.** Tet the quality of our kind is such thiU n 
goTcmiDCDt eitnnot dogrndc a mco williocit nmrring the ii<dil& 
warn of ovr nature. 

So bng aft Die h^falatfcm of the sevetal Eogliah colomea 
ID America rcmimcd subject to the reto of tlie king, all hope 
of forhiddin^ or eren limitii^ tiio importBtkin of negro Blarea 
waa made rain by tin modwr eoontry. The fim Ameiieaii 
ooogieiB formed an aeeodatioa ^'wlLoQy to diaeoDtinun the 
^vMradie.*' JdTciaoa inurtcd in hia ^vft of tKe deoIantloD 
of Ajnerioaa indepondmoe a deDtucbUon of the Alarn-lnde 



406 AUERTOA HT ALUANCE VrVHi FRANCK, n-.tr.; cm. iztil 



nntl of n]:iv<-rv, hat It wiu rejecf^ by the congroo of 1776 ia 
deference to Souch Camlina and Oeof^'a. Tho anUgoniAEn 
between tlid norlliera mid toutlit^m datee^ fcHindtatl on ctl* 
motor punuitA, A»d UW, brolto cut on tbo fint eflovt to 
tinite them pemuincDtly, When mombon from the Ifcrth 
spoko fnxjly of tLo evil of eJavcr}', a member from 8oaUi 
Cari>Ima Rjuwercd Umt, " if property ici rUvcs frbonld be qu«^ 
Uoned, tliere muet be an end of oonfederatioD/^ la tho mmo 
month the vote on tajlng pei'sona ottimed w prujM^rlr lAid bare 
di9 9zi«tcm«o of ft g^ogmphicfll divicicci of pnrtied, the tUttt 
north of Mason and Djxun'e lino vo^Dg cutrjpucilj' ou tho ono 
iudi% and thtMCf Moutli (if tliul lint*, wlJcJj wun? dul^' n^prv^eoted, 
OS tho other. 

The dashing between tho two scetjoofi faetened the tttcn- 
tion of ruHccting olMerverd. in Auguat ITTS» Gerard* «ood 
after hi^ rocoption at Fhibdclphmi reported to Vcrgemies: 
*^Xh9eUtca of the South and cf tlko Kortli, under oxisdng 
iabjceta of cUrialoQ and ofitnm^ment, aro two dii^tiQct parties, 
wliicli At i^Tf^^it count bnt few <ieeeTterB, Tho dlvidon b 
attrtbLitBil to ii^ond and pblloaophical cauao*.** He fnrthov 
rrportvd Uiat tJio c^dml against WnjihiMgt^n] found ^pporten 
exclnfliToly in tho KoirtL 

Tha Trench minister d^red to rvjin??^ the ambatloB of 
cosgroM for the ae^iii«itioQ of tenitory, became It nii^t 
proTD an obstacle to oosinoction irith 8p^; mA he found 
tupport in nortlicm men. Their hatred of alaTorj ynts not an 
impoJao of fooling, but an cumoet eonriction. ^o one eoold 
dockre himself more strongly fw ihi> frt^edom of t}io negro 
than Gouvenionr Horris of X(?w Yvrk, a man of bnfiineas and 
a man of pleamre. Hie hostility to alaverv brooght him into 
■ume ngri'L-nii^iit wiHi flit? jwiliey of Gt-rwrtJ, (j.i whom, ooo dajT 
in October, he nlM Ihut 8p^iir vrotitd have no cause to fear 
the gr^t body of the ccpnfedcration, for re<riprorul jmlonigr 
and vepankte Intercala iroold nevarpermitiU members to nnite 
agaj&et her ; that romnil of the mort oolightcned cf hia coh 
iGOfTQi^a^i^roetnickviththenooeedty ofcfitabtiAhinga law "de 
eocrcendo imporio,'^ totting boimda to tho Amerioan empiro \ 
tItsLt t]ie proTineei; of tho Sonth abead; Terv muoh weakened the 
confederation ; that further extension on rhat xide woild In^ 






i:w. 



THE KISK OF FREE COMMOXWEALTITS, 



407 



iMWunMy avKtoentthitincoovenknce; tb^itlhe South waatlie 
'mt of w<'iiU]i v\(\ of wDtknow; tlutt tlic> iiovrrrtv lad vt^or of 
ibD Korth Tcould always bo the Aafegu&ivl of the rupablic ; tliat 
on t1i« *M« iiF Urn North l:iv Llit? iit*[?e™itj- to expand and to 
gala strra^^h; lliiit llic iintigiilion of tlw? Mltwimippi tielow tlifl 
moatli cf tLe Olio ahoQld belong exclomrclj to t^p.tin, a» tk« 
only menn-t of rctAluing the nutncrouA popalation wliich vronld 
bo iormod bct>VGcii tho Ohio And tho kJus; that tlic iTilmbit- 
ants of tho«o now and immoDBO ooaotrk«. bo thoy English of 
be thL7 Amoricftjw, Imving iho oatlot of the rivL-r St Lawrenoo 
on th<j cnQ ddo and tiitit of tho MiMiaoippi ou Uit? t^tlivr^ wooltl 
bo Id a condition lo domineer over t\n\ TJttiU^ ?ijttt'» suid over 
Spaiiij iir Li iiiiiki? |]ii-iiiw»lvm iiidflfji^ndecit — that OD iluA |>oiut 
there wtt*, thcrrfoir, a ooinaiuu ititcro»t. Some drearl of the 
relative lucreaM of tho South may have mixed with the Impa- 
tiont cAToeatnaii vitJi ^hich tvro at koet of the ^'ew England 
BtaU» donundod the neqaiution at Sctrt Sootift o» iDdt«pcD«a* 
hie to theii eAfcty, and thcroforc to bo locurcd at tho pmiica- 
JflDD ^itli Kii^land. The kad^r In thia jtoUtiy vu Samad 
JiAimi;^ w^hoTR tho French niiiii«ti>T tlwap found U hi* vay. 

The several su:^ employed blaek men a« (hoy pleased; 
H mu tho rule that tho hJiivc* vliu wrvtHi lii t!m rank* va« 
enfranchUdd bj th«fi«rvico. ^Vlii-t), in March ITT^, congrees 
recommended Goorgui and 8outh Carolina to raise Uir«« tJiou- 
nnd actiTc, aMc-bodicd negro xmen, tho reeonuaoudatioii ivu 
oonplcd with a promiio of " a fcU cotupeuation to tho pro- 
pridon of nch negroce for tJie property/' 

So long iw Jo^bmon wa« in congraSr ho kopt Tl^oua and 
HiesaohiiMttfl in a doso and nnsolftah nnlotL of idddSi tha 
uikixiimoitil idftertSon of indi^sendoncc ^nw tbo tioitt. Wh«i 
Iw vitlidrow to wrrico in his natiro oommonwealth, thotr {riond< 
ridp lost Hometiiing of iu dUintervstednew. Vlrgink mani- 
foitral ita disoixiU^nt ]iy mircitwuve ohnngoa in it* deffgatioo^ 
and tlw two great ctates came more and more to represent 
diOorent elaaeca of oulturo and Sdeaa and intor^»t». 

In 1771*, when tho prosperity of Xcr Engtand was thongfat 
to dopoifed on the fiBh«ria, and when ita pathetic appc«K not 
tmmingiod wiUi raciuico«t hod boon naod prodj^i^ and witb- 
cmi ttSoct^ Samnol Adam^ sad itddy that **it iroold boeomo 



4C8 AHEaiCA IN ALLtANOB IVmE FfiAl?OE. Kr.iT.; 



more ani] mora iMOomrr for Uig two nopini lo •^■nta^ 
OntheothorluDd, when thc^cntliotfcrcdftpreliniinBTjfefid- 
lation iha: tho countrj^ GT«n if deserted b^ Vmntx tad 8paIo, 
woiiM c^rttiriTio U^c wu- fortbo ftikoof tlio fitbcrivi, fovrttato 
road tiio draft of a. dt*tmitivo proteet 

la the aMertion of tbe aovereignij' of eaeh aepomte iUto 
tiKfru vta 130 diKtiiu^Ion batwMii XortL imd Soulli, VatwdiQ 
settfi erpreoaeo:! itself afl ahaolntely &3 Sonth Caroliiu. As s 
eomttw^umice^ Uitf amt^donikni coulJ oojiUbi tio iulvrdict of 
t]i<3 Atrivotrsd^;, mid tbc irnjiortit.ioti of «IaTu» would tborefbr« 
rciQaiQ open to any aUte according to ite dioiee. Whea* ooi 
tbc Mcrcntocntt) of June IH^t a renoDciatioD of tL« power to 
OBgago in (hi^ BkYo-trado was propoeed aa «a ftrticlo to be 
iavirttHi ill Um treaty of peooc^ dl tlio atatoa, Geoo^^k slono 
b^iDf; abetmt^ rofii^id tho conooedoD hy tbo votofl of orefj 
member o.xoept Jav and Gerry, 

Ltuwni<fj tlw Frvuch vqvo^v w)io aticoooded Gcmid, toon 
oame to tho <?on?liiFioD tliAt the? ccnfedcrracy would mn the ri*k 
of an tttirly diwioliiticin, If U ^loiiM gtv« fiiiulf up tr:> ilje Ititnpd 
vrliii^li ln'gjiH in iJjow itM*lf twrtwi^^ii l]«i Xnrth *:iil SotiUi. 

Vorniont, wbwo Iuw» from llio Jlrat rejecldd (Jftvar;, 
knocVod jEtcndily at the floor of oongrcis to be taJcen In aji a 
etato^ and Waabbgton befnended ttd doaijo. In Avgort ITSI 
ita envoys wcro prceent in Plnladelphia, cntioating admiBMori. 
JHcv Yorlc gave up its oppotttSon ; b«t tbo ttatoa of iho South 
beld timt tbe admiaaioa of TenDcnt woiald doetroy *^ tba balanoo 
of potter '* bi:Avr(»eo tl^ two Moiicna of tlie corvfodortoy Bud 
give tho prepondcrnnco to tiie North, Tbo idm wu then 
atart^d tliai tbc* bix £lat4d ioi^tti of MiiaoiL and Dixon'a Una 
alioiild bo conctlmti^l by n coiiuonuon of m auvimtli voti> winch 
thej H'^re to exeiviM) ia conuaon ; but tlio prapooal, thoogh 
it fonui^ a j^ubjv^cl of conTciwLUon, wa« never broagl^t bcfoni 
oongreea ; and Venuoat was left to wait tlU a aonthem atato 
ooiild I'lmnItancoMly be recdvfd into tho unioc 

In rc^-fird to t^o forcdgn nda.tion« of the ccuntrr, congitat 
vr^ divided botwoon wliat tho iVonoh envoy namod '^Galli- 
oma ^ and "^ anti-OoliioLiu ; '' tho aoatboraen were fonnd niovw 
unonfir tho "G&UioanB;" tho Xorth waa aoapoctod of a paiN 
tUIIty for England, 



ITSO. 



TEI£ RISE OF FRE£ COMMONWEALTHS, 



4oa 



Tiicni wi« no hope of Uic ckllvcry of tlw coimtry from 
ftlavCTj by congitu. But man cau uerer ovemiio lUktum] Imw, 
and iu tliti hi^ii o^urt uf tie Eit:riml Pronrideuoo jiutjco forges 
her ^capi>n long bcforo fil^c etrikc«. Xowhoro wtia sUrtrj 
fommll; c»tablidhc?d in tho OT^^aoio kv aa a pormoDeDt ftocinl 
rdattoQ ; tlio coiirta of Virginia did not rooogniM i i^t d 
property in tliu fratnrc incntaifO of thvm \ in do one etato did 
its coDstintiion abridgo Uie power of ite legUlatura to xbc^tsli 
jdAvi!rj. Ill no one eon«titution did ihe Tt^ordft "slaTo" and 
" al&very " Und a pluro frxcc[>t ui tliat of Dcl&ware, u>d Diara 
only hy vr%y of a proMbJdoji of brin^pu^ alav«8 iiitij Lb» >iUif«. 

In tho Norlb dio ttcvtrity of tho clunate, tlio poverty of 
the eoU, and ttko ftU-pcrvodiiig iiabit of laboHoua indnstry 
uDong its poopJc* eet oanow Jimita to alav^ry ; in the ttatot 
ncATQit the tropica it tlin>ve lumiioii^lj', iwd it« inf^aonoa 
tutored into thuJr inmoft poliricaJ lifo. Virj^^ia, with soil 
and t«mperatara and ciinoral wealth innting fr^e and Bicillod 
loboTr yttt with lowbmd wliero tho no^) stained hn perfect 
physical dt'velcpniDiib, s(tiod as mBdifttor between llje two. 
MiLiiy of her hUL«iatieu — (Kwrge Haaun, PWritV Htmry, Jef- 
ferson, Wytho, Pundlcton, Itick^ Ilcmy Lcc-*>^mulatod each 
oiheT ill coiifcfleing tlio iniqaltj end fba inexpedieac^ of hold* 
ing men ID holiday. Wo havo ^ixn tlie Ic^Utnrc of colonial 
Virgioi^ in 1TT9> in thojr fmitloaa batib i;ntb tho Idng roapeet* 
ti^ tho oiaTB'tnde^ of vhicb b« wne tbo fj^al champion, do- 
maad ita abclltiooi tut nc«dful for tboir happiiicw and tboir 
xerj arnKmce. In Jannaij 17T3, Patrick ilcnry threurrldi- 
cnfe on tlia cleigy of VErglnU f ^r tbclr opjMuliou to cnisoici- 
potion. In th« MUiui yiw (m^rgn Ma-on fnrrloTd the bUght 
that vria to areoge negro alavcry. Wlieii ilie nmvuiiUnn at 
Tirgiuia adopted thvlr deioIaj;itii>n »f rights ajt tlic foundation 
of govenimeiit for th<imaetT«fl and their poetcritjf they aet 
forth that oU m«ii are b>' naCnie equally freo and hare inherent 
righti ta tho enjoyment of life and libcrtf, tho raoana of ao- 
qoirijif; proponyond pnrffningbappinoM; yet thk oathoritA- 
tivu pn«liutiAtiou of tho v«4aal righta of ttU toen brougfat no 
Kli«f to the etiaUved. 

In 1TTS, Ylrjrfnla prohibited what nnder the anpmaacy of 
England ^w could iwt have prohibai^— the iBtrodnctloa of 



410 AUERICA. rS Al-UASCE WiTIT TRASCE, KT.m; c«. tivn. 

a&y tluve bj lan'I or fca, smd order (3^ thd tttnanoipfttioa OJ erorj 
aUvo iatnxliictHl froTu ubroML Bict tlio Inl) nsipcediig reeldont 
>)&vc0, prepared hy tha «)mm)E«]oii«rv for cfodifj:!^ tlie Uirs, 
wiu & ineirti ill^ct^t of exUtliig tiniudm^nt^. lU mutliPis agreod 
in wUliing thiLl tlie aaaetably miglit provide bf vneDdmesit 
for univorsal freedom ; and it u the t^etimonj of JcffcrMU 
thfttf ^th ttie coiirurronce of himflelf, Pendleton, acd Wjrtlie, 
&a amondatory bill waa prcpcirod "to cmnjidpatc oJl dava 
borDftftoT pa^ngth6iLct;^biit the propotaJ was bkoklod with 
tboldeaoi iWr dcportatioo, and QotUEu^ carao of it The 
statute dnftod by JclZinvoii, and in 1TT9 prtipotcd hj Hnson, 
to define xcbo sIulU be cltdcena of Virginia, d^Tared the nata- 
nil right «if a!X}JUtriatH^n m ii|ij)iii(fllim tii llir Eiigliftli iMMirtion 
of porpctuat aUo^^iaut^e^ ami f«vcn?d uatnrjilizatian ; but it cok- 
flnod the ri^liC of «xpatnAtien and dlii)en6hip to white mtOL 

Id 17$0, UadiJK^n «xpr»8oJ the vrldi that bUck men niiglit 
bo eot froo and then made to acrre in the army. This waa 
often done by )ndi\iduftla; 1>ut, bcfora tlio txid of tJio some 
joar, Virginia oll^irod « bo^nt)', net of monoy ftnd laodt only, 
bat of a Dc^o, to oftoli vldto man who wou3d coJut for tbe var. 

In May 17S2, jiut thirt«oik yean niter JdTonoa bad 
brouglit 111 a bill giving power of uncouditiiKial emAndp&tioQ 
to thti masters of slaves, tiie measure wai adoptJ?d by tbe l^^gla- 
laturo o£ V'ii^inia. Under tLia act ntoni alaiiw rccdvod llivir 
freedom than 'vtrcrc liberatod in reniu^Ivauia or m Haaaachu- 
sctbt. Even had light bri'jkcu in on JcflcTK^n^ti mind tJirottgh 
the glouuL in which t^io subject woe invoked for him, ^li^tua 
would not havo accepted from him a plan for tnaking tho aUlo 
a froo oonimonwedth ; but tlicro b no evidence tliat he over 
roeoneJIod hiui^ilf to tlw idea of omaticipated h^ack men tivio^ 
side by eido with wlJlo men u equal flharors in political rights 
and dutifs and povrer«. Tlio rcaslt of hiA (TfTorts kud rcfloo- 
tidnft he iittiinxl in tbom omtnoas fi:>rebodiiig3 : ^^Xothing It 
mote certainly irrittea in tbe hook of tiU: Uuiii tlijit th^M 
people are to be free ; nor is it k« cc:ruin that tho tw^ Jicei^ 
equally free, cinnot live in the Mmt gorernmaBL" In the 
holplfiaaiGee of despair, JoOoieonf to c«rlr m ITSS, ^smiHod 
the problem item his thoughts with theeo ^orda ; " I Iremhlo 
for my oonntry when I ro^t that Ood is jiifit, that his jiutiee 



iTeo. 



THE Kl&E OF m££ COOUOy^'ZMWB- 



in 



cnnnnt ftlccp forever. The miT, I hopCf ia preparing, miilor llid 
a)J£pic<« of heAroD. for o total omandjmtiati/^ At that timd 
IVubiDgton iru a kind ntiil comdduratc mapCcr of riavcAp By 
ftlow dogrooi tbo ftoultuiunt ^rov tip io his mind that to bold 
EDBD in bondage was si rcronj^; that Vir^U Bhonld pTOoeod 
to emaufiipftllon by generul fttutute ui tlw Htato; euuI thut, if 
k1:c! rL-fitu*d Lj do bo, aich iiidividu.-il tlioidd act for ld« ovtd 
hoBK-bold. 

UohwarCj vblch, on IL* twcntictli of Srptcmbcr 177C, 
adopted its coiudtutioD as &n independent etato. Lad, ia pro* 
portiocL to lU numbcra, oxccUod all in th& voluntary emancj- 
pation of sI&tok* Its ooaetitution abnoJiitcly prohibited tho 
introdiMtion of nay duro fn>m AfricA, or any %hv^ for eide 
from Mj part of tbo wortd^ as an anicla wliicii '* oogbt cerer 
to be violated on any pwlDtico wUatj*vcr" 

Til tlio cijustil(i<»nr <yHivrnT,mTi of New Torlcj GonvpniGiir 
Monis struggled IiarU for tut^uaur^ti tending to uLoliab doniea* 
tic akTet7f *^ fla lliat ui faturo agca every Imman being who 
bR«thcd the air of tho alatc might enjoy the piiTilegee of a 
freeman.'* TLo propofiidon, Iho^igh atixmgly enpportc>dy espe- 
ciallv by tlio interior and nuwcr conntio*, vroA loot by the Toto 
of tiie eountioa on tho Ilndson. Jay latnootad tho want of 
a olaoje agaii):«t iho contfnn&nco of domtttieBlaircry. Stilt^ tfao 
ch^-LuTttion of indcjR^idiTnco waa iiMM»pantfod into tbo eonit^ 
tntion of New York ; and all its grDoC BtaCSSDiGfi vero opposed 
to blavKry. All juirU i>r tlio e<»mn»>n law, and all iJtnlttteft 
and acta rapngnant to tho conslitntion, WE*ro abrogated and re- 
pealed by the eionstllution iUelf. 

It bai olroady bocn narrated that, in 1777, ttic poc»p1o of 
T^rmoDt, in ecpanling tfaemselriM from tho jnri^ieiion of 
Now York, fmmod a coDatitutifMi wlu<^ prohititod nla\'cr>'. 

In July 1778, William Lirtnguon, tbo governor of Novr 
Seney^ inriied the auo mMy to by tiia foundation for tho nLanu- 
mladoo of the n<^;rooii At tbo rD<]nart of tlte bonso, which 
tliongbt tho dtnatioa too oritioal for the immediate diaenaf^oQ 
of ibe mearare^ tlie metng^ wm wfthdrawn. *^ But I am de- 
termined,** wrote (be govtimor, "aa far as my inflnence 
extemb, to push the matter till it U vileeted, being oanvineed 
that Uie pnctiec i« ntterly inconrirtcnt with tho prindplos oE 




413 AMERICA IS AUJASCE WITH FKAJJCfi. »,iT.; dt «Tn 

dinrtijuiitj and humanity; and in AtnoriouM, who Larft 
ahnofit idoIi»d Ulurty, poeulkrlj odloiu ftud duRTkccfuL^' Of 
iho two Jan^crji^ kIavcti-v bftd Btmck deeper root In die Kost 
from the ori^imil p'.ilicy of itK pnjpriirtariiw ; tl«! liti]nntii>fij)iHt 
of tbe Siiclely of Frieuda njJed opinion in Wcrft Jerao^, 

The tuuiic (jf Puiim^'lvunia. wuft de&r thn>u^out tUu world 
as tb(» e>~mbol of freedom ; bor ciUxi:n« prorcd her right to 
her good report by proparia^ to abolUli alavorvp Tho number 
of thdr iJ&vc« ha^l grown to he altoiit iax thowAnd, iMvrmg 
littlo from tho Tnuuhor in MueacbueotU, and boiof? ia propor- 
tioa to tho vholo populatjoo much kas than In Now York or 
in Xov JonWT. TIi« fonitc^th of Apnl 1775 n-M tlio dtj of 
fotrnding the Ponnsylvania sotneity for t^P aboliHoD of sUvory, 
the relief of free ni^^m nnlau^ully held iti liondo^ mnd th« 
impnoFomETiit of the condition of tlio Afrigan roco. In 1777, 
In the iic^da of a bill pnipo^ed hy the couiickt, a aiijcgtation wuji 
mado for ridding tlto vlAtc of nUrcry. The ratreat of tho 
Uritifih from FLiladolphia, and the roitoration to rctiuaj'lT«aia 
of pcoco vithm its bcodore^ «&Ued forth in its people a eanti* 
raont of devout gndtndoL CndorlliuifliusncA, 6oor^ Bytoii, 
then Tioo-praddent, in a oMna^ to th^ usdmblj of tho ninth 
oi Xovember 1776, preyed upon tlieir aiteution the bUL pro- 
poxx] III l]n^ fomiur ^ear for mJuiuinittiEig infant uogrrx* born 
of alaYee, and tliun In an easy mode ahroj^iikg elavery, tba op* 
pnibrijmi of Animwi. "hi ilivcstutg Uie sUte *>f vlaTii^" 
oaid Brv&n, '^ ycu will oqudly soito tho antfc of hamatu^ and 
poli<ty, and offer to Orxl one uf tho most proper and boit re- 
tarns of ^titudc for Lid ^at dolivcrance of os and oar po^ 
Uaiiy fnotu thmldoin; you wUI also set your cbaraclcr for 
jmtko and bcmoTolonoo in tho truu point of viov to aQ E<u 
rope, who arc aftoniehcd to eoo a poople etm^Unj; for Uh«ny 
holding nogroGA In l>oudaga." 

On booominj^ piwdont of tho exeautiro conuctl of Penii* 
sylvanla, Joaeph Kaod, speaking for hlmaelf and tho rQiinHI, 
nminrod tlin nwimint!n<liitiiin t» alK»linli unUvuJy j^r^nallj and 
to refitom anil oflL-Lblii^h by the law in P^u»ylrania tho T^hti 
of humiui tuturc. In Uw autumn of 1779, tieorge Bi^ao ImA 
been rctanicd a« a member of the a«»cmbljr. In the eoatmit- 
tee to which on hia motiou ibo ^object waa roforr^ he pro* 



i:w. 



TU£ BIS^C or FREE OUUUONW6 ALIUS. 



413 



pikrcd a new pT^mblo and tlio draft of iha law for gradual 
omancipatioi) : ft&d. on tUo twontyuiuth of Fcbmarf ItSU^ it 
ivae adopted by a vote of thirty-four t€ twentj-one- So FenD- 
sylraniii led tlio way toward introduoang freed^im for all. 
"Our bill " uTot« GoOrg« Brymi Kj Siuiiiivl Adunf, "AfitOB' 
IgLcfi and pleaaea t!ie Quakeni. T^wy looked for no ftodi bo- 
ij(*i-i)1cTii iHAue of utiT twvr govemment, tixerrim*<] by Prcj^by- 
tenana." 

TLe coiiatitutioQ of South Cftrolitia of 1778 conliiuu.^ nn 
bill of right«, and ccatfincd political po^er cxclouTcly toirhit^ 
tficn; from the eottlonkcnt of tlie Atatc, nlav«ry formed % pn- 
uiRTv ctcmcnl in it« Boeit^ oTf^Biuzatioii. ^Vben Oovomor Hut- 
Icdgg in 1T80 came to Philadelphia, ha rc]>ort«tl that tlio »•- 
grooi offered up their prayers in favor of England, in the 
hope that ahe would girt* tli«m a dianoe to E^oape f rom Alawry. 
But EritiRh ofHc'Eti^ n?j^1ing i]i-^mi« a^ vdiiabln tptiW, d«s 
feulad c?>^ry ]>Iuti for «ui^Io^titg thi&m aa doldlen on tlie eide 
of England. In 17C9, George HI. iu council **gnvc liin ciiti* 
«ent to aa act of Ooorpa irhcrcfiy eUrcs may bo dcdarod lo 
b« ohaticla ; -' and the ^^ar of the revolution made no duu^^ 
in tboir condition l>y lav. 

The Furitana of Masfiaohuectt^ pcnnitt«d elarory by law. 
megrotA trained •kiHi tho roet in the lunlu, oortainly from 
1651 to 14U&$. Casoi 0Qctl^^^d wlicro Iwn on raarmgo, adul- 
tCTj, and divorve were applied to (hem ; and where tiiey irere 
allowdd, lil;it ulluni, li? give tlietr t;wtiiDDiiy, ovrn in capilid 
GUOk Color wia no di«(iualificatIon to th« excmso of cuf- 
frage. At the cppenlof- of the rovolntLon William Oordon, tine 
OoDgreftat^onalift miniAt^of Koxl>ur)%tliough he declined to 
*^uiuamt" ctxry man %7ho etill vicMod to tlio pro railing prcJQ- 
diOL deelaitd vrith oLbere ogainA perpetuating fihiven\ and, 
in No^'ember 177^, pnbtisbod in tho ^^ rndopondoiit Chron- 
£cl<* a Dowffpiper in Boatcoi, a plan aont fKm Ooooeoticut for 
Jt« gndu^ «xteniiitiation out of lliat colony. In the nme 
month mid in tho aune uewapciper "a Son of Ubrrty" dv- 
tnmdad the repeal of aU tawa twpportiaff ^lav^ry, bocamw tlMy 
irere ''oontniy to tonnd rDWoai atid rrrclation.^ Id Jannaiy 
1777^ KTcn ne^ aUvta jouied in peLltioDlng the ^renefal 
court " that diL^ might bo restored to tbui freedom which is 



4U AUEKIOA IS ALU^NCi: WITO rRA3:CE. w,iv,; tiuxmu 



the nftttiml riffht of uU men, and tlmt tltcur <!ikUdr«n miglit not 
bo teld RBfilavce aft<j' Utej arrive at tlic ago of twenty <mo 
joan.^ Tkifl petition w^ju i^furrcd to a v^ry abl« cofumittecit 
on wliioli are ibe nam^ of Sor^ntit nTid John Lowdl, both 
malmin tt^T t\io alioUtiuu nf ekvery ; and Lowell via tbeti ilio 
leadii^ lawyer in Uw «1ata 

Tij May nTT, jiii^t U'fore tLe toeeting of (liegccieral civurt 
nt Boaton, CJcrdon, tiiuliug in Uid nuUdpHcttj of bwJxicai its 
only apology for not having nttendod to tbo ca«o of alarce, 
naked /or a final atop to the pnUio and pnvato ealo of tiiem by 
an act of Uio »tato, <^othln^ iha ai^cniDcnt of Hont««quicn in 
thoolc^cal Intk^rnagie, hd faid : ^' Jf God hath uut<Io of ooa btood 
oil naiicn^ of men for to dwell on ihe face of the earth, I can 
100 no rCftBOU why a blit^k nilhe^r tlun a vrliilo man idu>nld be 
a ilave." A few weeks later tlio fin^t legislature 9)001^] In 
Hawadiuaetta afttir Urn Ot^^Unittuu of tn4liepeot)ia:ro ItKtvnrHl U> 
tbe Mcond reading of a l>iU which declared »hrcry ^ without 
jofltificatjou in a government of wluch tho pcopio are asaerting 
their natural Hghla to iroddom,*' and had for itd object ^ to fi« 
a day on which all pcanooa above twenty-one yca» of age tlien 
hold in eUvvry fihould be froo and entitled to all the r^*ht»t 
privileges, and immnnities that betonji; to any of the RibJMCB 
of tliU i^tv.'' A conrmittco wiu diK^tci) lu tike tbo opinion 
of con^^resfl on the Bubject, but no uuver Irom tunigroai ap- 
|>*mn* cm nwNJnl, niir luiy (nrtht-s cxinjiiili-Tatiou of i\ut bill tiy 
tlw MaaaacboMittfl l^gUlatnrc. 

HaacDcIc, in hid preeideucy, bad aIiou-o piw^livitiea to tlic 
Soittb. When, on hU resignation in Octolxr, a motion was 
made to giro him the thanks of congrcaa for hia tnipartiAllty 
in offlocs ^^ three northenimc«t Btalee of Xew EngUDtJ voted 
in tho ncpitivc, while the Soutli wta tuumimoitt in Ida faror* 
After hifi airii-al In Boston, the two branches of the general 
oourt tavf £t to form themielveA into a eoDAtitueut convontioa, 
for which some of the t"wna hnA given TLUfJjciriiy to their rop- 
reiuutative*. Ta ibe \viu1it !i»Mu>nof 1T7S ibe dmft uf a]>hui 
of gOTornciciit wnx cx^rm^li-rvl. One of ihe iiroj^oiwd cUoMa 
took fron: Indiana^ ncgroee, and miUattcce the ngbt to vote. 
Against thiM dfEtfranchuKsnent waa eited the example of Pctin* 
eylvaniiL ** Should tho clanfio not be rcppobottcd by the coo- 



ireo. 



THE BIdE OP FRE£ OOBIUONITCAITH^ 



415 



ventlon," sud nn orator, " I fttill lioj>e tlmt lUero vUJ 1m fouod 
among tho people at large virti^ti ertongli to tntmple imdcr 
foot JL foim of gDTcraiucQt TCliich thaa Mpo the f4>tuidAtion of 
civil liberty uid tho rights of muL.*' 

On tho £ubmittdon oi tLo ootutEtudon to tlio poDplOf objoo- 
Uoha wore made that it contalnod no d^jcliirfttioD of rights; 
tJiat it gnve tho gov<inior anil lienteriHTH-gt^venior seala In ibo 
eeoate ; tlist it itTsrrJLiu^liiuvl Uu: fi>i» iii^giti, n ]»irLinlHy wnritily 
dt-'tiomicul iliroug^i die I'Tom bjr tlie bistorian, Gonloiu 7here 
Vfw^j Bjorvovi7r, diJHatuf■'^tioll vritli tie legUlatiirv fjrliaving 
aa&iuDcd ixniftitQcnt poven without nntJiority from ih^ people 
Borion, vhile it recommonded a conrcntion for fmrnitg a coo* 
fititution, guvo ita Toti5 tmanunonaljr agidciM tlio work of the 
lc|^Iflturo ; nnd tho commonwealth roj^^ctiid it hj it veto of five 
to ouc. 

Th« tiU(orj* of tJio irorld ooDtoined ro record of a people 
which in tho itwiitntjoti of its govc-mnirTit movi.^ with the 
caiiltmi vliie-h marked tlie next proceeding of MnmacJiiiJ^^IU. 
Ill Fobmjnrj" nriS, tho l*:gi)>latimj of tlic jcar juJkhI their con* 
BtituentflwhctJier they dcared^ new form of govenuueut ; and^ 
a lirgc niajcn^l/ of the iidjAbilantd of tbe town« TufifJg in tho 
atHnoadvo> A eoDTcntion cf dclcgatee waff, in oonfonuitj to a 
law, fleeted for tho Bolo pnrpoao of fomiing a conatiCutloiL 
On the Am day of Sopt^unbor tho eoDrctLLton tlitm ohocen 
camo tof^otber in tho moeting-hondo of Cfimbridi*^. Thotr 
forafatbeTB, Id tboii xeol against the Boman auperatitlcoij had 
carried thoir rovotenoo of the Bible cveu 1o idoliiirr ; niid ftomo 
of them, liko Liilher^ found in it« leUcx a sanction fr>r bclding 
Kluvm. On tTin eOier haiidf fn>in pncudide and hubll, they 
bonorcl boneet labor in all ita fonnah The iDOonnvtcociee of 
txiud^ wiUi tho principle of «\mericaD indepeadcnce lay in 
the tiu'ughtji of thoM who led |)ublie opinion ; ro^cee agaiMt H 
hod come from EffieZ) from Worecctcr, from Boeton, nod tnm 
tike weetem covntiea. 

The ftnct aoC of tho eonjitittMbt body wu " the eooalderft- 
lionof adeelaraiion <^r^rht<;*' and Chen they Tveolvod nDBcl* 
num»1y " that ihn giivcniinefjl (o be fruin^ by thk oonvention 
for tlicT [N^iple of Tbfttmai4^iiiti'lt9( Bay nhalt \m a rkKK uKPrnui^" 
TiitH lefiuliuion wa» deemed u> imponaut tlut liberty waa n> 



116 AMEKICA IN ALUA^OK VITU FBAKC& »>.tr.! 



icTTGil for tho meiubon <A ft committoe who yrero iibocat to 
roooi^ their voCM upon it ; uid on tho Doxt morning tboj do- 
diATdd *' tlieir full &Dd free aMent*' A oommitteo ol thirty, 
composed for llie ooraraonwonhh at large and for ei^h ot-unty 
excepting thi; iiiireprc!Ni<utt»IcouTitio«[>f I)ul:c« ami Xojitutkot, 
VBfl appointed to pru|)arD a Joclaralion of ngfats and ibe form 
of aoaiiHiiuiIuii; liuL th& boutui ttnt'lf cuiiLinEii^] it* fivA curt* 
Tiemtbn gh ti^oc mbjt^cts till miuct of the lixth of Septem- 
ber. The next day it adjoamcd for moro thfto ecvien wedo, 
tlmt il£ oommittcc tnl^ht havo timo to tiunjoct the important 
biwn«i§ ftffd^cd tltcnu 

On the thirt^Gtith of Soptomber the committoe o^seuibled at 
the n«vr coiirf-liouBe Iii Boaton. Among thcin vttre Boirdoin, 
who VM pn^ilciit of tlio coin^Dtion; tiamuol Adamc; John 
Lowell ; Jooatlian JaclcEon of Ifewbuiyport, who tliought that 
l1i<; lilH:<r1,y Vp'IiicIi Anbarica ttclijiwi-d for iUi-Of nhoiild pnivuil 
without limitation a« to color ; PATAOCiffk a S^^^U ^^S^ of ^ 
gmt«6t promise, froiu iJevbnrjpurt; aud Strong of Kordi- 
ampton. J^Iiii Adunu hud urnvcd op|>ortiTni.^1v frdm Fnutce, 
to which he (lid not return till >'ovaiibcr, end brought to* 
g^tbar in fcrm And order the Bepai&to elansce of tho comtitn- 
tiOQ fti thi>y <r.\in\o from tliu ci>nvontion> There are no tnotiu 
of diatribntiii^ it£ parU to their aovi^rd authors with certaiDty. 
Ko €ii« WAA mom deU-nuSntnl for two 1>nini>lwa iii Iho lagisla- 
ture with a vvtAt in thi? gfivi-rnor tlmti John AdiiriH. To him m 
miivh AH tiijuiy othtrrituL^'ImnM'rilHnl tltiiuDitijiltTtfiHiTpanLlicin tjf 
both brinrhw from appnuitmciits to oHlce. To Bowdoia was 
due the form oi uornu of the oectioiui "KliicJi wi-re tnonl lultnin^ 

On tlic aftdmotm of tho t^taitv-dglith of October the 
committee appointed tc prqjaro a form of fcorcnmeDl r^ 
porUHl & d